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2022 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 992 Guide to Pedestrian Analysis Paul Ryus Anusha Musunuru James Bonneson Kittelson & Associates, Inc. Reston, VA Sirisha Kothuri Christopher Monsere Nathan McNeil Portland State University Portland, OR Seth LaJeunesse Krista Nordback Wesley Kumfer Sophie Currin University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center Chapel Hill, NC Subscriber Categories Highways â¢ Pedestrians and Bicyclists Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniquesâthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agree- ment No. 693JJ31950003. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRBâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRBâs relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs iden- tified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&Iâs recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 992 Project 17-87 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-09460-3 Library of Congress Control Number 2022930225 Â© 2022 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo credit: Kittelson & Associates, Inc./Caitlin Tobin NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 992 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Waseem Dekelbab, Associate Program Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer (retired) Jarrel McAfee, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Janet M. McNaughton, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 17-87 PANEL Field of TrafficâArea of Safety Kirk M. Zeringue, Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development, Baton Rouge, LA (Chair) George R. Branyan, District Department of Transportation, Washington, DC DeWayne David Carver, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL Casey-Marie Claude, Central Transportation Planning Staff (CTPS), Boston, MA Jacqueline DeWolfe, Massachusetts Department of Transportation, Boston, MA Carissa Dale McQuiston, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing, MI Barbara Katherine Ostrom, Wood, Vienna, VA Keith A. Robinson, Gray Bowen Scott, Walnut Creek, CA Yiyi Wang, San Francisco State University, Fremont, CA Joyce Yassin, WSP, Detroit, MI Jeremy Raw, FHWA Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison
NCHRP Research Report 992: Guide to Pedestrian Analysis presents a state-of-the-art guide to conducting pedestrian traffic analysis on the basis of volume, safety, operations, and quality of service. In addition to the guide, the research provides new evaluation methods for use with the Highway Capacity Manual. The material in this report will be of immediate interest to new and experienced practitioners in their efforts to design facilities to accom- modate pedestrians and create more walkable streets that lead to greater pedestrian safety and satisfaction. In 2015, 5,376 pedestrians were killed and an estimated 70,000 were injured in traffic crashes in the United States (Traffic Safety Facts, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration). Pedestrian deaths accounted for 15% of all traffic fatalities. While the majority of the fatalities occurred in urban areas, the fatality risk can be even higher in rural areas after exposure has been controlled for. To address this growing problem, accurate methods for estimating pedestrian volumes are needed to quantify exposure and, in turn, evaluate the benefits of pedestrian countermeasures. Counting pedestrians is challenging, and there is a need for tools that can usefully estimate exposure when counts are unavailable or are limited in coverage (e.g., over short time periods or in few locations). Roadway designs and signal phasing that address the safety of all road users are being implemented in many cities around the country. These roadway designs include road diets with corner bulb-outs and sidewalk exten- sions, addition of bike lanes, crosswalk widening, and addition of corner or median refuge areas. These treatments were not evaluated in the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) pedes- trian level-of-service (LOS) methodologies. Under NCHRP Project 17-87, Kittelson & Associates, Inc., was asked to develop a scalable guide for jurisdictions (urban, suburban, and rural) to (a) identify techniques for efficient and accurate estimation of pedestrian volume and exposure, (b) determine field-observed factors affecting pedestrian flow at the facility level and integrate those factors into the HCM pedestrian LOS methodology, (c) determine how pedestrian safety improvements on the roadway and in signal timing designs (e.g., sidewalk extensions, corner bulb-outs, imple- mentation of leading pedestrian intervals, and associated crash modification factors) should be reflected in the HCM pedestrian LOS, and (d) recommend corresponding enhancements to the current HCM methodology. In addition to this guide, the research agencyâs report on the conducting of the research, which documents the entire research effort, is available as NCHRP Web-Only Document 312: Enhancing Pedestrian Volume Estimation and Developing HCM Pedestrian Methodologies for Safe and Sustainable Communities. F O R E W O R D By Waseem Dekelbab Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
Several deliverables not included in the published reports are available on the TRB website at trb.org by searching on NCHRP Research Report 992: â¢ Guide to Pedestrian Analysis: Computational Engines (Microsoft Excel) â Signalized Pedestrian Crossing Delay Computational Engine â Uncontrolled Crossing Pedestrian Delay and Level of Service Computational Engine â¢ Guide to Pedestrian Analysis: Presentations â Peer Exchange Workshop Project Overview â Pedestrian Volume Counting â Pedestrian Operations Analysis â Pedestrian Quality of Service Analysis â Pedestrian Safety Analysis â¢ Guide to Pedestrian Analysis: Implementation Plan â¢ Guide to Pedestrian Analysis: Video
Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions. 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 Purpose 2 Organization 3 How the Guide Was Developed 3 References 5 Chapter 2 Pedestrian Volume Counting 5 Collection of Pedestrian Volume Data 21 Estimating Pedestrian Volume 25 Summary 25 References 29 Chapter 3 Pedestrian Safety Analysis 30 Estimating Pedestrian Exposure 35 Identifying Treatment Locations 40 Selecting Pedestrian Safety Countermeasures 49 Summary 49 References 54 Chapter 4 Pedestrian Operations Analysis 55 Pedestrian Delay 58 Pedestrian Flow 62 Pedestrian Circulation Area Analysis 65 Pedestrian Storage Area Analysis 66 Traffic Signal Warrants 66 Summary 67 References 69 Chapter 5 Pedestrian Quality of Service Analysis 69 Factors Influencing Quality of Service 70 Measuring Quality of Service 81 Walkability Measures 84 References 85 Abbreviations A-1 Appendix A Calculation Details for Analysis Method B-1 Appendix B Instructions for Spreadsheet Computational Engines C O N T E N T S