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Forest Trees (1991)

Chapter:Appendix B: Literature Survey of Threatened Provenances or Species

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APPENDIX B Literature Survey of Threatened Provenances or Species The categories in Table B-1 that denote the degree of threat to the provenances and species are derived from the classification system used by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN, 1978a). The categories and their total numbers from the list are the following: Ex (extinct): not found after repeated searches of known and likely areas, 6. · E (endangered): in danger of extinction and with survival being unlikely if the causal factors continue to operate, 147. · V (vulnerable): believed likely to move into endangered category in the near future if the causal factors continue to operate, 156. · R (rare): small populations that are not currently endangered or vulnerable but that are at risk, 42. T (threatened or indeterminate): threatened provenances or spe- cies about which there is insufficient information to say which of the four categories above is appropriate. It also includes taxa with threatened provenances, 173. An asterisk Gil, of which there are 209, indicates the species is not known to be included in any conservation program. In some cases, more than one category applies to a provenance or species. Many of the species on this list are common, but they have provenances identified as being threatened to some degree. Further, the information is based on a literature survey and does not represent an exhaustive list of all pertinent tree species and provenances. 161

162 1 Appendix B In addition to the IUCN, acronyms noted in column three are FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization, and SARH-INIF, Secretar~a de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos-Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Forestal (Secretariat of Agriculture and Hydraulic Resources-National Institute of Forest Research). TABLE B-1 Species or Provenances Reported in the Literature as Threatened in Whole or in Some Significant Part Status of Provenances Genus/Species or Species Sourceks) Abies A. concolor E SARH-INIF, 1979 A. guatemalensis E FAO, 1986a A. nebrodensis E FAO, 1986a A. numidica V FAO, 1986a Acacia A. albida V FAO, 1986a,b A. aphylla E* IUCN, 1978b A. caven V FAO, 1986a A. gassed E FAO, 1986b A. nilotica V FAO, 1986b ssp. adstringens A. nilotica V FAO, 1986b ssp. tomentosa A. peuce V IUCN, 1978b A. senegal V FAO, 1986b A. tortilis V FAO, 1986a,b ssp. raddiana A. tortilis T FAO, 1985 ssp. syncocarpa A. tortilis V FAO, 1986a,b ssp. tortilis Achras A. zopota (Manilkara zopota) Achyranthes A. mangarevica Ex/E* Adansonia A. digitata Afraegle A. asoo Afrosersalisia A. afzelii Afzelia A. africana A. bipendensis A. pachyloba V FAO, 1985 IUCN, 1978b FAO, 1986b V* V* V V FAO, 1984a FAO, 1984a Palmberg, 1987 Palmberg, 1987 Palmberg, 1987

Appendix B /163 TABLE B-1 (Continued) Status of Provenances Genus/Species or Species Aga this A. borneensis Ailanthus A. fordii Albizia Sourcefs) r"'L E V A. jorullensis Amburana A. cearensis Anadenanthera A. macrocarpa Andira A . . ^. Inermls Aniba A. ducked A. spp. Anogeissus A. Ieiocarpa Aquilaria A. malaccensis Araliopsis A. soyouxii Araucaria A. angustifolia A. araucana A. cunninghamii A. hunsteinii Arbutus . . A. canartensls Aspidosperma A. olivaceum A. polyneuron A. pyrifolium Astronium A. fraxinifolium A. gracile A. urundeuva Atriplex A. repanda FAO, 1984a R ~IUCN, 1978b A. arunachalensis T ~FAO, 1981 A. caribaea T FAO, 1985 A. gamblei T ~FAO, 1981 Alluoudia A. procera Alnus A. acuminata V V V E~ E~ V V R V~ V T~ V V V~ E T FAO, 1977 FAO, 1986a; Palmberg, 1987 FAO, 1984a, 1986a FAO, 1984a FAO, 1986a FAO, 1984a FAO, 1986a FAO, 1984a FAO, 1986b FAO, 1984a FAO, 1984a FAO, 1986a FAO, 1981 FAO, 1986a FAO, 1986a IUCN, 1978b FAO, 1985 FAO, 1986a FAO, 1985 FAO, 1985 FAO, 1985 E FAO, 1986a FAO, 1981, 1986a (continued)

164 / Appendix B TABLE B-1 (Continued) Status of Provenances Genus/Species or Species Source~s) Aucoumea A. klaineana E* FAO, 1977, 1984a Badula B. crassa E* IUCN, 1978b Baikiaea B. plurijuga Balanites B. aegyptiaca Balfourodendron B. riedelianum Basiloxylon B. excelsum Batocarpus B. costaricensis T* Beilschmiedia V T* B. pseudomicropora T* Palmberg, 1987 FAO, 1986b FAO, 1986a FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981, 1986a Berlinia B. confusa E Palmberg, 1987 Bertholletia B. excelsa V FAO, 1981, 1986a Betula B. uber E* IUCN, 1978b B. utilis T* FAO, 1981 Blighia B. sapida V* FAO, 1984a B. unijugata V* FAO, 1984a Bombacopsis B. quinata V FAO, 1986a Borassus B. aethipium B. flabellifer Boswellia B. freinana B. sacra Brachylaena B. hutchinsii Brachystegia B. eurycoma B. kennedyi Buddleia B. spp. Bursera B. aloexylon R/E* B. Ieptophleos T E E E V~ FAO, 1986b FAO, 1986b FAO, 1986b FAO, 1986b FAO, 1977, 1986a FAO, 1984a V* FAO, 1984a FAO, 1984a FAO, 1981 FAO, 1985

Appendix B /165 TABLE B-1 (Continued) Status of Provenances Genus/Species or Species Source~s) Burttdavya B. nyasica E* FAO, 1977 Caesalpinia C. dalei E ~FAO, 1984a C. Ieiostachia T FAO, 1985 Calamus C. caesius E FAO, 1984a C. manan E FAO, 1984a; Palmberg, 1987 Calophyllum C. brasiliense V FAO, 1984a Calpocalyx C. heitzii E FAO, 1984a; Palmberg, 1987 Camellia C. craynelliana E ~IUCN, 1978b C. granthamiana T* IUCN, 1978b Carapa C. grandiflora V* FAO, 1984a Cariniana C. estrelensis C. Iegulis Carpinus C. caroliniana Caryocar C. costaricense T* C. vellosum T T T R/E* FAO, 1985 FAO, 1985 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1985 Cnsuarina C. fibrosa E* IUCN, 1978b Cecropia C. cinerea T Palmberg, 1987 C. peltata V FAO, 1984a Cedrelinga C. catenaeformis Cedrela C. fissilis C. odorata Cedrus C. Iibani Ceiba C. pentandra R/E~ FAO, 1984a; Palmberg, 1987 FAO, 1986a FAO, 1981, 1986a; Palmberg, 1987 FAO, 1986a FAO, 1981 (`continued)

166 / Appendix B TABLE B-1 (Continued) Status of Provenances Genus/Species or Species Source~s) Celtis C. aetnensis Centrolobium C. robustum Ceratonia C. sp. nov. Cercid iphyllum C. japonicum _ ~ercls C. canadensis R*/E Chlorophora C. excelsa Chorisia C. speciosu T* Chyrantodend ron C. pentadactylon R/E* Cladrastis C. Iutea Colubrina C. glandulosa T FAO, 1981 FAO, 1985 IUCN, 1978b FAO, 1986a FAO, 1981 FAO, 1986a FAO, 1984a; Palmberg, 1987 FAO, 1981 IUCN, 1978b FAO, 1985 v Copaifera C. Iangesdorhi T FAO, 1985 C. of~cinalis V FAO, 1984a C. religiosa E FAO, 1984a; Palmberg, 1987 Cordeauxia C.edulis E FAO, 1986b Cordia C. alliodora RE* FAO, 1981 C. eleagnoides R/E* FAO, 1981 C. millenii V* FAO, 1981 Cordyline C. kaspar R* IUCN, 1978b Cornus C. disciflora R/E* FAO, 1981 Crud ia C. klainei E Palmberg, 1987 Cryptosepalum C. staudtii V* FAO, 1984a Cu pressus C. atlantica E FAO, 1986a C. benthamii R/E* FAO, 1981 C. dupreziana E FAO, 1986a; IUCN, 1978b

Appendix B /167 TABLE B-1 (Continued) Status of Provenances Genus/Species or Species Source~s) C. forbesii R E ~FAO, 1981 C. guadalupensis R/E ~FAO, 1981 C. Iusitanica E FAO, 1985 C. macrocarpa E ~IUCN, 1978b C. montana E SARH-INIF, 1979 C. sempervirens T ~FAO, 1981; Cynometra C. hemitomophylla T~ Dacryodes D. buetineri i E D. igaganga D. klaineana Dalbergia D. niSra D. sisso Daniellia D. africana Dendrosicyos D. socotranus Dialium D. bipindense Didelotia D. africana D. unifoliata Didymopanox D. morototoni Diospyros D. cacharensis D. hemiteles IUCN, 1978b FAO, 1981 E E E V V$ V~ V~ V* FAO, 1984a; Palmberg, 1987 FAO, 1984a; Palmberg, 1987 Palmberg, 1987 FAO, 1986a Palmberg, 1987 FAO, 1984a IUCN, 1978b FAO, 1984a V ~FAO, 1984a FAO, 1984a V T~ E Dipterocarpus D. spp. Dipteryx D. alata Dipthysa D. robinoides Dirachma D. socotrana E~ Donella (Chrysophyllum) D. pruniformis \7* Dorstenia D. gigas T~ FAO, 1986a FAO, 1981 FAO, 1986a; IUCN, 1978b FAO, 1984a FAO, 1986a FAO, 1981 IUCN, 1978b FAO, 1984a IUCN, 1978b (`continued)

168 / Appendix B TABLE B-1 (Continued) Status of Provenances Genus/Species or Species Sourceks) Dracaena D. draco D. ombet Dryobalanops D. aromatica Drypetes D. caustica Durio D. spp. Dyera D. costulata IUCN, 1978b T ~IUCN, 1978b V E~ V Palmberg, 1987 IUCN, 1978b FAO, 1984a FAO, 1984a; Palmberg, 1987 Dysoxylum D. reticulatum T ~FAO, 1981 Elliotia E. racemosa E ~IUCN, 1978b Engelhardia E. pterocarpa T ~FAO, 1981 Entandrophragma E. angolense V ~FAO, 1986a E. utile V Palmberg, 1987 Erythrina E. mildbraedii V ~FAO, 1984a Esenbeckia E. Ieiocarpa E FAO, 1986a; Palmberg, 1987 Eucalyptus E. acies E. alpina T~ E. aproximans T~ ssp. aprox~mans E. aquilina E. archer) E. argophloia E. badjensis E. baeuerlenii E. baker) E. barber) E. beardiana E. benthamii E. brockwayi E. burdettiana E. burgessiana E. caesia T ~FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 T~ T E T T T T T T~ T~ T~ T~ FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981; IUCN, 1978b FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981

A ppendix B / 169 TABLE B-1 (Continued) Genus/Species Status of Provenances or Species Sourceks) T~ T~ E$ T~ T~ T~ T~ E~ E. calcicola E. camfieldii E. carnabyi E. cneorifolia E. conglomerata E. cordata E. coronata E. crenulata E. cupularis E. curtisii E. deglupta E. dendromorpha E. desmondensis E. ficifolia E. fitzgeraldii E. froggattii T~ V T T~ T T~ E~ FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981; IUCN, 1978b FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981; IUCN, 1978L, FAO, 1986a FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981; IUCN, 1978b E. georgei T ~FAO, 1981 E. globulus V FAO, 1986a ssp. globulus E. gregsoniana T FAO, 1981 E. halophila T FAO, 1981 E. imlayensis T ~FAO, 1981 E. insularis T FAO, 1981 E. johnsoniana T* FAO, 1981 E. kartzoffiana T ~FAO, 1981 E. kitsoniana T FAO, 1981 E. kruseana T FAO, 1981 E. Iane-poolei T FAO, 1981 E. Iansdowneana T FAO, 1981 ssp. Iansdowneur~u E. Iargeana T ~FAO, 1981 E. luehmanniana T ~FAO, 1981 E. megacornuta T FAO, 1981 E. michaeliana T ~FAO, 1981 E. mitchelliana T FAO, 1981 E. morrisbyi T FAO, 1981 E. neglecta T FAO, 1981 E. nigra T FAO, 1981 E. olsenii T FAO, 1981 E. paliformis T FAO, 1981 E. parvifolia T FAO, 1981 E. pendens T ~FAO, 1981 (continued'

170 / Appendix B TABLE B-1 (Continued) Status of Provenances Genus/Species or Species Source(s) E. pulverulenta T FAO, 1981 E. pumila T FAO, 1981 E. remota E FAO, 1981 E. rhodantha E ~FAO, 1981 E. risdonii T FAO, 1981 E. rummeryi T FAO, 1981 E. saxatilis T ~FAO, 1981 E. scoparia T FAO, 1981 E. sepulcralis T FAO, 1981 E. sguamosa T* FAO, 1981 E. steedmanii Ex ~FAO, 1981; IUCN, 1978b E. stenostoma T ~FAO, 1981 E. stogtei T* FAO, 1981 E. stowardii T ~FAO, 1981 E. sturgissiana T ~FAO, 1981 E. tetrapleura T ~FAO, 1981 E. triflora T FAO, 1981 E. woodwardii T FAO, 1981 E. xanthonema T FAO, 1981 E. yarracnsis T FAO, 1981 Euphorbia E. wakefieldii E~ Fagara (Zanthoxylum) F. xamthoxyloides V~ Fagus F. Iongipetiolata V F. mexicana R/E~ Ficus F. spp. Fitzroya F. cupressoides T$ Franklinia F. alatamaha ~ . trezlera F. forerorum Gambeya (Chrysophyllum) G. africana G. beguei G. boukokoensis G. Iacourtiana G. perpulchra Ganophyllum IUCN, 1978b FAO, 1984a FAO, 1986a FAO, 1981 Ex* E~ V V V V V FAO, 1984a FAO, 1981 IUCN, 1978b IUCN, 1978b Palmberg, 1987 Palmberg, 1987 Palmberg, 1987 Palmberg, 1987 Palmberg, 1987 G. giganteum V ~FAO, 1984a G. . arclula G. kola V ~FAO, 1984a

Appendix B 1171 TABLE B-1 (Continued) Genus/Species Status of Provenances or Species Sourcegs) Gaultheria G. seshagiriana T~ ~enlpa G. americana Gigantochloa G. scortechinii Gigasiphon G. macrosiphon E T~ E FAO, 1981 FAO, 1985 FAO, 1984a FAO, 1986a; IUCN, 1978b Gilletiodendro'. G. mildbracdii V ~FAO, 1984a G. pierreanum E Palmberg, 1987 G. preussii V ~FAO, 1984a Gluema G. ivorensis E Palmberg, 1987 Glyptostrobus G. Iineatus Ex/E Palmberg, 1987 G. pensilis E FAO, 1985 Gonystylus G. bancanus V* FAO, 1984a Gossweilerodendron G. balsamiferum V Guaiacum G. sanctum T~ Guarea FAO, 1986a FAO, 1981 G. Iongipetiola T ~FAO, 1981 Guibourtia G. ehie E Palmberg, 1987 Gymnocladus G. assamicus Gymnostemon _ ~. za~zou Heritiera H. Iongipetiolata E~ Hevea H. brasiliensis Hibiscadelphus H. giffardianus H. wilderianus Homalium H. Iongistylum V~ Hymenaea H. courbaril V H. stilbocarpa Hyphaerle H. thebaica V T~ V E~ Ex~ FAO, 1981 FAO, 1986a IUCN, 1978b FAO, 1984a IUCN, 1978b IUCN, 1978b FAO, 1984a Palmberg, 1987 FAO, 1985 FAO, 1986b (continued)

172 / Appendix B TABLE B-1 (Continued) Status of Provenances Genus/Species or Species Source~s) Ilex I. paraguariensis Indiospermum I. australiense Inidosculus I. phyllocanthus Inocarpus I. edulis r ~ . rolugla I. gabonensis Intsia I. palembanica foannesia f. princeps Juglans FAO, 1986a V* E IUCN, 1978b FAO, 1985 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1986a FAO, 1984a FAO, 1986a f. neotropica V FAO, 1984a Juniperus f. bermudiana V FAO, 1986a; IUCN, 1978b /. californica R/E* FAO, 1981 J. comitana E FAO, 1985 /. deppeana R/E* FAO, 1981 var. pachyphlaea /. gamboana E FAO, 1985 f. macropoda T* FAO, 1981 f. phoenicea T* FAO, 1981 /. procera E FAO, 1986a f. standleyi RIE* FAO, 1981 fura f. crepitans V FAO, 1984a Kantou K. guereensis E Palmberg, 1987 Khaya K. senegalensis V FAO, 1986a; Koompassia K. excelsa K. malaccensis Lebronnecia L. kokioides R Lecythis L. ampla L. pisonis Leplaea L. mayombensis V* Palmberg, 1987 FAO, 1984a FAO, 1984a IUCN, 1978b FAO, 1981 E FAO, 1985 FAO, 1984a

Appendix B /173 TABLE B-1 (Continued) Status of Provenances or Species Source(s) Letestua L. durissima E Libocedrus L. decurrens R/E Librevillea L. klainei Liquidambar L. styraciflua Lithocarpus L. kamengensis T~ Loesenera Palmberg, 1987 FAO, 1981; SARH-INIF, 1979 FAO, 1984a FAO, 1986a FAO, 1981 L. talbotii V ~FAO, 1984a Lophira L. alata V Palmberg, 1987 Lovoa L. swynnertonii R FAO, 1986a Loxopterygium L. huasango V FAO, 1984a Luculia L. grandifolia T ~FAO, 1981 Machaerium M. villosum V FAO, 1986a Magnistipula M. butayei V$ FAO, 1984a Majidea M. forest) V ~FAO, 1984a Manilkara M. fouilloyana V* FAO, 1984a Medusagyne M. oppositifolia E ~IUCN, 1978b Melanoxylum M. brauna E FAO, 1985 Miconia M. cinnamomifolia T FAO, 1985 Millettia M. Iaurentii V~ Mimosa FAO, 1984a M. caesalpiniaefolia V FAO, 1986a M. verrucosa V FAO, 1986a Mimusops M. angel E FAO, 1986b M. dagan E FAO, 1986b Mitrephora M. harae T ~FAO, 1981 (continued)

174 / Appendix B TABLE B-1 (Continued) Status of Provenances Genus/Species or Species Source(s) Monopetalanthus M. hedinii Mycrocarpus M. frondosus Myroxylon M. balsamum Neobalanocarpus N. heimii Neowawraea N. phyllanthoides E~ Nesogordonia N. papaverifera Nuxia N. congesta Ochromn O. ochroma lagopus Ochthocosmus O. calotthyrsus V~ V~ T FAO, 1984a FAO, 1985 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1984a; Palmberg, 1987 IUCN, 1978b FAO, 1986a FAO, 1984a FAO, 1985 FAO, 1984a Ocotea O. porosa E FAO, 1986a O. pretiosa T FAO, 1985 Oldfieldia O. africana V ~FAO, 1984a Olea O. Iaperrinei V ~IUCN, 1978b Olneya 0. tesota R/E ~FAO, 1981 Ostrya 0. virginiana R/E ~FAO, 1981 Palaquium P. gutta V FAO, 1984a Paratecoma P. peroba T FAO, 1985 Parkia P. biglobosa T FAO, 1984b P. speciosa V FAO, 1984a; Pa us inys talia P. johimbe Pentadesma P. grandifolia '7* Pericopsis P. elata V~ Palmberg, 1987 FAO, 1984a FAO, 1984a FAO, 1981, 1986a

TABLE B-1 (Continued) Status of Provenances Genus/Species or Species Source~s) Persea P. theobromifolia E* IUCN, 1978b Picea P. chihuahuana E FAO, 1977, 1981 P. mexicana E FAO, 1977, 1981 Pilgerodendron P. uviferum T$ FAO, 1981 Pinus P. arizonica P. armandii E var. amamiana T FAO, 1985 FAO, 1986a P. attenuata R/E FAO, 1985; Theisen, 1980 P. ayacahuite E FAO, 1985 P. bhutanica T$ FAO, 1981 P. cembroides E FAO, 1985 var. edulis P. contorta R/E FAO, 1981 var. Iatifolia P. coulteri R/E FAO, 1981; P. culminicola P. douglasiana P. eldarica P. greg8ii P. halepensis P. jeffreyi P. koraiensis P. maximartinezii E P. michoacana T P. monophylla P. montezumae P. morrisonicola P. muricata P. oaxacana P. oocarpa P. patula subsp. tecunumanii (P. tecunumanii) P. pentaphylla P. pseudostrobus P. pseudostrobus/ tenuifolia R/E$ T E T T R/E V R/E E R/E T T V V T Appendix B /175 SARH-INIF, 1979 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1985 FAO, 1986a FAO, 1985 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1981; SARH-INIF, 1979 FAO, 1986a FAO, 1977, 1981 FAO, 1985 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1985 FAO, 1977 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1985 FAO, 1985 FAO, 1986a V FAO, 1986a FAO, 1986a FAO, 1985 (continued)

176 / Appendix B TABLE B-1 (Continued) Status of Provenances or Species P. pseudostrobus var. oaxaca?za P. radiata P. radiata var. bi?zata P. rzedowski P. strobus var. chiapensis (P. chiapensis) P. tenuifolia Piptadenia P. macrocarpa P. peregrina E E E R~ R/E E T FAO, 1985 V FAO, 1986a Source~s) FAO, 1986a FAO, 1986a FAO, 1981; SARH-INIF, 1979 FAO, 1981 FAO, 1977, 1981 FAO, 1977 Pistacia P. atlantica T ~FAO, 1981 Pithecellobium P. parvifolium T FAO, 1985 Pittosporum P. dallii E ~IUCN, 1978b Platanus P. orientalis V FAO, 1986a P. wrightii T ~FAO, 1981 Plathymenia P. foliosa E FAO, 1986a Plato?zia P. insignia T FAO, 1985 Podocarpus P. costalis T ~FAO, 1981 P. Iambertii T FAO, 1985 P. matudae R/E ~FAO, 1981 P. mila?Zjia?ZUS V$ FAO, 1984a P. parlatorei T ~FAO, 1981 P. reikei R/E ~FAO, 1981 P. rospigliosii V FAO, 1984a P. utilior V FAO, 1984a Polylepis or Polylepsis P. racemosa V FAO, 1984a; Palmberg, 1987 Populus 1'. gamblei P. ilicifolia Prerocarpus P. Iucens Prosopis P. africana FAO, 1981 E FAO, 1986a FAO, 1986b FAO, 1986b

Apperldix B /177 TABLE B-1 (Continued) Status of Provenances Genus/Species or Species Source~s) P. cineraria V FAO, 1981, 1986a; Palmberg, 1987 P. juliflora V FAO, 1981, 1984a P. pubescens T FAO, 1985 Prunus P. africana V* FAO, 1984a P. gravesii E* IUCN, 1978b Pseudotsuga P. flahaulti E FAO, 1985 P. gausseni E FAO, 1986a P. menziesii T FAO, 1981 P sinensis R FAO, 1986a Pterogyne P. nitens V FAO, 1986a Pterygota P. mildbraedii V* FAO, 1984a Punica P. protopunica E$ IUCN, 1978b Pycnanthus P. morcalianus V* FAO, 1984a Quercus Q. copeyensis T* FAO, 1981 Radermachera R. sinica T* FAO, 1981 Raphia R. sudanica E FAO, 1986b Rhizophora R.spp. T FAO, 1984a Rhododendron R. dalhousiae T* FAO, 1981 R. tawangensis T* FAO, 1981 Rothmannia R. Iujue V* FAO, 1984a Salix S. bhutanensis T* FAO, 1981 S. goodingii T* FAO, 1981 S. silicola or R* IUCN, 1978b silicicola Santalum S. fernandezianum Ex* IUCN, 1978b Schinopsis S. brasiliensis V FAO, 1986a Scytopetalum S. klaineanum V* FAO, 1986a (continued)

178 / Appendix B TABLE B-1 (Continued) Status of Provenances Genus/Species or Species Source~s) Serianthes S. nelsonii E ~IUCN, 1978b Shorea S. curtisii S. gratissima V S. platyclados T Sindoropsis S. Ietestui Sophora FAO, 1984a Palmberg, 1987 FAO, 1984a FAO, 1984a S. fernandeziana V ~IUCN, 1978b S. masafuerana E$ IUCN, 1978b S. toromiro E ~IUCN, 1978b Spondias S. macrocarpa E FAO, 1985 S. purpura E FAO, 1985 S. tuberosa T FAO, 1985 Stipa S. tenacissima T ~FAO, 1981 Stahlmannia S. mouvi E FAO, 1986a Swartzia S. cubensis E FAO, 1985 Sweetia S. panamensis E FAO, 1985 Swietenia S. humilis T ~FAO, 1981 S. macrophylla V FAO, 1984a; Palmberg, 1987 Syagrus S. coronata T FAO, 1985 Symaplacos S. glauca T ~FAO, 1981 Symplocos S. coynadense T ~FAO, 1981 S. Iatiflora T ~FAO, 1981 S. oligandra T ~FAO, 1981 S. sessilis T* FAO, 1981 Syzygium S. assamicum T ~FAO, 1981 Tabebuia T. avellanedae E FAO, 1985 T. cassinoides E FAO, 1985 T. impetiginosa V FAO, 1986a T. rosea E FAO, 1985 T. serratifolia V FAO, 1984a

Appendix B /179 TABLE B-1 (Continued) Status of Provenances Genus/Species or Species Source~s) Tachigali T. versicolor T* FAO, 1981 ~ . . 1 alwanla Taxus T. cryptomerioides N T. flousiana E FAO, 1986a FAO, 1986a T. globosa R/E* FAO, 1981 Tectona T. hamiltoniana R* FAO, 1986a T. philippinensis E* FAO, 1986a ~ . . . ermlnaila T. amazonica E FAO, 1985 T. ivorensis R Testulea T. brevipaniculata E FAO, 1984a T. gabonensis T FAO, 1984a; Testules T. gabonensis V* Tetraberlinia T. polyphylla Tetrataxis T. salicifolia Tieghemella T. africana ~ . ~ula 1. mexlcana Touboouate (<Didelotia) T. brevipaniculata rema T. micrantha Triplochiton T. scleroxylon V* E* R R/E* E Trochetia T. erythroxylon E* Palmberg, 1987 FAO, 1984a FAO, 1984a IUCN, 1978b Palmberg, 1987 FAO, 1981 Palmberg, 1987 Palmberg, 1987 Palmberg, 1987 FAO, 1981; IUCN, 1978b Trochetiopsis T.spp. T* FAO, 1981 Ulmus U. wallichiana E FAO, 1986a; IUCN, 1978b Vantanea V. barbourii T* Vateria V. seychellarum E* FAO, 1981 IUCN, 1978b (`continued)

1801 Appendix B TABLE B-1 (Continued) Genus/Species Status of Provenances or Species Source~s) Vepris V. glandulosa E FAO, 1986a; (syn. Tecleopsis IUCN, 1978b glarldulosa) Virola V. spp. V FAO, 1984a Vitellaria or Vitellaila V. paradoxa V FAO, 1986b Za~zthoxylum Z. paniculatum E* IUCN, 1978b Zeyheria Z. tuberculosa V FAO, 1986a; Palmberg, 1987 Ziziphus Z. joozeiro T FAO, 1985 SOURCES: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 1977. Report of the Fourth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources. FO:FGR/4/Rep. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization. FAO. 1981. Report of the Fifth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization. FAO. 1984a. A Guide to In-situ Conservation of Genetic Resources for Tropical Woody Species. FORGEN/MISC/84/2. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization. FAO. 1984b. In Situ Conservation of Wild Plant Genetic Resources: A Status Review and Action Plan (Draft) Background Docu- ment for the First Session of the FAO Commission on Plant Genetic Resources. FORGEN/MlISC/84/3. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization. FAO. 1985. Report of the Sixth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources. FO:FGR/5/Rep. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization. FAO. 1986a. Databook on Endangered Tree and Shrub Species and Provenances. Forestry Paper 77. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization. FAO. 1986b. Selection and genetic improvement of indigenous and exotic multipurpose woody species; including seed col- lection, handling, storage, and exchange. Unpublished paper presented at the Research Planning Workshop for Africa, Sahelian and North Sudanian Zones, International Union of Forestry Research Organizations and the Forestry Department of Kenya, Nairobi, January 9-15, 1986.

Appendix B 1181 TABLE B-1 (Continued ) International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). 1978a. Categories, Objectives, and Criteria for the Protected Areas. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. IUCN. 1978b. The IUCN Plant Red Data Book. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Mabberley, D. J. 1989. The Plant-Book. New York: Cambridge University Press. (Consulted to address several taxonomic discrepancies in the source literature.) Palmberg, C. 1987. Conservation of genetic resources of woody species. Unpublished paper presented at the Symposium on Silvaculture and Genetic Improvement, Centro Investigacidn y Estudios Forestales, Buenos Aires, April ~10, 1987. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos-Instituto Nacional de Investigacidn Forestal. 1979. Memoria: III Simposio Bina- cional Sobre el Medio Ambiente del Golfo de California- Ecodesarrollo. Publicaci6n Especial No. 14. Mexico: Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos. Theisen, P. A. 1980. Maintenance of Genetic Diversity and Gene Pool Conservation of Commercial Tree Species in the Pacific Northwest Region. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Forest Service.

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News reports concerning decline of the world's forests are becoming sadly familiar. Most losses are measured in square kilometers, but a more profound loss cannot be measured. As forests disappear, so do their genetic resources. The genes they possess can no longer aid in their adaptation to a changing environment, nor can they be used to develop improved varieties or products.

This book assesses the status of the world's tree genetic resources and management efforts. Strategies for meeting future needs and alternatives to harvesting natural forests are presented. The book also outlines methods and technologies for management, evaluates activities now under way, and makes specific recommendations for a global strategy for forest management.

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