National Academies Press: OpenBook

Forest Trees (1991)

Chapter:Appendix C: Sources of Seed for Research

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Sources of Seed for Research." National Research Council. 1991. Forest Trees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1582.
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APPENDS CSources of Seed for Research Table C-1 is based on responses to a questionnaire distributed by the Work Group on Managing Forest Genetic Resources during 1987-1988. It may not be comprehensive or reflect more recent changes. TABLE C-1 Selected Agencies with Seed Available for Research Purposes Country/Agency Genera/Species Argentina Banco Nacional de Germoplasma de Prosopis en Argentina c/o Facultad Nacional de Cordoba C.C. 509 5000 Cordoba Argentina Instituto Forestal Nacional Pueyrredon 2446-4 Piso Buenos Aires Argentina Australia Tree Seed Center Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) Division of Forest Research P.O. Box 4008 Victoria Terrace, ACT 2600 Australia 183 Arid and semiarid zone native woody species. Some Prosopis species. Over 900 woody Australian species, among them, Acacia, Casuari7~a, Eucalyptus, Grevillen, Hakea, and Melaleuca. (`continued)

184 / Appendix C TABLE C-1 (Continued) Country/Agency Australia (Continued) Conservation and Land Management Department 50 Hayman Road Como W.A. 6152 Australia Conservation and Land Management Department 50 Hayman Road Como W.A. 6152 Australia Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory P.O. Box 38496 Winnellie, N.T. Australia Department of Conservation, Forests, and Lands G.P.O. 4018 Melbourne, Victoria 3001 Australia Forestry Commission of New South Wales P.O. Box ~ 19 Coff's Harbour Jetty N.S.W. 2450 Australia Queensland Department of Forestry G.P.O. Box 944 Brisbane 4001 Australia Woods and Forests Department G.P.O. Box 1604 Adelaide 5001 Australia Genera/Species Some Acacia species, Casuarina cristata, Ceratonia siliqua, Eucalyptus botryoides, E. calophylla, E. camaldulensis, and E. globules. Some Acacia species, Casuarina cr~stata, Ceratonia siliqua, Eucalyptus botryoides, E. calophylla, E. camaldulensis, and E. globules. Approximately 18 genera, but generally with only one species. Among them, Antiaris, Atriplex, Azadirachta, Bombax, Casuarina, Ceratonia, Hibiscus, and Tamarindus. Several species of Acacia and Eucalyptus and at least one species of Acer, Agonis, Betula, Bombox, Celtis, Cinnamomum, Cotoneaster, Cratorgus, Leptospermum, and approximately 20 other genera. Approximately 40 genera, among them, Acacia, Cinnamomum, Cotoneaster, Cryptomeria, Eucalyptus, Fraxinus, Gleditsia, Leptospermum, Myoporum, Olea, Paulownia, Photinia, Pyracantha, and ~aplum. About 35 genera, among them, Acacia, Araucaria, Bauhinia, Brachychiton, Callitris, Duranta, Erythrina, Flindersia, Hymenosporum, Lagunaria, Melaleuca, Syncarpia, and Tipuana. Mainly indigenous species.

Appendix C /185 TABLE C-1 (Continued) Country/Agency Genera/Species Austria Institut fuer Forstpflanzenzuechtung und Genetik Forstliche Bundesversuchsanstalt A-1131 Wien, Schoenbrunn Tirolergarten Austria Brazil Banco de Semientos I B D F/E MB RAP A C.P. 1316 Brasilia, D.F. 70,000 Brazil Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA) Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Plorestas Caixa Postal 3319 80001 Curitiba-Parana Brazil Florestas Rio Doce S/A Caixa Postal 91, CEP 29000 Linhares, ES Brazil llurkina Faso Centre National de-Semences Forestieres B.P. 2682 Ouagadougou Burkina Faso Canada British Columbia Forest Service Kalamalka Research Station and Seed Orchard 3401 Reservoir Road Vernon, B. C. VlB 2C7 Canada Canadian Forestry Service Petawawa National Forestry Instih~te Chalk River, Ontario KOJ 1~0 Canada All native species in Central Ellrope (European Alps) and collections from high altitudes for Picea abies, Pin us cembra' and Larix decidua. Living plant material is also available. Eucalyptus species. Subtropical broadleaf native species. Eucalyptus species to develop landraces and Acacia mearnsii, Mimosa scabrella. Pithecellobium species, Schizolobium parahybum, and Spo?:dias purpurea. Data not available. Half-sib and full-sib seed lots of Larix occide'~talis, Picea engelma'~rlii, P. glauca, Pi~zus co?ltorta var. Iatifolia, and Pseudotsugn me~zziesii. Short- to long-term storage of 2,500 well-documented seed lots representin-g 190 forest tree and shrub species of primarily Canadian sources; in research quantities. Seed list available on request. (continued)

186 / Appendix C TABLE C-1 (Continued) Country/Agency Genera/Species Canada (Continued) Ministry of Forests and Lands Research Branch 31 Bastion Square Victoria, B.C. VOW 3E7 Canada University of British Columbia Faculty of Forestry 193-2357 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5 Canada University of Toronto Faculty of Forestry 203 College St. Toronto, Ontario M5S lA1 Canada Chile Centro de Semillas Forestales Corporacion Nacional Forestal Constitucion 291, Casilla 5, Chillan Chile Instituto Forestal (INFOR) Huerfanos 554, Casilla 3085 Santiago Chile China Chinese Academy of Forestry The Research Institute of Forestry Wan Shou Shan 10091 Beijing People's Republic of China Colombia Banco Nacional de Semillas Instituto de Desarrollo de Recursos Naturales Avenida Caracas Nr. 25A66 Bogota Colombia Pinus contorts, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and short-term storage of Picea sitchensis. Short-term storage of Pinus contorta and Pseudotsuga . . . menzZes''. Short-term storage of some Pinus strobus, Populus deltoides, and Salix species. Mainly species of Acacia, Caesalpinia, Geoffroea, and Prosopis. Acacia cavenia, Prosopis chilensis, P. tamarugo, Quillaja saponaria, and other · ,] · - ~na~genous spec~es. Mainly species of Acacia, Gmelina, Paulownia, Pinus, Populus, and Ulmus. Mainly species of Alnus.

Appendix C / 187 TABLE C-1 (Continued) Country/Agency Genera/Species Colombia (Continued) Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) Apartado Aereo 6713 Call Colombia Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales Renovable (INDERENA) Banco de Semillas A.A. 13458 Bogota, D.E. Colombia Costa Rica Latin American Forest Tree Seed Bank CATIE Turriabla Costa Rica Cuba Banco de Semillas Centro de Inve stiga clones Fore stales Calle 174 No. 1723/17B, 17C Siboney Marianao Havana Cuba Cyprus Department of Forestry Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources Nicosia Cyprus Denmark Danish International Development Forest Seed Center Agency (DANIDA) Tree Improvement Station Krogerupvej 21 3050 Humlebaek Denmark Mainly species of Leucacna. Data not available. Collections of Alnus, Cassia, Eucalyptus, Gliricidia, Grevillea, Guazuma, Terminalia, and other Central American native species. Mainly species of Pinus. Some Acacia species and at least one species of Cassia, Casuarina, Ceratonia, Cercis, Hibiscus, Laurus, Parkisonia, Pistacia, Quercus, Salix, Sophora, and Tecoma. Stores and distributes Acacia and Prosopis for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; and distributes "semi-bulk" quantities of Central American Pinus species and research quantities of Abies alba, A. grandis, A. nordmanniana, Picea abies, P. sitchensis, Pin us con torta, P. kesiya, P. merkusii, P. sylvestris, and Tectona species. Short-term storage of Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis. (continued)

188 / Appendix C TABLE C-1 (Continued) Country/Agency Genera/Species El Salvador Centro de Recursos Naturales (CENREN) Apartado Postal 2265 Canton el Matasano Soyapango, San Salvador EI Salvador Ethiopia Forestry Research Center P.O. Box 1034 Addis Ababa Ethiopia Finland Finnish Forest Research Institute Department of Forest Genetics P.O. 18 SF-01301 Vantaa Finland Finnish Forest Research Institute Kolari Research Station SF-95900 Kolari Finland France L' Association Foret-Cellulose (AFOCEL) Domaine de l'etanc,on 77370 Nangis France Centre National du Machinisme Agricole, du Genie Rural, des Eaux et des Forets (CEMAGREF) Nogent Domaine des Barres 45290 Nogent-sur-Vernisson France Centre Technique Forestier Tropical (CTFT) 45 Bis Avenue de la Belle Gabrielle F-941310 Nogent-sur-Marne France Casuarina equisetifolia, Cedrela mexicana, and Cibistax donnell-smithii. Data not available. Short-term storage of native species of conifers and hardwoods to establish seed collection stands and seed orchards. Short-term storage of native species of conifers and hardwoods to establish seed collection stands and seed orchards. Seed is mainly from north of the Arctic Circle. Short-term storage of Abies grandis, Calocedrus decurrens, Eucalyptus globulus, E. gunnii, Picea abies, P. sitchensis, Pinus alternata x radiata, P. pinaster, P. serotina, P. tueda, Pseudo ts uga menzies ii, and Seguoiadendron giganteum. Short-term storage of some species of Larix, Picea, Pinus, Abies alba, Cedrus atlantica, and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Large collection of West African species (including Terminalia and dry-zone Acacia) and Australian species (mainly Acacia and Eucalyptus). Collection of Pinus caribaea.

Appendix C / 189 TABLE C-1 (Continued) Country/Agency Genera/Species France (Continued) L'Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) INRA Bordeaux, Pierroton Laboratoire d'Amelioration des Arbres Forestiers Domaine de ['Hermitage Pierroton, 33610 Cestas France Germany Institute of Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding D-2070 Grosshansdorf 2 Sieker Landstrasse 2 Germany Niedersachsische Forstliche Versuchsanstalt Abt. C-Forstpflanzenzuchtung 3513 Staufenberg 6 Ortsteil Escherode Germany Bayer Landesanstalt fur Forstliche Saat-und Pflanzenzucht Forstamtsplatz, D-8221 Teisendorf Germany Greece Laboratory of Forest Genetics and Plant Breeding Department of Forestry and Natural Environment Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki Thessaloniki Greece Guatemala Banco de Semillas Forestales BANSEFOR/INAFO 7a Avenida 7-00, Zona 13 Ciudad de Guatemala Guatemala Short-term storage of seven Abies species, eight Pinus species, and some species of Cedrus, Cryptomeria, Cupressus, Larix, Picea, and Pseudotsuga. Efforts are toward seed orchards for breeding populations and gene banks. Rangewide collection of Picea abies (collected from 1959- 1963~; initiated and supervised by Sweden; long- and short-term storage. Long-term storage of 8 conifer species and 7 hardwood species; short-term storage of 6 conifers and 16 hardwoods. All indigenous conifer species (e.g., Abies alba, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris) and several hardwoods; emphasis on high- altitude provenances. Short-term storage of Abies cephalon ica, Pin us bru tia , and P. nigra. Data not available. (`continued)

190 / Appendix C TABLE C-1 (<Continued) Country/Agency Genera/Species Honduras Banco de Semillas Forestales ESNACIFOR Apartado 2 Siguatepeque, Comayagua Honduras Hungary Forest Research Institute ERTI Experiment Station Sarvar 9600 Hungary University of Sopron Faculty of Forestry Department of Forest Botany H-9401 Sopron P.O. Box 132 Hungary India Forest Research Institute P.O. Box New Forest Debra Dun-2048006, U. P. India National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) Pusa Campus Delhi-12 India Tamil Nadu Forest Department Forest Genetic Division Bharathi Park Road Coimbatore-43, Madras India Indonesia Directorate General Reforestation and Land Rehabilitation Floor 13, Gedung Manggala Wana Bakti fin. Gatot Subroto, Jakarta Indonesia Data not available. Data not available. Short-term storage of Populus alba, P. canescens, P. nigra, and Salix alba. Mainly species of Acacia, Albizia, Alnus, Cassia, Dalbergia, Gmelina, Pinus, Prosopis, Sesbania, and Trema. Species of agroforestry importance, Acacia, Alnus, Cassia, Dalbergia, and new Prosopis. Species of Acacia, Alnus, Bambusa, Delonix, Eucalyptus, Hardwickia, Pongamia (`Millettia), Pterocarpus, and Santalum. Indigenous species mainly.

Appendix C 1191 TABLE C-1 (Continued) Country/Agency Genera/Species Indonesia (Continued) Perum Perhutani Forest State Corporation Jalan Jedral Gatut Subrota P.O. Box 111 Jakarta Indonesia Ireland Forest and Wildlife Service Department of Energy-Forest Service 1-3 Sidmonton Place Bray, County Wicklow Ireland Israel Institute for Applied Research Ben Gurion University of the Negev P.O. Box 1025 Beer Sheva 84110 Israel Italy Instituto Spermimentale par la Selvicultura Viale S. Margherita 80 I-52100 Arezzo Italy Seed Unit-FAO Plant Production and Protection Division Via delle Terme di Caracalla 00100 Rome Italy Ivory Coast Centre Technique Forestier Tropical (CTFT) 08 B.P. 33 Abidjan 08 Ivory Coast Jamaica Department of Forestry and Soil Conservation 173 Constant Spring Road Kingston 8 Jamaica Species of Calliandra and Leucaena. Short-term storage of some conifer species. A few species of Abies, Picea, Pinus, and Pseudotsuga. Mainly indigenous species of Acacia, Cassia, Casuarina, Cordia, Dodonaea, Grewia, Moringa, Prosopis, Rhus, Ricinus, Robinia, Tamarix, and Thespesia. Mediterranean conifer species of Abies, Cupressus, and Pinus. Collection of Prosopis tamarugo. Data not available. Leucaena species (e.g., L. Ieucocephala). (`continued)

192 / Appendix C TABLE C-! (Continued) Country/Agency Japan Kanto Forest Tree Breeding Institute Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishery Kasahara-Cho Mito-Shi Ibaraki-Ken 310 Japan National Seed Coordinating Centre c/o Forest Research Institute 1 Matsunosato Kukizaki-mura Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki-ken lapan Kenya Kenya Forestry Seed Centre (KEFRI) P.O. Box 20412 Nairobi Kenya Tree Seed Program Ministry of Energy and Regional Development P.O. Box 21552 Nairobi Kenya Korea Institute of Forest Genetics Suwon Republic of Korea Forest Research Institute Chungyangni-Dong Dongdaemun-Ku Seoul Republic of Korea Malawi Forest Research Institute of Malawi P.O. Box 270 Zomba Malawi Genera/Species Data not available. Species of Alnus, Paulownia, Pinus, and Prunus. Short- and long-term storage of Acacia, Cupressus lusitan ica , Pin us pa tula, and native species of arid and tropical highlands. Data not available. Data not available. Data not available. Mainly species of Colophospermum, Gmelina, Maesopsis, and Pinus.

Appendix C /193 TABLE C-1 (Continued) Country/Agency Genera/Species Malaysia (Mainland) Forest Research Institute Kepong, Selangor 52109 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Malaysia (Sabah) Forest Research Centre P.O. Box 1407 Sandakan, Sabah Malaysia Sabah Softwoods SDN BHD P.O. Box 137 Brumas, Tawau Malaysia Mexico Departmento de Bosques Centro de Genetica Forestal Chapingo, Edo. de Mexico 56230 Mexico INIFAP Insurgents Sur 964 10 Piso, Col del Valle 03100 Mexico, D.F. Mexico Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Sobre Recursos Bioticos Apdo. Postal 63, Km. 2.5 Antigua Carretera a Coutepec Xalapa, Veracruz Mexico Nepal Tree Seed Unit Hattisar Naxal, Kathmandu Nepal New Zealand Forest Research Institute Forest Health and Improvement Division Private Bag Rotorua New Zealand Species of Anthocephalus, Cassia, and Casuarina. Research quantities of indigenous forest tree species. Long-term storage toward stock plantations of Acacia mangium, Eucalyptus brassiana, Gmelina arborea, and Paraserianthes falcataria. Data not available. Data not available. Central American Pinus species and some arid-zone hardwood species. Species of Acacia, Erythrina, Inga, and Leucacna. Data not available. Medium-term seed storage of Pseudotsuga menziesii, minor collections of Mexican Pinus species, and nine northern Pinus species. Substantial collections of Eucalyptus, fuglans nigra, and Pinus radiata, some of which are unique. (continued)

194 / Appendix C TABLE C-1 (`Continued) Country/Agency Genera/Species New Zealand (Continued) National Plant Materials Centre Aokautere Science Centre Ministry of Works and Development Private Bag Palmerston North New Zealand Nicaragua Instituo Nicaraguense de Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente (IRENA) Km. 12.5 Corretera Norte Apartado No. 5123 Managua Nicaragua Nigeria Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria Federal Ministry of Science and Technology PMB 5054 Ibadan Nigeria Pakistan Pakistan Forest Research Institute Forest Geneticist Peshawar, NWFP Pakistan Papua New Guinea Office of Forests Forest Research Institute Bulolo Papua New Guinea Office of Forests P.O. Box 5055 Boroko Papua New Guinea Peru Banco Nacional de Semillas Forestales Servicio Forestal y de Caza Ministerio de Agricultura Natalio Sanchez 20 - Jesus Maria Lima Peru Short-term storage of Populus deltoides collections; efforts are toward seed orchards and/or arboreta, mainly for breeding and clone banks of this species and other Populus species and Salix. Data not available. Long-term storage of Gmelina arborea and Triplochiton scleroxylon. Species of Acacia, Pinus, Prosopis, and Sesbania. Data not available. Species of Acacia, Araucaria, Casuarina, and Eucalyptus. Caesalpinia spinosa, Casuarina cunninghamiana, Cupressus goveniana, C. macrocarpa, lacaranda acutifolia, Poinciana (`Caesalpinia) regia, Prosopis juliflora, and Tipuana tipu.

Appendix C /195 TABLE C-1 (Continued ) Country/Agency Genera/Species Peru (Continued) Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina Facultad de Ciencias Forestales Apdo. 456, La Molina Lima Peru Philippines Department of Environment and Natural Resources Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau College, Laguna 4031 Philippines Puerto Rico Southern Forest Experiment Station Institute of Tropical Forestry P.O. Box AQ Rio Piedras, PR 00928 Puerto Rico Romania Forest Research and Managment Institute Soseava Stefanesti 128 Bucharest 11, R-72904 Romania Rwanda ISAR Department de Foresterie Centrale de Graines Forestieres B.P. 617 Butare Rwanda Senegal Institut Senegalais de Recherche Agricoles Centre National de Recherches Laboratoire de Graines Parc Forestier de Hann B.P. 2312 Dakar Senegal Acac~a species and Prosopis pallida. Storage of small quantities of Casuarina, Pin us kesiya, P. merkusii, Pterocarpus, rattan species, and Vitex. Acacia albida, Adansonia digitata, Albizia, Annona muricata, Elaeis guineensis, Flacourtia indica, Manilkara zopota, Melia azedarach, Pinus caribaea, Tectona, Terminalia, and other genera. Picea abies. Approximately 25 genera, among them, Acrocarpus, Albizia, Callandra, Callitris, Entada, Grevillea, facaranda, Maesopsis, Newtonia, Sesbania, and Tetraclinis. Data not available. (continued)

196 / Appendix C TABLE C-1 (Continued) Country/Agency Genera/Species Sierra Leone Forestry Division Manr Youyi Building, Brookfields Freetown Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Forestry Division P.O. Box 79 Munda Solomon Islands South Africa Mondi Paper Forests Division, Tree Improvement Private Bag X522, Sable 1260 Republic of South Africa South African Forestry Research Institute P.O. Box 727 Pretoria 0001 Republic of South Africa Sudan Arid Zone Forestry Research Forestry Research Institute P.O. Box 658 Khartoum Sudan Sweden Skogsstyrelsen National Board of Forestry S-551 83 Jonkoping Sweden Tanzania Department of Forest Biology Faculty of Forestry Sokoine University of Agriculture Box 3009, Morogoro ~ . 1 anzanla Tanzania Forestry Research Institute Silvicultural Research Center P.O. Box 95 Lushoto ~ . 1 anzanla Leucaena .leucocep.hala. Acacia margium and Casuarina equisetifolia. Some Eucalyptus species. Short-term storage of some Acacia, Eucalyptus, and Pinus species. Species of Acacia and Prosopis. Short-term storage of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris. Prosopis chile~zsis and Leucacna leucocephala. Mainly species of Acacia, Cassia, Cupressus, Eucalyptus, Grevillea, Pinus, and Terminalia.

Appendix C /197 TABLE C-1 (Continued) Country/Agency Genera/Species Thailand Pine Improvement Center P. O. Hod Chiang Mai Thailand Royal Forest Department Bangkhen, Bangkok 10900 Thailand Teak Improvement Center Ngao, Lampang Thailand Tunisia National Forest Research Institute Route de la Souka B.P. 2 Triana , ~ . . . . unlsla United Kingdom Forestry Commission Northern Research Station Roslin Midlothian, EH25 9SY Scotland, U.K. Oxford Forestry Institute (OFI) South Parks Road Oxford OX1 3RB England Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (Wakehurst Place) Ardingly Haywards Heath West Sussex RH17 6TN England United States Central America and Mexico Coniferous Resources Cooperative (CAMCORE) School of Forest Resources North Carolina State University Research Annex West Box 8007 Raligh, NC 27695-8007 USA Mainly Pinus kesiya and P. merkusii. Mainly seeds of Gmelina, Pinus kesiya, P. merkusii, and Tectona grandis. Species of Tectona. Species of Acacia, Pinus, and Populus. Short-term storage of Pinus sylvestris. Mainly collections of Central American Pinus species and species of Acacia, Albizia, Enterolobium, Gliricidia, Leucaena, Mimosa, Parkinsonia, Pithecellobium, and Prosopis. Some collections of forest tree species. Short-term storage of 8 tropical hardwoods, 10 Pi'~us species, and Abies guatemalensis; all the material collected mainly in Central America and Mexico. (continued)

198 / Appendix C TABLE C-1 (Continued) Country/Agency Genera/Species United States (Continued) Department of Horticulture University of Hawaii 3190 Maile Way Honolulu, HI 96822 USA National Tree Seed Laboratory 5156 Riggins Mill Road Rt. 1, Box 182-B Dry Branch, GA 31020 USA Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association (NFTA) P.O. Box 680 Waimanalo, HI 96795 USA NIFTAL Project University of Hawaii P.O. Box O Paia, HI 96779 USA Regional Plant Introduction Station Georgia Experiment Station Experiment, GA 30212 USA U.S. Forest Tree Seed Center P.O. Box 819 Macon, GA 31298 USA Venezuela Estacion Experimental de Semillas Forestales Callejon "La Ceiba," El Limon Edo. Aragua Venezuela Instituto Forestal Latino-Americano Apartado 36 Merida Venezuela Leucaena species. Data not available. Very complete collection of Leucaena species; some other nitrogen-fixing trees. Afzelia africana. Acacia Senegal. Alnus, Fraxinus, juglans, Paulownia, Pinus, Prunus, and Robinia species. Albizia saman and Cedrela mex~cana. Mainly species of Alnus and Pithecellobium.

Appendix C /199 TABLE C-1 (Continued) Country/Agency Genera/Species Zambia Forest Research Division P.O. Box 22099 Kitwe Zambia Zimbabwe Forest Research Center P.O. Box HG 595 Highlands Harare Zimbabwe Mainly indigenous species. Several species of Acacia and other genera, among them, Afzelia, Berchemia, Dalbergia, Dichrostachys, Erythrina, Julberrlardia, Khaya, Lo~zchocarpus, and Mimusops. Collections of species of Eucalyptus and Pinus.

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News reports concerning decline of the world's forests are becoming sadly familiar. Most losses are measured in square kilometers, but a more profound loss cannot be measured. As forests disappear, so do their genetic resources. The genes they possess can no longer aid in their adaptation to a changing environment, nor can they be used to develop improved varieties or products.

This book assesses the status of the world's tree genetic resources and management efforts. Strategies for meeting future needs and alternatives to harvesting natural forests are presented. The book also outlines methods and technologies for management, evaluates activities now under way, and makes specific recommendations for a global strategy for forest management.

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