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Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels (2021)

Chapter:Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26447.
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125 The table below is a simplified HAZID Register created by the committee for some of the key hazards that a DUKW in commercial tour service may encounter during the water segment of the tour. It is focused on commonly encountered hazards that could cause significant damage to the vessel or injury to passengers. The risk evaluations and impacts of mitigation actions were made by the committee and are the subjective opinion of the commit- tee. Normally, a HAZID Register is prepared by a workshop of knowledge- able experts whose evaluation of risks and impacts of mitigation actions is also subjective, but informed by the expert’s knowledge of the subject and related experience. While the committee members have knowledge and experience in the marine industry, its members do not claim to have the full range of experience and knowledge desired for a formal HAZID workshop. Appendix C Simplified HAZID Register for Water Segment of the Tour

126 OPTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE SAFETY OF DUKW TYPE AMPHIBIOUS VESSELS System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k 1. Vessel Hazards 1.1 Vessel Related Hazards Loss of propulsion Mechanical or electrical failure WWII and Stretch DUKW with gas engine Vessel adrift E 2 H Back up vessels, nearby vessels or rescue boats E 1 M Diesel powered Vessel adrift D 2 M Back up vessels, nearby vessels or rescue boats D 1 M Loss of steering Multiple Vessel loses directional control, adrift D 2 M Back up vessels, nearby vessels or rescue boats D 1 M PA system failure Electrical Lose capability to communicate easily with passengers D 1 M Operators speak loudly to be heard Loss of communications Electrical Cannot monitor weather conditions or communicate with shore D 2 M Redundancy, if available C 1 L Short trip, repair when return to shop Hull limitations Original design function was different WWII and Stretch DUKW without flotation Low freeboard, poor hull shape C 5 H Monitor weather forecasts, limited operating areas, vessel modifications B 4 M WWII and Stretch DUKW with 2 ft or less freeboard are high susceptible to rapid flooding and sinking from water ingress Install flotation C 2 M

APPENDIX C 127 System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k 1. Vessel Hazards 1.1 Vessel Related Hazards Loss of propulsion Mechanical or electrical failure WWII and Stretch DUKW with gas engine Vessel adrift E 2 H Back up vessels, nearby vessels or rescue boats E 1 M Diesel powered Vessel adrift D 2 M Back up vessels, nearby vessels or rescue boats D 1 M Loss of steering Multiple Vessel loses directional control, adrift D 2 M Back up vessels, nearby vessels or rescue boats D 1 M PA system failure Electrical Lose capability to communicate easily with passengers D 1 M Operators speak loudly to be heard Loss of communications Electrical Cannot monitor weather conditions or communicate with shore D 2 M Redundancy, if available C 1 L Short trip, repair when return to shop Hull limitations Original design function was different WWII and Stretch DUKW without flotation Low freeboard, poor hull shape C 5 H Monitor weather forecasts, limited operating areas, vessel modifications B 4 M WWII and Stretch DUKW with 2 ft or less freeboard are high susceptible to rapid flooding and sinking from water ingress Install flotation C 2 M

128 OPTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE SAFETY OF DUKW TYPE AMPHIBIOUS VESSELS System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k Truck Duck Medium freeboard, hull shape C 3 M Monitor weather forecasts, limited operating areas, vessel modifications B 3 M Shaft penetration leakage Leaking seal WWII and Stretch DUKW with original boot seal Flooding D 5 H Add restrictor plate, in water inspection after repair, frequent inspections, bilge alarms, bilge pumps C 3 M WWII and Stretch DUKW with 2 ft or less freeboard are high susceptible to rapid flooding and sinking from water ingress D 5 H Add carrier bearing, in water inspection after repair, frequent inspections, bilge alarms, bilge pumps C 1 L Leaking seal, broken fitting Truck Duck with sea chest Flooding C 1 L Drain or plug leakage Leaking or missing plug All Flooding D 4 H Remove or seal plugs, in water inspection after repair, bilge alarms, bilge pumps B 1 L

APPENDIX C 129 System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k Truck Duck Medium freeboard, hull shape C 3 M Monitor weather forecasts, limited operating areas, vessel modifications B 3 M Shaft penetration leakage Leaking seal WWII and Stretch DUKW with original boot seal Flooding D 5 H Add restrictor plate, in water inspection after repair, frequent inspections, bilge alarms, bilge pumps C 3 M WWII and Stretch DUKW with 2 ft or less freeboard are high susceptible to rapid flooding and sinking from water ingress D 5 H Add carrier bearing, in water inspection after repair, frequent inspections, bilge alarms, bilge pumps C 1 L Leaking seal, broken fitting Truck Duck with sea chest Flooding C 1 L Drain or plug leakage Leaking or missing plug All Flooding D 4 H Remove or seal plugs, in water inspection after repair, bilge alarms, bilge pumps B 1 L

130 OPTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE SAFETY OF DUKW TYPE AMPHIBIOUS VESSELS System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k Hull leakage Wastage, fracture or damage Flooding D 4 H Frequent inspections, bilge alarms, bilge pumps C 3 M WWII and Stretch DUKW with 2 ft or less freeboard are high susceptible to rapid flooding and sinking from water ingress Bilge alarm failure Electrical or damage Delayed notification of water intake and flooding D 2 M Bilge pump failure Electrical or mechanical Inability to pump out incoming water, vessel sinking D 5 H Multiple bilge pumps C 3 M WWII and Stretch DUKW with 2 ft or less freeboard are high susceptible to rapid flooding from waves Fire in engine compartment Fuel leakage or exhaust temperature high Loss of propulsion, fire engulfing the vessel C 4 M Fixed/ automatic CO2 and dry chemical system; fire alarm C 2 M Fire in passenger compartment Smoking, electrical issue, intentional Fire injury to passengers B 4 M Careful observation B 2 L Gasoline vapor explosion Fuel leakage and spark Explosion damage, loss of propulsion, injury to passengers C 4 M Inspection; fuel “sniffer” alarm B 3 M

APPENDIX C 131 System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k Hull leakage Wastage, fracture or damage Flooding D 4 H Frequent inspections, bilge alarms, bilge pumps C 3 M WWII and Stretch DUKW with 2 ft or less freeboard are high susceptible to rapid flooding and sinking from water ingress Bilge alarm failure Electrical or damage Delayed notification of water intake and flooding D 2 M Bilge pump failure Electrical or mechanical Inability to pump out incoming water, vessel sinking D 5 H Multiple bilge pumps C 3 M WWII and Stretch DUKW with 2 ft or less freeboard are high susceptible to rapid flooding from waves Fire in engine compartment Fuel leakage or exhaust temperature high Loss of propulsion, fire engulfing the vessel C 4 M Fixed/ automatic CO2 and dry chemical system; fire alarm C 2 M Fire in passenger compartment Smoking, electrical issue, intentional Fire injury to passengers B 4 M Careful observation B 2 L Gasoline vapor explosion Fuel leakage and spark Explosion damage, loss of propulsion, injury to passengers C 4 M Inspection; fuel “sniffer” alarm B 3 M

132 OPTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE SAFETY OF DUKW TYPE AMPHIBIOUS VESSELS System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k Narrow aisles and unclear escape path Design constraints Difficulty or failure to evacuate in an emergency leading to drowning or injury C 5 H Signage and safety briefing B 5 H Signage and safety briefing without other mitigation actions is inadequate to reduce risks to acceptable level 2. Underway Hazards 2.1 Weather Hazards Extreme winds from storms Storms (large area wide storms) Capsizing, high waves causing vessel flooding, loss of control D 5 H Monitor weather forecasts, most major storms have adequate warning time to avoid water operation during the storm period B 3 M WWII and Stretch DUKW with 2 ft or less freeboard are high susceptible to rapid flooding from waves

APPENDIX C 133 System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k Narrow aisles and unclear escape path Design constraints Difficulty or failure to evacuate in an emergency leading to drowning or injury C 5 H Signage and safety briefing B 5 H Signage and safety briefing without other mitigation actions is inadequate to reduce risks to acceptable level 2. Underway Hazards 2.1 Weather Hazards Extreme winds from storms Storms (large area wide storms) Capsizing, high waves causing vessel flooding, loss of control D 5 H Monitor weather forecasts, most major storms have adequate warning time to avoid water operation during the storm period B 3 M WWII and Stretch DUKW with 2 ft or less freeboard are high susceptible to rapid flooding from waves

134 OPTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE SAFETY OF DUKW TYPE AMPHIBIOUS VESSELS System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k Thunderstorms Seasonal conditions Very strong gusts which can cause capsizing, high winds and loss of control D 5 H Monitor weather, no water segments during thunderstorm warning period. Thunderstorms likely have distant thunder as they are approaching so some warning is available, sensitivity to regional variation in likelihood avoid bodies of water with large fetch or partially protected waters C 3 M WWII and Stretch DUKW with 2 ft or less freeboard are susceptible to rapid flooding from waves. However, for certain types of storms that are more predictable this risk can be reduced to acceptable level by avoiding in water tours when thunderstorms are approaching

APPENDIX C 135 System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k Thunderstorms Seasonal conditions Very strong gusts which can cause capsizing, high winds and loss of control D 5 H Monitor weather, no water segments during thunderstorm warning period. Thunderstorms likely have distant thunder as they are approaching so some warning is available, sensitivity to regional variation in likelihood avoid bodies of water with large fetch or partially protected waters C 3 M WWII and Stretch DUKW with 2 ft or less freeboard are susceptible to rapid flooding from waves. However, for certain types of storms that are more predictable this risk can be reduced to acceptable level by avoiding in water tours when thunderstorms are approaching

136 OPTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE SAFETY OF DUKW TYPE AMPHIBIOUS VESSELS System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k Squalls Seasonal conditions Very strong sustained winds and gusts with similar consequence as extreme winds D 5 H Monitor weather forecasts, sensitivity to regional variation in likelihood, avoid bodies of water with large fetch or partially protected waters B 5 H Squalls not related to thunderstorms may have little or no warning, so need to rely on weather forecasts WWII and Stretch DUKW with 2 ft or less freeboard are high susceptible to rapid flooding from waves. Monitoring of weather alone without other mitigation actions, such as stopping water segments during weather warnings, has been found to be inadequate to reduce risks to acceptable levels in areas with large enough fetch to form waves that can overtop a low freeboard DUKW (see “Stretch Duck 7” casualty) Install effective weather monitoring equipment and policy of no water segments during severe weather warnings B 3 M

APPENDIX C 137 System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k Squalls Seasonal conditions Very strong sustained winds and gusts with similar consequence as extreme winds D 5 H Monitor weather forecasts, sensitivity to regional variation in likelihood, avoid bodies of water with large fetch or partially protected waters B 5 H Squalls not related to thunderstorms may have little or no warning, so need to rely on weather forecasts WWII and Stretch DUKW with 2 ft or less freeboard are high susceptible to rapid flooding from waves. Monitoring of weather alone without other mitigation actions, such as stopping water segments during weather warnings, has been found to be inadequate to reduce risks to acceptable levels in areas with large enough fetch to form waves that can overtop a low freeboard DUKW (see “Stretch Duck 7” casualty) Install effective weather monitoring equipment and policy of no water segments during severe weather warnings B 3 M

138 OPTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE SAFETY OF DUKW TYPE AMPHIBIOUS VESSELS System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k Tornadoes Seasonal conditions Temporary extreme winds with overturning and destruction of the vessel C 5 H Monitor weather forecasts, no water segments during tornado warning period B 4 M WWII and Stretch DUKW with 2 ft or less freeboard are high susceptible to rapid flooding from waves Lightning Seasonal conditions Lightning strike can cause passenger injury, fire and electrical failure B 4 M Avoid operation during thunderstorms A 4 M Poor visibility Fog Collision, grounding, inability to find safe area for landing the vessel C 3 M Reduce speed, head for nearest safe shore D 2 M Other as identified by HAZID team 2.2 Geographic/ Natural Hazards Sandbars Terrain Stranding of the vessel Strong currents Seasonal conditions Loss of control of the vessel, inability to return to water exit ramp C 1 L Large fetch Natural occurrence Collision and leakage B 1 L

APPENDIX C 139 System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k Tornadoes Seasonal conditions Temporary extreme winds with overturning and destruction of the vessel C 5 H Monitor weather forecasts, no water segments during tornado warning period B 4 M WWII and Stretch DUKW with 2 ft or less freeboard are high susceptible to rapid flooding from waves Lightning Seasonal conditions Lightning strike can cause passenger injury, fire and electrical failure B 4 M Avoid operation during thunderstorms A 4 M Poor visibility Fog Collision, grounding, inability to find safe area for landing the vessel C 3 M Reduce speed, head for nearest safe shore D 2 M Other as identified by HAZID team 2.2 Geographic/ Natural Hazards Sandbars Terrain Stranding of the vessel Strong currents Seasonal conditions Loss of control of the vessel, inability to return to water exit ramp C 1 L Large fetch Natural occurrence Collision and leakage B 1 L

140 OPTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE SAFETY OF DUKW TYPE AMPHIBIOUS VESSELS System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k Other as identified by HAZID team 2.4 Waterway Navigation Other vessels sharing the same waterway Busy waterway Collision and wakes D 4 H Stay out of channel, away from other traffic D 3 M Shallow water or underwater objects (e.g., wrecks) Natural occurrence Damage and flooding B 2 L Because of wheels DUKW can ride over shallow water areas Man-made obstacles (e.g., bridges, navigation buoys, piers, offshore structures) Man-made occurrence Damage and flooding D 2 M Floating natural obstacles (logs or other debris) Natural and man-made Damage and flooding D 3 M Pilotage error Human error Collision, failure to return to exit ramp, operate in unsafe conditions C 4 M Other as identified by HAZID team

APPENDIX C 141 System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k Other as identified by HAZID team 2.4 Waterway Navigation Other vessels sharing the same waterway Busy waterway Collision and wakes D 4 H Stay out of channel, away from other traffic D 3 M Shallow water or underwater objects (e.g., wrecks) Natural occurrence Damage and flooding B 2 L Because of wheels DUKW can ride over shallow water areas Man-made obstacles (e.g., bridges, navigation buoys, piers, offshore structures) Man-made occurrence Damage and flooding D 2 M Floating natural obstacles (logs or other debris) Natural and man-made Damage and flooding D 3 M Pilotage error Human error Collision, failure to return to exit ramp, operate in unsafe conditions C 4 M Other as identified by HAZID team

142 OPTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE SAFETY OF DUKW TYPE AMPHIBIOUS VESSELS System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k 3. Personnel Hazards 3.1 Personnel Hazards Canopy entrapment Enclosed canopy Without flotation Difficulty or failure to evacuate in an emergency leading to drowning or injury C 5 H Easy-open windows, sliding hatches in canopy roof, large enough gap between pillars C 3 M WWII and Stretch DUKW with 2 ft or less freeboard are highly susceptible to rapid flooding and so escape from under canopy may be required in seconds, not minutes. Disabled or untrained persons may not be able to manage this. Escape route may be blocked or difficult for disabled or overweight persons, for elderly or for children With flotation Need to evacuate is reduced C 2 M No canopy C 2 M

APPENDIX C 143 System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k 3. Personnel Hazards 3.1 Personnel Hazards Canopy entrapment Enclosed canopy Without flotation Difficulty or failure to evacuate in an emergency leading to drowning or injury C 5 H Easy-open windows, sliding hatches in canopy roof, large enough gap between pillars C 3 M WWII and Stretch DUKW with 2 ft or less freeboard are highly susceptible to rapid flooding and so escape from under canopy may be required in seconds, not minutes. Disabled or untrained persons may not be able to manage this. Escape route may be blocked or difficult for disabled or overweight persons, for elderly or for children With flotation Need to evacuate is reduced C 2 M No canopy C 2 M

144 OPTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE SAFETY OF DUKW TYPE AMPHIBIOUS VESSELS System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k Narrow aisles and unclear escape path Design constraints Difficulty or failure to evacuate in an emergency leading to drowning or injury C 5 H Easy-open windows, sliding hatches in canopy roof, large enough gap between pillars C 3 M Installed flotation B 2 L

APPENDIX C 145 System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k Narrow aisles and unclear escape path Design constraints Difficulty or failure to evacuate in an emergency leading to drowning or injury C 5 H Easy-open windows, sliding hatches in canopy roof, large enough gap between pillars C 3 M Installed flotation B 2 L

146 OPTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE SAFETY OF DUKW TYPE AMPHIBIOUS VESSELS System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k Difficulty to put on life jacket and minimal briefing Life jackets in overhead or under seat WWII, Stretch DUKW with canopy Passenger injury or drowning C 5 H Improved instruction on how to put on life jacket at beginning of tour and well placed instruction signs C 5 H Life jackets are hard to put on by persons not experienced in doing it and can trap the person under the canopy. May not be the right size for children or overweight persons. Wearing life jackets without other mitigation actions is insufficient to achieve acceptable risk as demonstrated by the DUKW multiple fatality sinkings Mandatory wearing and no canopy C 3 M Removal of canopies is an example of a mitigation action that together with wearing of life jackets can create an acceptable level of risk

APPENDIX C 147 System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k Difficulty to put on life jacket and minimal briefing Life jackets in overhead or under seat WWII, Stretch DUKW with canopy Passenger injury or drowning C 5 H Improved instruction on how to put on life jacket at beginning of tour and well placed instruction signs C 5 H Life jackets are hard to put on by persons not experienced in doing it and can trap the person under the canopy. May not be the right size for children or overweight persons. Wearing life jackets without other mitigation actions is insufficient to achieve acceptable risk as demonstrated by the DUKW multiple fatality sinkings Mandatory wearing and no canopy C 3 M Removal of canopies is an example of a mitigation action that together with wearing of life jackets can create an acceptable level of risk

148 OPTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE SAFETY OF DUKW TYPE AMPHIBIOUS VESSELS System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k WWII and Stretch DUKW without canopy or Truck Duck even with canopy Passenger injury or drowning C 4 M Improved instruction on how to put on life jacket at beginning of tour and well placed instruction signs C 3 M Add second crew member C 3 M Slipping and tripping hazards Slippery surface Passenger injury E 3 H Non-skid; steps; grab rails D 2 M Falls Tripping or slippery surface Passenger injury E 3 H Non-skid; steps; grab rails D 2 M Drugs and alcohol Poor management of personnel Operator error, lack of safe operation, passenger injury, damage to the vessel C 3 M Pass. Screening before boarding C 2 M Fatigue Poor management of personnel Operator error, lack of safe operation, passenger injury, damage to the vessel C 3 M Follow the safety rules C 2 M

APPENDIX C 149 System Hazard Category Hazard Cause DUKW Type Consequence Initial Risk Evaluation Safeguards Residual Risk Evaluation Actions RemarkL ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k L ik el ih oo d Se ve ri ty L ev el R is k WWII and Stretch DUKW without canopy or Truck Duck even with canopy Passenger injury or drowning C 4 M Improved instruction on how to put on life jacket at beginning of tour and well placed instruction signs C 3 M Add second crew member C 3 M Slipping and tripping hazards Slippery surface Passenger injury E 3 H Non-skid; steps; grab rails D 2 M Falls Tripping or slippery surface Passenger injury E 3 H Non-skid; steps; grab rails D 2 M Drugs and alcohol Poor management of personnel Operator error, lack of safe operation, passenger injury, damage to the vessel C 3 M Pass. Screening before boarding C 2 M Fatigue Poor management of personnel Operator error, lack of safe operation, passenger injury, damage to the vessel C 3 M Follow the safety rules C 2 M

Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels Get This Book
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To ensure the safety of passengers and crew on DUKWs — amphibious vehicles also referred to as duck boats — the United States Coast Guard (USCG) should issue a range of new guidelines and requirements.

TRB’s Special Report 342: Options for Improving the Safety of DUKW Type Amphibious Vessels recommends that the USCG use a consistent risk-assessment methodology and update its regulations and enforcement practices in a way that reflects the variable levels of risk to passengers and crew.

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