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2022 A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 241 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Passenger Transportation â¢ Terminals and Facilities Toward a Touchless Airport Journey Frank Barich Leslie Ruiz Rob Linstrum Barich, Inc. Chandler, AZ Martin Leprohon Airbiz Aviation Strategies, Ltd. Montreal, QC Patricia Ryan Decision Services International, LLC Melbourne, FL Ron Hiscox Airport Process Design, Ltd. Grenville-sur-la-Rouge, QC Wayne McCutcheon Entro Communications, Inc. Toronto, ON
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transpor- tation of people and goods and in regional, national, and international commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for man- aging and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research pro- grams. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative High- way Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 241 Project 11-02/Task 41 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-68715-7 Library of Congress Control Number 2022941009 Â© 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo credit: Photos courtesy of Unsplash.com. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transporta- tion Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or specifi- cations. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which pro- vide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America
e National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. e National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. e National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. e three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. e National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. e Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. e mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. e Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. e program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This quick reference guide was produced under ACRP Project 11-02, Task 41, âToward a Touchless Airport Journeyâ by the Barich, Inc., team, including the following members: â¢ Barich, Inc.âFrank Barich (Principal Investigator, Chandler, AZ), Leslie Ruiz (Lead Researcher, Chandler, AZ), Rob Linstrum (Research and Deliverables Producer, Chandler, AZ), Phuong Parenzan (Administrative Officer, Cypress, TX). â¢ Airbiz Aviation Strategies, Ltd.âMartin Leprohon (Researcher, Montreal, QC), Kerr Lammie (Subject Matter Expert [SME], Vancouver, BC). â¢ Decision Services International, LLCâDr. Patricia Ryan (SME, Melbourne, FL). â¢ Airport Process Design, Ltd.âRon Hiscox (SME, Grenville-sur-la-Rouge, QC). â¢ Entro Communications, Inc.âWayne McCutcheon (SME, Toronto, ON). CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 241 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer (retired) Demisha Williams, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 11-02/TASK 41 PANEL Field of Special Projects Dawson Frank, Port of Seattle, Seattle, WA (Chair) Antonio Correas, Skymantics, Melbourne, FL Timothy Neal Haizlip, Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport, Cincinnati, OH Danielle J. Rinsler, Amazon, Arlington, VA Tiffany Sanders, Ontario International Airport Authority, Ontario, CA Houbing Song, Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL Aneil Patel, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison Todd McKeever, FAA Liaison Christine L. Gerencher, TRB Liaison
ACRP Research Report 241: Toward a Touchless Airport Journey is a quick reference guide for all types and sizes of airports, including their third-party vendors, and identifies readily available touchless technology features with near-term solutions and best practices to allow a safe and efficient journey. The Guide presents solutions from emerging and exist- ing technologies to nontechnological solutions. For each solution, the Guide describes the current level of readiness, barriers to expect in implementation, and specific tips on getting started. It also looks at technology gaps and the need for medium- and long-term solutions with further development opportunities that could minimize touchpoints. This Guide suggests mitigation strategies and solutions for processes that cannot be touchless, such as wheelchair service providers and baggage tags. The research included current best practices of airports, airlines, associations and gov- erning bodies, service providers, concessionaires, parking and ground transportation providers, etc., and cost-effective solutions, including nonaeronautical revenue opportunities, passenger-centric smartphone and sensor technologies and applications along with their associated barriers to adoption. The Guide includes signage and wayfinding opportunities to facilitate the touchless experience and the use of technology to reduce dwell times through shorter queue lines. It looks at the customer experience and different forms of commu- nication and the accommodation of passengers with disabilities, including those with an intellectual or developmental disability. The Guide also includes techniques for continuous disinfectant processes and global practices and innovations within and outside of the avia- tion sector that have been effective in making processes more efficient and touchless. As technology continues to evolve, airports are seeking opportunities to create a touch- less experience along the passenger journey. The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the need to eliminate many common touchpoints, which are potential points of disease trans- mission. This research examined the airport processes and functions that could potentially benefit from touchless technologies. ACRP Project 11-02/Task 41 was led by Barich, Inc., in association with Airbiz Aviation Strategies, Ltd.; Decision Services International, LLC; Airport Process Design, Ltd.; and Entro Communications, Inc. The research was completed quickly to address ways an airport can be a touchless or frictionless and seamless journey experience. Accompanying the Guide is a solution worksheet called âTaking Action,â which is orga- nized by varying points in an airport journey that an airport can use to help decide which solution to consider and implement. The worksheet is available at the National Academies Press website (www.nap.edu) by searching for ACRP Research Report 241: Toward a Touchless Airport Journey. F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Chapter 1 Setting the Stage 1 Introduction and Purpose 2 Research Summary 3 State of the Industry 4 Trend Area 1: Providing a Seamless or Frictionless Airport Journey 5 Trend Area 2: Enabling Passengers to Take Control of Their Journey 6 Trend Area 3: Providing Cleaner and More Modern Airport Facilities 7 What It Means to Go Touchless 7 Best Practices and Lessons Learned 8 What Factors to Consider 9 The Value of Touchless Solutions 10 Chapter 2 Touchless Solutions Across the Airport Journey Areas 10 Airport Journey Areas 11 Summary of Solutions Along the Airport Journey Areas 12 Walkthrough of the Airport Journey Areas 12 Pre-Airport 17 On-Airport 24 Parking, Arrival, and Exit 28 Landside 32 Back of House 33 Security 36 Immigration Control 38 Airside 40 Airfield 41 Post-Airport 42 Chapter 3 Taking Action 43 Endnotes 48 Appendix A Helping the Passenger 54 Appendix B Communicate with the Passenger C O N T E N T S Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.nap.edu) retains the color versions.