Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
REFERENCE CO?" Educating the Next Generation of Agricultural Scientists Committee on Evaluation of Trends in Agricultural Research at the Doctoral and Postdoctoral Level Board on Agriculture National Research Council (1A, S,), (Vijef from fcti^u'. Technical Servict, , NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS -2161 Washington, D.C. 1988 Ofdftf No..
^ NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Q $ Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, J and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognises the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organised by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This project was supported under Agreement No. 59-32R6-3-214, Science and Education, between the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the National Academy of Sciences. Preparation of the publication was supported by funds from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation and E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc. Available from: Board on Agriculture National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Printed in the United States of America
COMMITTEE ON EVALUATION OF TRENDS IN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AT THE DOCTORAL AND POSTDOCTORAL LEVEL ROGER L. MITCHELL, Chairman, University of Missouri, Columbia MARY E. CLUTTER, National Science Foundation SANFORD S. ELBERG, University of California, Berkeley CHARLES E. FALK, National Science Foundation (1985), Private Consultant THEODORE E. HARTUNG, University of Nebraska, Lincoln WALLACE E. HUFFMAN, Iowa State University WILLIAM E. MARSHALL, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. HAROLD F. ROBINSON, Western Carolina University G. EDWARD SCHUH, The World Bank Staff CHARLES M. BENBROOK, Project Officer iii
BOARD ON AGRICULTURE WILLIAM L. BROWN, Chairman, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. JOHN A. PINO, Vice Chairman, National Research Council PERRY L. ADKISSON, Texas A&M University C. EUGENE ALLEN, University of Minnesota EDWIN H. CLARK II, The Conservation Foundation ELLIS B. COWLING, North Carolina State University JOSEPH P. FONTENOT, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University ROBERT M. GOODMAN, Calgene, Inc. RALPH W. F. HARDY, Boyce Thompson Institute and BioTechnica International, Inc. CHARLES C. MUSCOPLAT, Molecular Genetics, Inc. KARL H. NORRIS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland VERNON W. RUTTAN, University of Minnesota CHAMP B. TANNER, University of Wisconsin THOMAS D. TRAUTMAN, General Mills, Inc. JAN VAN SCHILFGAARDE, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado VIRGINIA WALBOT, Stanford University CONRAD J. WEISER, Oregon State University CHARLES M. BENBROOK, Executive Director JAMES E. TAVARES, Associate Executive Director CARLA CARLSON, Reports Officer and Senior Editor GRACE JONES ROBBINS, Assistant Editor iv
Preface The agricultural community has raised questions regarding the future availability of an adequate supply of doctoral scien- tists trained to work on problems in agriculture. To help answer these questions, the U.S. Department of Agriculture asked the National Research Council's Board on Agriculture to study the present and projected adequacy of doctoral scientists working in support of U.S. food and fiber industries. The board established the Committee on Evaluation of Trends in Agricultural Research at the Doctoral and Postdoctoral Level to analyze issues relating to the next generation of agricultural scientists. The committee was specifically asked to review present sources of information and seek additional information from the public and private sectors; prepare a profile of food and agricultural scientists; assess future demand for agricultural research scientists; and recommend ways to initiate changes in the public and private sectors to meet the future needs of the agricultural system and its scientists. In many instances, the committee could not identify reliable data or past analyses central to its charge. Hence, many of the principal conclusions and recommendations in this report depend on the committee's judgments. Regardless of the field or time period, it is difficult to project
vi PREFACE the supply and demand for doctoral scientists and engineers, par- ticularly when qualitative factors must be taken into account. In the case of agricultural scientists and engineers over the next two decades, these difficulties are compounded by several factors. They are lack of data describing characteristics of doctoral sci- entists; rapid change in several sciences critical to agriculture, human nutrition, forestry, and food- and fiber-processing indus- tries; uncertain future public- and private-sector investments in the agricultural sciences and technology development; and economic adjustments, social and demographic changes, and institutional reforms that are expected to affect priorities in agricultural R&D and education programs. The committee chose to limit its analysis to a simple examination of employment trends over the last decade as the basis for discussion. Drawing on data available from the National Research Coun- cil's Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, the committee constructed profiles of the employment, demographic, and edu- cational backgrounds of doctoral agricultural scientists and engi- neers. (The reader should note that numbers based on the survey of doctorate recipients are estimated.) Subsequently, it developed a set of simple projections, based on three scenarios, of the changes in employment opportunities through the mid-1990s and beyond. The committee convened several ad hoc meetings. At these meetings, the committee and agricultural science leaders, educa- tors, and research administrators discussed future needs for agri- cultural scientists with certain skills and abilities. The committee also discussed with these specialists the adequacy of current skills and what should be done to try to cultivate added skills. Ques- tions were also raised regarding how educational institutions would respond to upgrade curricula and research programs. This report contains the committee's findings, conclusions, and recommendations regarding the current status and future needs of doctoral scientists working in agriculture. Chapter 1 is a summary of the report's findings and conclusions and offers recom- mendations. Chapter 2 presents an overview of challenges in food, fiber, and agricultural industries that the committee believes will lead to new employment opportunities. The number of jobs that might result in specific fields is not quantified, however. Chap- ter 3 contains a profile of agricultural scientists, including trends in employment patterns among the industrial, government, and academic sectors. The profile also reflects age distribution, salary
PREFACE vii patterns, and the quantity of new doctoral degree recipients in agriculturally related fields. Chapter 4 reports the committee's simple projections of the future demand for agricultural research scientists. Advances in U.S. agricultural science and technology will af- fect people around the world. It is essential for our nation to educate and support skilled individuals to fulfill this responsibil- ity. ROGER L. MITCHELL Chairman
Contents 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1 2 CHALLENGES IN FOOD, FIBER, AND AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES 13 3. PROFILE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS 21 4. FUTURE DEMAND FOR AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS 41 REFERENCES 52 APPENDIXES A. Tables, 55 B. Data Sources, 70 C. Specialties List, 75 GLOSSARY 81