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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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Consensus Study Report

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26804.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
×

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
×

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

Rapid Expert Consultations published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are authored by subject-matter experts on narrowly focused topics that can be supported by a body of evidence. The discussions contained in rapid expert consultations are considered those of the authors and do not contain policy recommendations. Rapid expert consultations are reviewed by the institution before release.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
×

PANEL ON THE IMPLICATIONS OF USING MULTIPLE DATA SOURCES FOR MAJOR SURVEY PROGRAMS

SHARON L. LOHR (Chair), School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Arizona State University (Emerita)

JEAN-FRANÇOIS BEAUMONT, Statistics Canada

LAWRENCE D. BOBO, Office of the Dean of Social Science, Harvard University

MICK P. COUPER, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan

HILARY HOYNES, Goldman School of Public Policy at the University of California, Berkeley

KIMBERLYN LEARY, Harvard Medical School/McLean Hospital and Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

DAVID MANCUSO, Washington State Department of Social and Health Services

JUDITH A. SELTZER, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles

ELIZABETH A. STUART, Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

SHAOWEN WANG, Department of Geography and Geographic Information Science, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Study Staff

DANIEL H. WEINBERG, Study Director (until December 2022)

KRISZTINA MARTON, Study Director (from December 2022)

JOSHUA LANG, Senior Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL STATISTICS

ROBERT M. GROVES (Chair), Office of the Provost, Georgetown University

LAWRENCE D. BOBO, Department of Sociology, Harvard University

ANNE C. CASE, School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University (Emeritus)

MICK P. COUPER, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan

DIANA FARRELL, President and Chief Executive Officer, JPMorgan Chase Institute

ROBERT GOERGE, Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago

ERICA L. GROSHEN, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University

DANIEL E. HO, Law School, Stanford University

HILARY HOYNES, Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley

DANIEL KIFER, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University

SHARON LOHR, School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Arizona State University (Emerita)

JEROME P. REITER, Department of Statistical Science, Duke University

NELA RICHARDSON, Senior Vice President and Chief Economist, ADP Research Institute

JUDITH A. SELTZER, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles

C. MATTHEW SNIPP, School of the Humanities and Sciences, Stanford University

ELIZABETH A. STUART, Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

MELISSA CHIU, Director

BRIAN HARRIS-KOJETIN, Senior Scholar

CONSTANCE F. CITRO, Senior Scholar

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
×

Reviewers

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
×

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by CYNTHIA CLARK, independent consultant, and KATHLEEN MULLAN HARRIS, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
×

Acknowledgments

This report of the Panel on the Implications of Using Multiple Data Sources for Major Survey Programs is the product of contributions from many colleagues, whom we thank for sharing their time and expertise. The panel was funded by the National Science Foundation, which has been a true partner in this endeavor, and we are especially indebted to Alan Tomkins, Daniel Goroff, Rayvon Fouché, and Cheryl Eavey for their support and for valuable discussions about the panel’s goals and activities. Cheryl Eavey opened the workshop with comments about how the panel’s activities complement other efforts at the National Science Foundation on enhancing data for social and economic research.

The panel benefited greatly from the presentations provided during the virtual public workshop held on May 16 and 18, 2022. The experts the panel heard from can be clustered into the following perspectives and areas of expertise (see Appendix A for the workshop agenda and Appendix B for biographies of the workshop presenters):

  • Keynote speakers and discussants: Robert Santos, Director, U.S. Census Bureau; Anil Arora, Chief Statistician of Canada; Joseph Salvo, University of Virginia; and Haoyi Chen, United Nations.
  • Experts on crime statistics: Janet Lauritsen, University of Missouri-St. Louis; Ramiro Martinez, Jr., Northeastern University; Erica Smith, U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics; and Derek Veitenheimer, State of Wisconsin.
  • Experts on agricultural statistics: Linda Young, U.S. National Agricultural Statistics Service; Herbert Nkwimi-Tchahou, Statistics
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
×
  • Canada; Martin Mendez-Costabel, Bayer Crop Science; and Michael Goodchild, University of California, Santa Barbara.
  • Experts on income and health statistics: Jonathan Rothbaum, U.S. Census Bureau; Lisa Mirel, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics; Jessica Faul, University of Michigan; and Helen Levy, University of Michigan.
  • Experts on data-equity issues: Steven Brown, Urban Institute; Randall Akee, University of California, Los Angeles; Frauke Kreuter, LudwigMaximilians-University of Munich and University of Maryland; Clarence Wardell, Chief Data and Equitable Delivery Officer, Executive Office of the President; and Margaret Levenstein, University of Michigan.

We would also like to thank the Chair of the Committee on National Statistics, Robert M. Groves, for his leadership and his insightful comments about a new vision for national statistics in the final workshop session.

The panel could not have conducted its work without the capable staff at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Brian Harris-Kojetin, Director of the Committee on National Statistics, and Melissa Chiu, Deputy Director, provided invaluable support throughout the panel’s activities, and their insightful comments improved the workshop and report. Joshua Lang did a magnificent job of organizing the panel meetings, ensuring the smooth operation of the workshop and other panel activities, and assisting with the report. Neeti Pokhriyal (Mirzayan Science Technology Policy Fellow) helped with literature reviews, and Constance Citro, Daniel Cork, David Johnson, and Nancy Kirkendall provided helpful input for the report. Kirsten Sampson-Snyder organized the review process, and Susan Debad’s thorough editing improved the readability and accessibility of the report. We are grateful to all of them for their contributions and help.

The crew at Spark Street Digital ensured that the technological aspects of the virtual workshop worked flawlessly and produced the video of the event. We appreciate their help in familiarizing participants with the web-cast features and their behind-the-scenes support during the workshop.

Finally, we thank the members of the Panel on the Implications of Using Multiple Data Sources with Major Survey programs, listed on page v. As can be seen from the biographies in Appendix B, the panel members brought an impressive array of expertise and they generously volunteered their time to organize the workshop, gather evidence, and work on the report. The final report reflects the commitment and expertise of all panel members.

Sharon L. Lohr (Chair)
Daniel H. Weinberg (Study Director)
Krisztina Marton (Study Director)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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2.3 Opportunities and Challenges for Combining Data from Multiple Sources

3 Using Multiple Data Sources to Enhance Data Equity

3.1 What Is Data Equity?

3.2 Investigate or Improve Coverage of a Survey

3.3 Enable Finer Data Disaggregation

3.4 Produce Model-Based Estimates for Small Subpopulations

3.5 Assess and Reduce Measurement Error

3.6 Add Features to the Data Through Data Linkage

Adding Variables to a Dataset from Records Linked in Another Source

Linkage Errors and Data Equity

Additional Equity Considerations for Data Linkage

3.7 Add Features to the Data Through Imputation

Imputing Information Needed for Disaggregation

Equity Considerations for Imputation

3.8 Discussion

4 Creating New Data Resources with Administrative Records

4.1 Creating Longitudinal Databases from Existing Records

Longitudinal Business Database

Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics Database

Decennial Census Digitization and Linkage Project

4.2 The Frames Project

4.3 The National Vital Statistics System

4.4 Linking Data at the State or Regional Level

Illinois Integrated Database of Child and Family Programs

Washington State Department of Social and Health Services

Multistate Collaborations

4.5 Using Administrative Records to Produce Statistics

5 Data Linkage to Improve Income Measurement

5.1 Income Data Collection on Surveys

American Community Survey

Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement

Survey of Income and Program Participation

Strengths and Limitations of Survey Data on Income

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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5.2 Administrative Records Sources for Income Data

Data from the Internal Revenue Service

Data from the Social Security Administration

Administrative Data from Other Government Agencies

5.3 Using Administrative Data with Income Surveys

5.4 Studying Measurement of Income and Program Participation

5.5 Using Linked Income Data to Improve Income Statistics

Comprehensive Income Dataset Project

National Experimental Wellbeing Statistics Project

Using Administrative Records to Improve Income Measures

6 Data Linkage to Supplement Health Surveys

6.1 Surveys from the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics

National Health Interview Survey

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Strengths and Limitations of Health Survey Data

6.2 Sources of Administrative Data on Health

6.3 Data Linkage at the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics

Linkages to Examine Accuracy of Health Data

Linkages to Study Health Outcomes and Associations

6.4 Linkage and Data Equity

Linkage Eligibility

Linkage Errors

Investigating and Documenting Properties of Linked Survey Data

6.5 Linkage of Longitudinal Health Surveys

7 Combining Multiple Data Sources to Measure Crime

7.1 The Uniform Crime Reporting Program

7.2 National Crime Victimization Survey

7.3 Other National Data Sources About Crime

National Vital Statistics System

Other Surveys About Crime

Data Collected by Regulatory Agencies

Data from Crowdsourcing and Webscraping

7.4 Police Department Data

7.5 Combining Statistics Computed from Multiple Data Sources

Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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Acronyms and Abbreviations

ACS American Community Survey
AIAN American Indian or Alaska Native
ASEC Annual Social and Economic Supplement [of the Current Population Survey]
BJS Bureau of Justice Statistics
CAPS County Agricultural Production Survey
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CID Comprehensive Income Dataset
CNSTAT Committee on National Statistics
CPS Current Population Survey
FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation
FSA Farm Service Agency
HRS Health and Retirement Study
HUD Department of Housing and Urban Development
ICDR Integrated Client Data Repository [State of Washington]
IRS Internal Revenue Service
JAS June Area Survey
LEHD Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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MAF Master Address File
NASEM National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
NASS National Agricultural Statistics Service
NCHS National Center for Health Statistics
NCVS National Crime Victimization Survey
NDI National Death Index
NEWS National Experimental Well-being Statistics
NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHIS National Health Interview Survey
NIBRS National Incident-Based Reporting System [of Uniform Crime Reports]
NVSS National Vital Statistics System
OMB Office of Management and Budget
PIK Protected Identification Key
RMA Risk Management Agency
SAIPE Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates
SIPP Survey of Income and Program Participation
SNAP Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
SRS Summary Reporting System [of Uniform Crime Reports]
SSA Social Security Administration
SSN Social Security Number
TIGER Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing
UCR Uniform Crime Reports/Reporting
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
×
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Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
×
Page R17
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26804.
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Much of the statistical information currently produced by federal statistical agencies - information about economic, social, and physical well-being that is essential for the functioning of modern society - comes from sample surveys. In recent years, there has been a proliferation of data from other sources, including data collected by government agencies while administering programs, satellite and sensor data, private-sector data such as electronic health records and credit card transaction data, and massive amounts of data available on the internet. How can these data sources be used to enhance the information currently collected on surveys, and to provide new frontiers for producing information and statistics to benefit American society?

Toward a 21st Century National Data Infrastructure: Enhancing Survey Programs by Using Multiple Data Sources, the second report in a series funded by the National Science Foundation, discusses how use of multiple data sources can improve the quality of national and subnational statistics while promoting data equity. This report explores implications of combining survey data with other data sources through examples relating to the areas of income, health, crime, and agriculture.

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