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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
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TABLE E-1 General Study and Population Characteristics

Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group
Health Care

INFANT [Australia]

Zheng et al. (2022)

Cluster RCT

Using an integrative lifestyle pattern analysis approach, the objective was to assess the effectiveness of the INFANT program on change across multiple behaviors

Inclusion: English-speaking first-time parents participating in “first-time parents group” who can freely give informed consent

Exclusion: unable to give informed consent or communicate in English

Parents were recruited from first-time parent groups and assessed by the nurse

All intervention and control families who remained enrolled in the program at the end of the intervention were recontacted and invited to participate

SES: NR

Education level: 20% completed high school

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language 95% English

Maternal age: 32 yrs

Values reflect characteristics at baseline

Approached: NR

Eligible: 630 main carers (62 first-time parent groups)

Enrolled: 542 main carers (62 first-time parent groups)

Completed: 480 main carers

Data used for lifestyle pattern analysis at 3.5 yrs postintervention: 297 participants

Baseline: 262

End: 241

Follow-up: 172

Baseline used for lifestyle pattern analysis at 3.5 yrs

Baseline: 266

End: 239

Follow-up: 165

Baseline used for lifestyle pattern analysis at 3.5 yrs

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
INFANT [Australia]

Hesketh et al. (2020)

Cluster RCT

Assess postintervention effects of the INFANT program to child age 5 yrs on diet, movement, and adiposity

Infants with chronic health problems that could influence height, weight, physical activity, or eating habits were excluded from analyses but permitted to participate in the study

Baseline: 262

End: 241

Follow-up: 172 children

(Follow-up: 254 children from both groups analyzed for diet outcome measures)

Baseline: 266

End: 239

Follow-up: 165 children

(Follow-up: 254 children from both groups analyzed for diet outcome measures)

INFANT [Australia]

Spence et al. (2014)

Cluster RCT

Assess whether maternal feeding knowledge, feeding practices, self-efficacy, and dietary intakes acted as mediators of the effect of the INFANT intervention to improve child diet quality

Baseline: 262

End: 241

Follow-up: NR

Baseline: 266

End: 239

Follow-up: NR

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group
INFANT [Australia]

Cameron et al. (2014)

Cluster RCT

Assess the effectiveness of the INFANT program according to maternal education and age

Baseline: 262

End: NR

Follow-up: NR

Baseline: 266

End: NR

Follow-up: NR

INFANT [Australia]

Spence et al. (2013)

Cluster RCT

Assess the effect of the INFANT program on young children’s dietary patterns

Baseline: 262

End: NR

Follow-up: NR

Baseline: 266

End: NR

Follow-up: NR

INFANT [Australia]

Campbell et al. (2013)

Cluster RCT

Assess the effectiveness of the INFANT program on infants’ obesity-risk behaviors and BMI

Baseline: 271

End: 241

Follow-up: NR

(389 children from both groups analyzed for dietary outcomes)

Baseline: 271

End: 239

Follow-up: NR

(389 children from both groups analyzed for dietary outcomes)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

— [Italy]

de Franchis et al. (2022)

RCT

Verify the effects of weaning (i.e., the introduction of solid foods in infants previously fed only with milk) using adult foods typical of Mediterranean diet on children’s eating habits

Inclusion: Healthy infants, stable clinical conditions, and feeding by mouth with human milk or formula

Exclusion: Infants either with associated comorbidities (including prematurity) or with low birth weight

18 pediatricians participated and each enrolled 10–15 infants between 4–6 mo of age (authors’ description of this is not consistent with reported sample size)

SES: NR

Education level: 31% (control) and 33% (intervention) with a degree or higher

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Maternal age: NR

Approached: 425

Eligible and enrolled: 394

Completed: 358

Baseline: 194

End: 177

Baseline: 200

End: 181

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

GeliS [Germany]

Hoffmann et al. (2021)

Prospective cluster RCT

Evaluate effect of antenatal lifestyle intervention on development and feeding practices

Inclusion: (a) pre-pregnancy BMI between 18.5 and 40.0 kg/m2, (b) singleton pregnancy, (c) age 18–43 yrs, (d) sufficient German language skills, and (e) stage of pregnancy before end of 12th wk of gestation

Exclusion: miscarriage, terminations, pregnancy complications interfering with intervention, and maternal death during the trial

71 participating maternal clinics and midwifery practices (intervention n = 39; control n = 32) recruited participants

Before 12th wk of gestation, pregnant women were invited by midwives or medical staff to participate

SES: NR

Education level: 42% vocational school, 42% academic high school and 16% general school

Race: NR

Ethnicity: 89% born in Germany

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: 30 yrs pre-pregnancy

Approached: 2,286

Eligible and enrolled: 2,261

End: 1,998

Baseline: 1,139

End: 1,003

12 mo follow-up: 902

Baseline: 1,122

End: 995

12 mo follow-up: 881

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

BBOFT [Netherlands]

Vlasblom et al. (2020)

Cluster RCT

Evaluate effectiveness of BBOFT+ program on child BMI, health behavior, and parenting behavior

Inclusion: Parents of children belonging to the youth health care organization; internet literacy

Parents were informed about the study during regular home visit of youth health care team nurse 2 wks after their baby was born

SES: NR [83% employed]

Education level: 53% (control) and 46% (intervention) “high” education level

Race: NR

Ethnicity: 80% Dutch (control) and 86% Dutch (intervention) 82% Dutch (total)

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: 31 years (both control and intervention)

50 youth health care organizations (7,985 parents) were invited to participate

10 organizations (3,003 parents) participated (51 YHC teams, each serves one or more municipalities of the region)

17 teams BBOFT+

Baseline: 1,008

6 mo: 687

14 mo: 680

36 mo: 663

17 teams eHealth

17 teams

Baseline: 1,094

6 mo: 834

14 mo: 821

36 mon: 766

van Grieken et al. (2017)

Cluster RCT

Evaluate Ehealth4Uth Healthy Toddler, an intervention educating parents of children 18–24 mo regarding health-related behaviors, as compared with usual care

Exclusion: Parents unable to read the Dutch language

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

Starting Early Program [United States]

Messito et al. (2020)

RCT

Determine impact of child obesity prevention intervention on maternal infant feeding practices, knowledge, and styles at 10 mo in low-income Hispanic families

Inclusion: Pregnant, Hispanic women ≥18 yrs, English/Spanish speaking, singleton uncomplicated pregnancy, intended to receive pediatric care at the study sites Women with diabetes, depression, or intrauterine growth restriction were not excluded

Exclusion: women with severe medical or psychiatric illness (e.g.,

Pregnant women who intended to receive pediatric care at the study sites Interested women were informed about the study, consented, and randomized at 32 wks of gestation

SES: NR

Education level: 31% (control) and 38% (intervention) had less than high school education

Race: NR

Ethnicity: 100%

Hispanic Language spoken: English and Spanish(percentage not specified)

Maternal age: 29 yrs (both intervention and control groups)

Approached: 1,263

Eligible: 933

Enrolled: 533

Completed: 412

Baseline: 266

End: 202
Note: the low-income urban site was in this group

Baseline: 267

End: 210

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
sickle cell disease or psychosis) or fetal anomalies (e.g., chromosomal disorders)

— [Israel]

Globus et al. (2019)

Non-RCT

Examine if professional, behavioral, and nutritional training for first-time mothers can improve feeding interaction at age 12 mo

Inclusion: NR

Exclusion: Mother’s self-reported history of present/past mental illness (e.g., schizophrenia, eating disorders) and infants’ special nutritional needs (e.g., milk allergy, celiac disease)

Recruitment was performed using 2 advertisements: the first for group training for mothers of infants aged 4–6 mo (intervention) and the second for mealtime videotaping of infants aged 11 mo who received standard support through well-baby clinics (control)

SES: 79% employed (proxy for SES)

Education level: 16 average yrs of education

Race: NR

Ethnicity: 85% of mothers born in Israel

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: 30 yrs (mean)

Approached: 166 dyads

Eligible: not reported

Enrolled: 128 dyads

Completed: NR

Baseline: 86

End: NR

Baseline: 42

End: NR

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

PROBIT [Italy]

Morandi et al. (2019)

RCT

Prevent overweight or obesity occurring at 2 yrs of life; improve feeding patterns during infancy

Inclusion: Healthy full-term newborns whose parents or guardians gave informed consent

Exclusion: Pre- or post-term birth or any congenital disorder, disease, or syndrome

Primary pediatricians registered in the district interested in research projects were mailed invitations to participate. Each pediatrician then selected 30 participants for enrollment from the practice.

SES: NR

Education level: NR [professional category was 4-scale of 1–9]

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Maternal age: NR

Approached: all pediatricians in Veneto region interested in research

Eligible: 22 pediatricians leading to 569 newborns

Enrolled: 562

End: 468

Baseline: 267 newborns; 11 pediatricians 1st yr well

visit: 251 2nd yr well

visit (end): 216

Baseline: 295 newborns; 11 pediatricians 1st yr well

visit: 278 2nd yr

well visit (end): 252

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

LIMIT [Australia]

Dodd et al. (2014)

RCT

To determine the effect of antenatal dietary and lifestyle interventions on health outcomes in overweight and obese pregnant women

Inclusion: Women who had a BMI ≥25 and singleton pregnancy at 10+0 to 20+0 weeks’ gestation

Exclusion: Women with Type I or II diabetes diagnosed before pregnancy

Women recruited from three major metro maternity hospitals within Adelaide, South AU. Each participant provided written informed consent, and the ethics committee at each collaborating hospital approved the protocol.

SES: (reported mean or median) 30.8% in most disadvantaged group (using a socioeconomic disadvantage index of 1‒5 categories where 1 is most disadvantaged and 5 is least)

Education level: (% < high school?) not reported

Race: (% Black) not reported

Ethnicity: (2.7% Asian, 3.4% Other 3.4% Indian) H/Lat. not reported

Language: % speaking English, % Spanish not reported

Maternal age: 29.4 years (mean)

Approached: NR

Eligible: 5,474 women

Enrolled: 2,212

Successfully completed: NR

Baseline: 1,018 women and 1,075 liveborn infants

End: 985 women and 1,070 infants (numbers derived from dropout values given)

Follow-up: NR

Baseline: 1,104 women and 1,067 liveborn infants

End: 1,077 women and 1,065 infants (numbers derived from dropout values given)

Follow-up: NR

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

LIMIT [Australia]

Dodd et al. (2018)

RCT

Evaluate the effect of an antenatal dietary and lifestyle intervention in pregnant women who are overweight or obese on child outcomes at age 18 mo

Inclusion: Women who had a BMI ≥25 and singleton pregnancy at 10+0 to 20+0 weeks’ gestation

Exclusion: Women with Type I or II diabetes diagnosed before pregnancy

Women recruited from three major metro maternity hospitals within Adelaide, South AU. Each participant provided written informed consent, and the ethics committee at each collaborating hospital approved the protocol

SES: (reported mean or median) NR

Education level: (% < high school) NR

Race: (% Black) NR

Ethnicity: 2.9% Asian, 2.6% Other, 3.8% Indian

Language: % speaking English, % Spanish NR

Maternal age: 30 yrs (mean)

Approached: NR

Eligible: 5,530 women

Enrolled: 2,212 women

Successfully completed: 1,602 parents and infants eligible for follow-up and completed consent

Baseline: 1,108

End: NR

Follow-up: 816 children assessed at 18 months

Baseline: 1,104

End: NR

Follow-up: 786 children assessed at 18 months

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

Grow2 Gether [United States]

Fiks et al. (2017)

RCT

Block allocation

Test a Facebook peer-group intervention for low-income mothers to foster behaviors promoting healthy infant growth and preventing obesity

Inclusion: Women whose pre-pregnancy BMI >25 kg/m2) and were Medicaid insured; >18 yrs old and English speaking; singleton pregnancy between 20–32 wks at the time of enrollment, owned a smartphone with a data plan

Exclusion: Women with a major mental illness (e.g., schizophrenia) or other severe morbidity (e.g., renal failure)

Mothers recruited from two high-volume obstetric clinics

SES: 78% annual household income <$15,000; 45% employed

Education level: 51% high school graduates

Race: 88% Black

Ethnicity: 2% Latina, 7% Asian or American Indian

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: 27 yrs

Approached: 319

Eligible: 115

Enrolled: 111

Completed run-in period and were randomized: 87

Completed: 85

Baseline: 43

End: 43

6 mo follow-up: 43

9 mo follow-up: 34

Baseline: 44

End: 42

6 mo follow-up: 42

9 mo follow-up: 37

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group
NOURISH [Australia]

Magarey et al. (2016)

Multicenter RCT stratified by clinic

Evaluate dietary intake impact outcomes up to 3.5 yrs after the NOURISH early feeding intervention

Inclusion: healthy term infants (>35 wks, >2,500 g). Infants must be firstborn, parents at least 18 yrs of age, willing and able to attend sessions at designated metropolitan child health clinics, and have ability to write and speak English. Low stress (maternal score on the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale, K10, below 30)

Healthy new-borns/caregivers were recruited while still in the maternity hospitals. When the infants were 4–6 mo of age, caregivers were recontacted by mail for full enrollment.

SES: SEIFA 33

Education level: 58% university degree

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Maternal age at delivery: 30 yrs

Approached: 4,376

Eligible: 3,334

Enrolled: 698

Completed: NR (598 at the start of follow-up)

Baseline: 352

End: NR

18 mo after baseline: 260

5 yr follow-up: 213

Baseline: 346

End: NR

18 mo after baseline: 281

5 yr follow-up: 211

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

Exclusion: Clinical range score on the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale (K10) below 30; if the infant has any diagnosed congenital abnormality or chronic condition likely to influence normal development (including feeding behavior) or the mother has a documented history of domestic violence or intravenous substance abuse or self-reported eating disorders, psychiatric disorders or mental health problems

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

Daniels et al. (2015)

Multicenter RCT stratified by clinic

Report long-term outcomes of intervention effects on maternal feeding practices and child anthropometric indicators of obesity risk across 4 outcome assessment points (14 months and 2, 3.5, and 5 years of age) of the NOURISH RCT, which evaluated a universal intervention to provide anticipatory guidance to first-time

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
mothers on “protective” complementary feeding practices to reduce childhood obesity risk

Daniels et al. (2014)

Multicenter RCT stratified by clinic

Describe parent-reported child eating behavior and maternal parenting impact outcomes of an infant feeding intervention to reduce child obesity risk

Daniels et al. (2013)

Multicenter RCT stratified by clinic

Evaluate outcomes of a universal intervention to promote protective feeding practices that commenced in infancy and aimed to prevent childhood obesity

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

Daniels et al. (2012)

Multicenter RCT stratified by clinic

Evaluate a universal obesity prevention intervention, which commenced at infant age 4–6 mo, using outcome data assessed 6 mo after completion of the first of two intervention modules and 9 mo from baseline

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

Growing Leaps and Bounds [United States]

Schroeder et al. (2015)

Cluster-stratified RCT

A pediatric office-based intervention was implemented following a randomized, controlled design, aimed at improving child feeding practices and growth patterns and ultimately reducing risk for overweight and obesity later in life

Inclusion: all healthy newborns with ≥2,000 g body weight and who were not requiring specialized medical or nutritional care and discharged home within 5 days after birth

Exclusion: NR

Four Johns Hopkins Community Physicians centers were randomized to control (n = 2) or intervention (n = 2); two urban sites and 2 suburban sites; one of the urban sites was low income

SES: NR

Education level: NR

Race: 48% Black, 35% White

Ethnicity: 2% Hispanic, 2% Asian, 6%, other

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: NR

Intervention group had higher number of African American caregivers, higher unemployment rate, lower household income, lower completed education level, and less home ownership than the control group

Approached: NR

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 292

Completed: 232

Baseline: 134

End: 112

Baseline: 144

End: 110

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

— [United Kingdom, Greece, Portugal]

Fildes et al. (2015)

Individually randomized, parallel group study design

Explore the impact of advising parents to introduce a variety of single vegetables as first foods on infants’ subsequent acceptance of a novel vegetable

Inclusion: 18 yrs old at recruitment; sufficiently proficient in each country’s respective native language to understand the study materials; infant was born after 37 wks gestation, without diagnosed feeding problems

Exclusion: NR

Women in the final trimester of pregnancy and mothers of infants aged <6 mo were recruited from antenatal clinics, primary care, pediatricians, and hospitals in London (UK), Athens (Greece), and Porto (Portugal); consent forms and baseline questionnaire were sent to women who wanted to participate; a subsample of interested women was taken to participate in the trial

SES: (reported mean or median) NR

Education level: (% < high school) (Intervention—27%) and (Control—29%) below university level

Race: NR

Language spoken: NR (all mothers speak in native language of their respective country)

Maternal age at birth: 33 yrs

Approached: NR

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 146 families

Successfully completed: 139 families

Baseline: 75

End: NR

Follow-up: 71

Baseline: 71

End: NR

Follow-up: 68

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

— [United States]

French et al. (2012)

3-arm cluster RCT

Evaluate the effect of 2 anticipatory guidance styles (maternal focused [MOMS] and infant focused [Ounce of Prevention]) directed at mothers of infants aged newborn to 6 mo on their infant feeding behaviors at 1 yr compared with routine advice as outlined in Bright Futures (BF)

Inclusion: English-speaking mother, healthy full-term infant, lives with biological mother, and infant aged 2 mo or younger

Exclusion: History of NICU stay, gestation less than 37 wks, chronic disease, foster placement, or known genetic disorder

Potential participants were identified by screening clinic schedules for infants 2 mo of age or younger and by screening of waiting families by research staff; then, research staff obtained written informed consent and described the study in depth

Reporting by trial arm (BF, MOMS, OP)

SES: NR

Education level: 19%/36%/34% < high school

Race: 61%/ 20%/74% Black; 24%/66%/21% White

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: 24/23/23 yrs (mean)

Approached: 11 clinics

Eligible: 3 clinics

Enrolled: 292 mother–infant dyads

Successfully completed: 57%

Intervention Group 1 (1 clinic)

Baseline: MOMS-101; OP- 1,010 participants

End: 64

Follow-up: NR

Intervention Group 2 (1 clinic)

Baseline: 101 participants

End: 61

Follow-up: NR

(1 clinic)

Baseline: 104 participants

End: 66

Follow-up: NR

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

First Steps for Mommy and Me [United States]

Taveras et al. (2011)

Non-randomized controlled pilot trial clusters

Assess the feasibility of a pediatric primary care based intervention to promote healthful behaviors among 0–6 mo old infants and their mothers

Inclusion: Mother–infant pairs who received their pediatric care at the 3 primary care offices between January and June 2008. All infants aged 0–1 mo. old with a mother who could respond to interviews and questionnaires in English with all infants receiving pediatric care at the 3 primary care offices

Exclusion: Any infant whose mother would not be able to

Mothers were mailed a letter introducing and encouraging study participation with an opt-out option. They telephoned those mothers who did not refuse additional contact within 5 days of mailing the letter.

SES: Education level (college graduate): 93%

Race/Ethnicity: only reported 74% White

Language spoken: 100% English (as inclusion requirement)

Maternal age: 33 yrs (mean)

Approached (pre-eligible): 160

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 84

Completed (At follow-up): 80

Baseline: 60

End (At follow-up): 58

Baseline: 24

End (at follow-up): 22

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
follow study procedures for 6 mo; families who planned to leave Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates (HVMA) during the study; infants or mothers with severe health conditions

TARGet Kids! [Canada]

Maguire et al. (2010)

Pragmatic RCT

Determine whether an office-based, educational intervention for parents of 9-mo-old children could reduce bottle use and iron depletion at 2 yrs of age

Inclusion: Parents of healthy infants 9 mo. of age who were attending a routine, 9-mo health maintenance visit with their primary care pediatrician

Parents of ~9 mo old infants attending routine health maintenance visit were approached for participation from a 3-phy-sician (Drs Jacobson, Peer, and Taylor),

Reporting by Intervention%/ Control %

SES: NR

Education level: 86%/89% college education

Race: 5%/5% Black; 71%/70% White

Ethnicity: 9%/15% Asian; 14%/11%

Approached: 301

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 251

Completed: NR

Baseline: 129

End: NR

Follow-up (2 years): 102

Baseline: 122

End: NR

Follow-up (2 years): 99

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group
Exclusion: Children with birth weights of 2 kg or less, a chronic illness other than asthma, had previously diagnosed anemia, or were currently receiving iron supplements community-based, pediatric group practice located in Toronto, Canada. Hispanic

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: NR

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

— [United States]

Sanghavi (2005)

Experimental study

Design a waiting room educational kiosk that uses interactive, self-guided, computerized tutorials to give anticipatory guidance to parents at the 6-wk and 4-mo well-child visits, and assess impact on parent knowledge

Inclusion: NR

Exclusion: Parents of 4-mo-old infants who had previously completed the questionnaire at the 6-wk visit during the control period were excluded from analysis

Study population consisted of parents of children receiving healthy well-child visits at 6 wks and 4 mo of age at the Gallup Indian Medical Center in Gallup, NM No info given on consent or recruiting strategy

Reporting by intervention/control group

SES: (reported mean or median) NR

Education level: (83%/79% high school diploma)

Race: (% Black) NR

Ethnicity: (% Asian, % Hispanic/Latino, % Indigenous) NR

Language: (% speaking English, % Spanish) NR

Maternal age: 27/28 yrs (mean)

Approached: NR

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 101 parents

Successfully completed: NR

Baseline: 49 parents

End: NR

Follow-up: NR

Baseline: 52 parents

End: NR

Follow-up: NR

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

ECE

EniM [Spain]

Roset-Salla et al. (2016)

RCT

Evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program on healthy alimentation, carried out in day-care centers and aimed at the parents of children from 1 to 2 yrs of age, regarding the acquisition of healthy eating habits among themselves and their children

Inclusion: Children 1–2 yrs of age, other factors not reported

Exclusion: Children still exclusively breastfeeding or whose parents were not responsible for their alimentation, children with special diets due to chronic diseases (such as celiac disease, food intolerances or allergies, inflammatory bowel disease), parents with language difficulties, parents unable to attend

All parents at the participating day care centers were invited to information meetings with pamphlets and posters. No details given on how day care centers were recruited.

SES: NR

Education level: 55% University education

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: NR (but primarily Spanish)

Maternal age: 35 yrs (for both parents combined)

Approached/potential sample: 581 children

Eligible: 206 children and 195 parents

Enrolled: 149 children and 139 parents

Successfully completed: NR

Baseline: 111 children and 103 parents

End: 75 children and 67 parents

Follow-up: NR

Baseline: 81 children and 78 parents

End: 74 children and 72 parents

Follow-up: NR

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
the educational workshops, and those who did not sign the informed consent.

— [United Kingdom]

Ahern et al. (2014)

Within subjects design

Investigate the effectiveness of flavor–flavor learning as a strategy for increasing vegetable intake in preschool children.

Inclusion: Children who attended nursery for at least 2 days per wk

Exclusion: NR

Parents of pre-school children aged 12‒60 mo through local day care nurseries via email or telephone, and managers were given study instructions. 42 children aged 15–56 mo were recruited from the 3 participating nurseries.

SES: NR

Education level: NR

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: NR

Approached: 15 nurseries

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 4

Successfully completed: 3

Baseline: 42 children

End: 29

1 month follow up: 28

6 month follow up: 10

N/A

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

— [Belgium]

Verbestel et al. (2014)

Cluster RCT

Evaluate the effects of a 1-yr family-based healthy lifestyle intervention implemented through day-care centers on toddlers’ BMI z-scores and reported activity and dietary-related behaviors

Inclusion: Belgian toddlers aged 9-24 mo in child care centers located in low-SES and medium-SES communities

Exclusion: Children classified as underweight or obese using BMI z-scores

Six communities chosen and measured ordinally by SES status resulting in recruiting 2 child care centers per SES status Parents were invited to enroll their child into the study with completed informed consent

Values reported for children

SES: 17% low SES

Education level: NR

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language: NR

Maternal age: NR

Approached/potential sample: 404 children, 137 day cares

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 203 children, 70 day care centers

Successfully completed: 191 children (included in analyses)

Follow-up (12 months): 156 children

Baseline: NR

End: 126 children

Follow-up: 100 children

Baseline: NR

End: 65 children

Follow-up: 56 children

— [United Kingdom]

Caton et al. (2013)

Within-subject design

Compare the effectiveness of different learning strategies in promoting the intake of a novel vegetable

Inclusion: NR

Exclusion: children with food allergies and older than 40 mo of age

Parents of children aged 6-36 mo were invited to participate. Recruited from private day care nurseries;

SES: NR

Education level: NR

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: NR

Approached: 26 nurseries; 108 children

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 10 nurseries

Successfully completed: 6 nurseries; 72 children

Baseline: 72

End: 72 children

Follow up: 45 Within-subject design does not give comparator group

N/A

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
nursery managers were given details on study and, if interested, distributed participant info sheets and consent forms to parents

— [United States]

Clark et al. (2009)

Experimental Design

Determine child care providers’ infant feeding knowledge, attitude, and behavior changes after viewing the infant feeding website. Determine the effectiveness of the website and bilingual educational materials

Inclusion: NR

Exclusion: NR

Called and mailed postcards to child care centers with consent for each phase of the intervention Instructions mailed to participants on how to access and take the online survey

Reported by Intervention/Control

SES: NR

Education level: NR

Race: 4%/13% Black; 83%/74% White

Ethnicity: 4%/0% Asian, 9%/13% Hispanic/Latino, 0%/0% American Indian

Language: 100% English; 0% Spanish

Maternal age: 21–29: 35%/20% 30–39: 26%/27% 40–49: 26%/20% 50 or older: 13%/33%

Approached: NR

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 48 (child care providers)

Successfully completed: 38

Baseline: 23

End: 8 total were lost between the I and C groups

(does not specify how many from each group)

Follow-up: 6

Baseline: 15

End: 8 total were lost between the I and C groups

(does not specify how many from each group)

Follow-up: 9

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

Cooperative Extension

NEAT [United States]

Horodynski and Stommel (2005)

Quasi-experiment

Assess the effectiveness of an intervention, Nutrition Education Aimed at Toddlers (NEAT), aimed at enhancing parent–toddler feeding practices

Inclusion: (1) “low income” defined as family/household income at or below 100% of the Poverty Index, and (2) toddlers between the ages of 11 and 25 mo at the time of intake into the study

Exclusion: Caregivers with toddlers who already had diagnosed eating problem and non-English speaking families

Caregivers with children enrolled in Early Head Start programs were contacted by Early Head Start staff

SES: 66% caregivers not employed, all low-income to be eligible for Early Head Start

Education level: 24% < high school

Race: 84% White

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: mean age 26 yrs

Approached: NR

Eligible and enrolled: 135

Completed: 96

Baseline: 62

End: 43

Baseline: 73

End: 53

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

WIC

SMS Intervention [United States]

Macchi et al. (2022)

Multisite RCT—pilot

Test the effect of a weekly text message (SMS) intervention for improving feeding practices on infant intake of energy, nutrients, and specific food groups

Inclusion: Caregiver age 18 yrs and older, owner of a mobile phone with unrestricted SMS capability, responsible for infant care, and willing to participate for the full study duration

Exclusion: Infants with special diets, infants with limited mobility, pre-term birth (<37 wks), small or large for gestational age (birthweight <10th or >90th percentile), inability to consent to participate, unwillingness to be randomized, and not being able to read

Caregivers participating in WIC program in Puerto Rico (2) and Hawai’i (4) were recruited

Reported by Intervention/Control

SES: NR

Education level: 29%/38% college or higher

Race: 4%/4% Black; 10%/14% White

Ethnicity: 17%/13% Asian; 3%/2% Native Hawaiian; 5%/2% Pacific Islander; 56%/58% Hispanic; 6%/6% Mixed/Unknown

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: 26/28

Approached: NR

Eligible: 202

Enrolled: 202

Completed: 170

Gibby: final analysis 80 as only included intervention group

Baseline: 102

End: 84

Follow-up: 22% loss to follow-up overall

FFQ available for 79 dyads (Macchi)

Baseline: 100

End: 86

Follow-up: 22% loss to follow-up overall

FFQ available for 84 dyads (Macchi)

Gibby et al. (2019)

Multisite RCT—pilot

Investigated the acceptability of a text message-based intervention for prevention of excessive weight gain in infants from Hawai‘i and Puerto Rico WIC clinics

Palacios et al. (2018)

Multi-site RCT—pilot

Test the effect of weekly SMS for improving infant feeding practices and infant weight

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

— [United States]

Scheinmann et al. (2010)

Quasi-experimental design

Encourage breastfeeding, the delay of feeding complementary foods until 6 mo of age, and increase maternal knowledge of appropriate infant feeding practices

Inclusion: Self-identification as Latina; speaking English and/or Spanish; 18 yrs of age or older; singleton infant <5 mo old enrolled in WIC; and agreeing to be contacted by telephone 3 and 6 mo after the baseline interview

Exclusion: Mothers of non-singleton children, and infants who had been born prematurely or at low or very low birth weight. In analysis

Women were recruited from the Public Health Solutions Neighborhood WIC program in NYC

Women in the intervention group were recruited from the waiting room of the WIC center and control group from three other WIC centers

Intervention group/comparator group

SES: Majority not working (84%) and either living with parent or spouse (73%)

Education level: 50% < high school

Race: NR

Ethnicity: 100% Latina

Language spoken: 70% only Spanish 30% English and Spanish 2% Only English

Maternal age: 18–24: 25% 25–29: 35% 30–34: 23% 35+: 17%

Approached: NR

Number Eligible: NR [does say 13 eligible women refused to participate]

Enrolled: 439

Completed: 339

Kept in analysis: 272

(Excluded U.S.-born women because of disproportionately large number of U.S.-born women in the intervention group).

Combined baseline: 439 enrolled

Combined 3-mo follow-up: 368 (84%)

Combined 6-mo follow-up: 339 (77%)

Analysis limited to 143 women in the intervention group who completed all visits.

Combined Baseline: 439 enrolled

Combined 3-mo follow-up: 368 (84%)

Combined 6-mo follow-up: 339 (77%)

Analysis limited to 129 women in the intervention group who completed all visits.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
phase excluded U.S.-born women as overrepresented in intervention group
Home Visit

Sleep SAAF [United States]

Hernandez et al. (2022)

RCT

This secondary analysis of data from the Sleep SAAF (Strong African American Families) RCT tests the effects of a responsive parenting intervention designed to prevent rapid infant weight gain on African American mothers’ infant feeding practices

Inclusion: Primiparous mothers ≥17 yrs that self-identified as African American/Black, full-term (≥37 wks) singleton pregnancy, English speaking, lived within ≤75 miles of Augusta, GA, and had an infant ≥2,500 g at birth

Mother–infant dyads were recruited shortly after delivery (infant mean age = 1.5 days at enrollment) from the mother/infant nursery at Augusta University Medical Center

SES: 47% participated in SNAP and 76% in WIC

Education level: 60% some or completed high school

Race: 100% Black

Ethnicity: 99% non-Hispanic

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: Intervention: 24 years;

Control: 22 years

Approached: NR

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: NR Randomized: 212

Completed: 194

Baseline: 96

Follow-up: NR

Baseline: 94

Follow-up: NR

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group
Exclusion: Known medical condition that could affect postnatal care (e.g., major mental illness, substance use disorder), medical condition that would affect feeding or growth (e.g., cleft palate), if there was an adoption plan in place, or if there was a plan to move out of the area within 4 mo of delivery
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
INSIGHT [United States]

Harris et al. (2020)

RCT

Examine the effect of a responsive parenting intervention on mother-reported child emotional overeating, explore whether effects are mediated by mother-reported use of food to soothe child distress.

Inclusion: Primiparous mothers with healthy, term, singleton newborns; English-speaking (Harris); ≥20 yrs of age (Harris).

Exclusion: If there was a plan for the newborn to be adopted or move from Central Pennsylvania within 3 yrs, if a prenatal ultrasound demonstrated evidence of intrauterine growth retardation, if the newborn’s birth weight was <2500 grams, or if either the mother or newborn had significant health issues that would affect study participation

Reported as Intervention/Control

SES: income of $50,000 or more: 90%/75%

Education level: college or higher degree: 72%/84%

Race: 93%/96% White

Ethnicity: 3%/2% Hispanic

Language spoken: 100% English speaking

Maternal age: 29/30

Screened: 3,276

Enrolled: 316

Randomized: 291

Completed: 279 (completed 3–4 week visit)

12-mo. follow-up: 250

2-yr follow-up: 243

Baseline: 145

End (completed 1-year visit): 125

Harris n = 105 individuals

Baseline: 146

End (completed 1-year visit): 125

Harris n = 102 individuals

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

Hohman et al. (2020) (SIBSIGHT study)

RCT

Examine birth-order differences in dietary intake between firstborn (FB) and second born (SB) siblings; determine whether a responsive parenting (RP) intervention modified birth-order effects on diet

Reported as intervention FB/SB; control FB/SB

SES: income of $50,000 or more 89%/89%; 77%/83%

Education: College grad 75%/75%; 77%/77%

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Maternal age: 30/32; 28/31

Screened: 138

Enrolled: 117

Completed 1-yr clinic visit: 117

Sibling pairs

6 mon = 97

12 mon = 100

Firstborn-RP

Baseline: 57

End:NR

Secondborn siblings of RP group

Baseline: 57

End: NR

At 12 months: 48 total for both RP groups

Firstborn control group

Baseline: 60

End:NR

Secondborn siblings of control group

Baseline: 60

End: NR

At 12 months: 52 total for both control groups

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

Savage et al. (2018)

RCT

Examine the effect of a responsive parenting (RP) intervention designed for obesity prevention on parents’ infant feeding practices in the first yr after birth

Reported as Intervention/Control

SES: Reporting annual household incomes above $75,000 50%/50%

Education: college and postgrad 62%/63%

Race: Black 7%/5% White 87%/91%

Ethnicity: NH/PI 0.7%/0%

Asian: 4%/3%

Other: 1.4%/0.7%

Hispanic/Latino 9%/5%

Maternal age: 29/29 years

Approached: NR

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 279

Completed at 52 weeks: 253

Baseline: 140

End: NR

Baseline: 139

End: NR

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

Hohman et al. (2017)

RCT

Determine whether a responsive parenting (RP) intervention affects infant dietary patterns

Reported as Intervention/Control

SES: $50,000 annual household income or above 83%/68%

Education: college and postgrad 66%/65%

Race: Black 5.4%/4.6%

White 89.2%/92.3%

Ethnicity: NH/PI 0.8%/0%

Asian 3.1%/3.1%

Other 1.6%/0%

Hispanic 7%/6%

Maternal age 29/29 years

Baseline: 145

End (completed 1-yr visit): 125

Final analysis: 129

Baseline: 146

End (completed 1-yr visit): 125

Final analysis: 130

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

Savage et al. (2016)

RCT

Examine the effect of a responsive parenting (RP) intervention on infant weight gain between birth and 28 wks and overweight status at age 1 yr

SES: 72% fully employed

Education: NR

Race: Non-Hispanic 93%

White 88%

Ethnicity: NR

Maternal age: NR

Approached with written consent: 316

Randomized: 291

Completed first visit: 279

Completed at 52 weeks: 253

Baseline: NR

End: NR

Baseline: NR

End: NR

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

Baby’s First Bites [Netherlands]

Van Vliet et al. (2022)

RCT

Determine the effect of (1) promoting repeated exposure to a variety of vegetables, (2) promoting responding sensitively to child signals during mealtime, or (3) the combination of promotions on vegetable consumption and self-regulation of energy intake. Secondary outcomes were child anthro-pometrics and maternal feeding practices

Inclusion: First-time mothers; healthy term infants (37–42 wks); planning to start complementary feeding at child age of 4–6 mo; sufficient knowledge of the Dutch language.

Exclusion: Families that already started and mothers with major psychiatric diagnosis were excluded.

Emails sent to mothers with information about the study and a link to the study website; mothers that were emailed signed up for the “Nutricia for parents” group or ordered a gift box containing baby merchandise from “WIJ Special Media”

SES: NR

Education level: 47% master’s degree

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: 100% Dutch

Maternal age: 31 yrs

Contacted: 5,565

Approached: NR

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 243

Completed: 217

Baseline: RVE group (n = 60), VIPP-FI (n = 60), Combination (n = 60)

Follow-up: RVE group 61% VIPP-FI 62% Combination 60%

Baseline: n = 60

Follow-up: 63%

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

Family Spirit Nurture [United States]

Rosenstock et al. (2021)

RCT

Assess the impact of a brief home-visiting approach on sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, responsive parenting, and infant feeding practices, and optimal growth through 12 mo postpartum

Inclusion: Maternal age 13 yrs or older, self-reported race/ethnicity, mother to an infant <14 wks, and residence within 50 miles of the Northern Navajo Medical Center, located in Shiprock, New Mexico

Exclusion: Unable to fully participate or were unwilling to undergo randomization

Mothers were recruited from the local pediatric clinic and WIC program as well as word of mouth

SES: 84% not employed, 69% received help with groceries, 55% receiving SNAP or EBT, 45% receive WIC, 2% receive TANF, 55% report one or more financial hardships, 35% water insecure, 23% low or and very low food security

Education level: 50% completed education beyond high school

Race/ethnicity: 100% Navajo

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: 27 yrs

Assessed for Eligibility: 369

Eligible: 151

Enrolled: 134

Completed: NR

Follow up at 12 months: 123

Baseline: 68

End: NR

Completed at least one follow-up: 66

Baseline: 66

End: NR

Completed at least one follow-up: 63

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

Delta Healthy Sprouts [United States]

Tussing-Humphreys et al. (2019)

Two-arm parallel RCT

Determine the comparative impact of the standard Parents as Teachers (PAT) to the nutrition and physical activity enhanced version (PATE) of the perinatal educational curriculum on compliance with infant feeding recommendations and changes in maternal infant feeding knowledge and beliefs

Inclusion: at least 18 yrs of age; <19 wks pregnant with first, second, or third child; singleton pregnancy; and resident of Washington, Bolivar, or Humphreys County in Mississippi

Exclusion: NR

Recruitment occurred via passive (flyers/brochures) and active (study staff onsite) methods at local health clinics and health fairs; women were also referred by clinic staff, WIC nutritionists, social services, and other participants

PATE/PAT Group

SES: 30%/40% unemployed, 63%/87% receiving SNAP, 83%/93% receiving WIC

Education level: 50%/40% high school or less

Race: African American 96%/97%

White 4%/3%

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: 24 yrs

Approached: 193

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 105

Completed: NR

Completed Follow-up: PATE group 21; PAT group 25

PATE ARM PAT ARM Baseline: n = 39

End:26

PATE Control PAT Control Baseline: 43

End: 33

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

— [United States]

LoRe et al. (2019)

Matched-pair RCT

Determine the efficacy of an interactive, home visiting curriculum tailored to low-socioeconomic status families in improving parental knowledge of pediatric nutrition and healthy lifestyle

Inclusion: Parents at least 18 yrs old, have a child aged 13–16 mo without significant cognitive or physical impairments, and have a household income level below 200% of the federal poverty line

Exclusion: Parents with a graduate or professional degree, did not have legal custody or lived with child, or did not spend at least 2 full days per wk with child

Participants were recruited through postings at day care centers, libraries, health clinics, local stores, public transportation, and community organizations serving low-income populations

Intervention/Control

SES: all low-income (<200% of federal poverty line), >80% on WIC or LINK (not defined) 51%/47% employed

Education level: 73%/78% less than associates degree

Race: African American: 86%/82% non-Hispanic

White: 4%/4%

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: 29 yrs (both groups)

Approached: NR

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 104

Completed: NR

Baseline: 55

Baseline: 49

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

ECHO [United States]

Cloutier et al. (2018)

RCT

Test the feasibility of an ecologic approach to obesity prevention in children in the first yr of life

Inclusion: Enrollment in Nurturing Families Network (NFN), English or Spanish-speaking, singleton birth >34 wks, no chronic conditions that could affect growth or development of the infant and residence in a BFF Center neighborhood at infant’s birth

Exclusion: Infants with major

Mother–newborn dyads were recruited from one of six low-income neighborhoods in Hartford, CT, served by a Brighter Future Family (BFF) Center linked to the NFN home visiting program. BFF centers were paired by SES and racial/ethnic composition and were randomly assigned to conduct either the standard NFN home visiting

SES: 30% of participating neighborhoods had high poverty; 43% earned less than $15,000/year; 12% unemployed

Education level: 40% < high school

Race: 19% African American/Black

Ethnicity: 60% Hispanic/Latino, 19% other, 2% unknown

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: 23 yrs

Approached: 117 mothers (screened)

Eligible: 49 dyads

Enrolled: 47 dyads

Successfully completed: 34 assessed at 12 mo

Baseline: 26

End: 22

Follow-up: NR

Baseline: 21

End: 12

Follow-up: NR

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
malformations, admission to the NICU or a prolonged hospital stay or infants who were SGA and required special or supplemental nutrition program or the intervention NFN home visiting program

BLISS [New Zealand]

Morison et al. (2018)

2-arm RCT

Determine whether food variety and perceived food preferences differ in infants following baby-led instead of traditional spoon-feeding approaches to introducing solids

Inclusion: Book into the birthing unit at Queen Mary Maternity Hospital <34 wks gestation; speak English or Te Reo Māori; plan to live in the Dunedin, New Zealand,

All pregnant women booked in the Dunedin hospital were invited to participate

Reported by Intervention/Control

SES: NR

Education level: 45%/53% university

Race: NR

Ethnicity: 79%/84% New Zealand European, 14%/10% Maori or Pacific, 7%/6% Asian

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: 31 yrs (both groups)

Approached: 1,900

Potentially Eligible: 1,061

Eligible: 214

Enrolled: 206

Completed: 166

Baseline: 105

End (24 mo): 88

Baseline: 101

End (24 mo): 78

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

Williams Erickson et al. (2018)

2-arm RCT

Determine the impact of modified BLW (i.e., Baby-Led Introduction to Solids; BLISS) on food and nutrient intake at 7–24 mo of age

area until their child is at least 2 yrs; and is 16 yrs of age or older

Exclusion: Not living locally, mother ≤16 years, booked after 34 wks gestation; congenital abnormality, physical condition, or intellectual disability, likely to affect feeding or growth is identified

Taylor et al. (2017)

2-arm RCT

Determine whether a baby-led approach to complementary feeding results in a lower body mass index than traditional spoon-feeding

POI [New Zealand]

Fangupo et al. (2015)

RCT

Assess the effect of prevention strategy interventions from 0 to 18 mo of age on

Inclusion: Women >15 yrs; are booked into the birthing unit at Queen Mary

Women booking into the Queen Mary Maternity Unit were eligible to

FAB + Combo/ Sleep + UC/ Sleep + Combo/ FAB + UC groups: 38%/36%/36% /38%

Assessed for eligibility: 2,946

Eligible: 1,458

Enrolled: 802 families 666 completed

FAB Baseline: 205

End: 171

Combo Baseline: 196

Baseline: 209

End: 182

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
food and nutrient intake, eating behaviors, and parental feeding practices in 18- to 24-mo-old children Maternity Unit, Dunedin Hospital, or are notified by their home birth LMC, < 34 wks gestation; are able to communicate in English or Te Reo Māori (Māori language); and are not planning to leave the local area prior to their child’s second birthday

Exclusion: Babies born before 36.5 wks, or if a congenital abnormality or a physical or intellectual disability likely to affect feeding, physical activity, or growth is identified

participate; families were enrolled by research nurses

SES (New Zealand Deprivation Index Score): 38%/36%/36% /38% low

Education level: 67%/64%/64% /67% university degree or higher

Race: NR

Ethnicity: 80%/77%/78% /79% New Zealand European; all groups 8% Maori; 10%/12%/11% /11% other

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: All groups 32 yrs

End: 154

Sleep Baseline: 192

End: 159

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

— [France]

Remy et al. (2013)

Experimental design

Compare learning mechanisms to increase vegetable acceptance in infants at complementary feeding, namely repeated exposure (RE), flavor–flavor learning (FFL), and flavor–nutrient learning (FNL); measure the stability of the learning effect; and examine the impact of infant’s feeding history on vegetable acceptance

Inclusion: Age between 4 and 8 mo, introduction of complementary foods was started at >2 wk and <2 mo before the start of the study, no health problems or food allergies at the beginning of the study, and gestational age of 36 wks or more

Exclusion: NR

Parents were recruited by leaflets or posters distributed in health professionals consulting rooms, pharmacies, and day-care centers

SES: NR

Education level: NR

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: NR

Approached: 123

Eligible: 100

Enrolled: NR

Completed: 95

FFL: Baseline: NR

End: 31

2-wk follow-up: 31

3-mo follow-up: 30

6-mo follow-up: 30

FNL Baseline: NR

End: 32

2-wk follow-up: 32

3-mo follow-up: 31

6-mo follow-up: 30

RE Baseline: NR

End: 32

2-wk follow-up,

3-mo follow-up,

6-mo follow-up: all 32

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

— [Australia]

Wen et al. (2011)

RCT

Assess the effectiveness of a home-based early intervention on infant feeding practices and “tummy time” for infants in the first yr of life

Inclusion: Women aged ≥16, expecting their first child, between 24–34 wks of pregnancy, able to communicate in English, and lived in the local area

Exclusion: Women with a severe medical condition as evaluated by their physician

Pregnant women were approached by nurses at antenatal clinics of Liverpool and Campbelltown Hospitals

Reported by intervention/control

SES: 23%/19% unemployed

Education level: 54%/56% completed HSC to TAFE certificate or diploma

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language: 90%/88% speaking English, other 10%/12%

Maternal age: 76%/76% < 30 yrs

Approached/potential sample: 2,700 women (assessed for eligibility)

Eligible: 780

Enrolled: 667 women

Successfully completed (at the 12-mo mark): 527 women

Baseline: 337

End: NR 6-mo

Follow-up: 278

12-mo follow up: 268

Baseline: 330

End: NR

6-mo follow-up: 283

12-mo follow up: 259

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

— [United Kingdom]

Watt et al. (2009)

RCT

Assess whether monthly home visits from trained volunteers could improve infant feeding practices at age 12 mo, a RCT was carried out in two disadvantaged inner city London boroughs

Inclusion: Women from Registrar General occupational classes II-V (nonprofessional); babies born ≥37 wks; birth weight >2,500 g; singletons; women able to understand English; and residents in the study area. (Eligibility was changed to all new mothers due to recruiting difficulties)

Exclusion: Women <17 yrs old; infants diagnosed with a serious

Women were recruited from baby clinics located in more disadvantaged neighborhoods across Camden and Islington where Surestart programs existed

Intervention/control

SES: 52%/51% receive income support/jobseeker’s allowance

Education level: 39%/33% left full time education (<16 years)

Race: NR

Ethnicity: 50% White

Language spoken: 100% English

Maternal age: (at child birth) 29/31 yrs

Approached: 542

Eligible: 381

Enrolled: 312

Completed: 212

Baseline: 157

End (3 mo): 133

12-mo follow-up: 115

18-mo follow-up: 104

Baseline: 155

End (3 mo): 155

12-mo follow-up: 124

18-mo follow-up: 108

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
medical condition or were on special diets; infants >12 wks; women or their partners were from social class I (professional)
Other

— [United States]

Harris et al. (2022)

RCT

Test the effects of countermarketing videos addressing common misperceptions about ingredients and claims on children’s sugary drinks

Inclusion: NR

Exclusion: NR

InnovateMR panel company recruited panel members from diverse online sources through ads on social media and special interest websites; emails were sent to eligible panel members

SES: 35% SNAP participants, 35% WIC participants (low-income)

Education level: 27% high school or less

Race: 33% Black, 46% White, 10% Asian, 8% mixed or other

Ethnicity: 26% Hispanic

Language spoken: NR

Parental age: 69% 18–34 yrs

Approached: 1,330

Eligible: 665

Enrolled: 665

Completed: 600

Baseline: 334

End: 302

Baseline: 331

End: 298

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

— [New Zealand]

Rapson et al. (2022)

RCT: parallel group study

Test whether exposure to vegetables only during the first 4 wks of complementary feeding increases later vegetable acceptance compared with a control group receiving fruit and vegetables

Inclusion: Born ≥37 wk, of normal growth/ weight, had not started complementary feeding, and had no known food allergies/medical conditions

Exclusion: Starting complementary feeding before the trial commenced, development of medical concerns (e.g., allergies, reflux), wanting to follow baby-led weaning and control over the types of first foods fed, concerns regarding heel prick, too busy

NR

SES: NR

Education level: 90% university or higher

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NZ European and other 91%; Maori and Pacific Island 6%; Other 8%

Language: NR

Maternal age: 33 yrs

Approached: 282

Eligible: 214

Enrolled: 154

Successfully completed (including follow-up): 108

Baseline: 61

End: 56

Baseline: 56

End: 52

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

— [United States]

Cauble et al. (2021)

RCT—pilot feasibility trial

Assess a prenatal behavioral lifestyle intervention (PBLI) delivered via group-based phone counseling (GBPC) and its effectiveness on rates of breastfeeding up to 6 mo postpartum, rates of early introduction of solids, and infant feeding progression

Inclusion: Pregnant 18–35 yrs olds, who were 9–30 wks in gestation with their first child or who had exclusively breastfed for less than 3 mo with a previous child

Exclusion: Pregnancies conceived using fertility treatments, those at high risk for pre-term delivery, those with multiple gestation (i.e., twins, triplets, etc.), or pregnancies complicated by morbid obesity, diabetes, hypertension, metabolic dysfunction, etc.

Pregnant women were recruited from their OBGYN

SES: 46% with annual income ≤ $75K

Education level: 66% associate’s degree or higher

Race: 95% White

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: 26 yrs

Approached: 67

Eligible: 53

Enrolled: 45

Completed: 41

Baseline: 22

Follow-up: 20

2-wk follow-up: 19

2-mo follow-up: 19

4- & 6-mo follow-up: 19

Baseline: 23

Follow-up: 23

2-wk follow-up: 22

2-mo follow-up: 21

4- & 6-mo follow-up: 19

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

— [United States]

Johnson et al. (2021)

Cross-sectional observational study

Determine whether reducing bitterness by adding small amounts of sugar or salt would alter infant acceptance of kale purées

Inclusion: Caregivers 18–51 yrs of age, could read and speak English, lived within 75 miles of the Children’s Eating Laboratory in Aurora, CO; infants between 6–24 mo of age, term (≥37 wk gestation), had experienced at least 1 complementary food, and did not have food allergies or genetic or metabolic disorders that could affect food intake

Exclusion: NR

A university listserv, flyers posted on campus and in the community, posts on social media, using a listserv created from previous studies in which participants had agreed to be recontacted, and participant referrals between September 2018 and April 2019

SES: household income level > $60,570 (51%)

Education level: 90% college grad/post grad

Race: 82% White, 18% other

Ethnicity: 8% Hispanic/Latin, 92% non-Hispanic White

Language: NR

Parental age: 94% were female with 74% of all parents aged 30–49 yrs

Approached: 113

Eligible: 109

Enrolled: 109

Successfully completed: 106 (analyzed)

NR

No comparator group

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

— [Germany]

Kalhoff et al. (2021)

RCT

Test whether preserving the taste of the ingredients of commercially prepared complementary foods would increase the acceptance of new foods, especially vegetables

Inclusion: Parents at least 18 yrs old, good German language skills; infants were healthy term, 0 to 3 mo, no known allergies or food related intolerances

Exclusion: NR

Families with infants in maternity hospitals or in postnatal courses in the Dortmund region, Germany. Parents were informed about the study; written informed consent was obtained, if they wanted to participate and to feed their baby according to the recommended schedule.

Intervention group/control group SES: NR

Education level: 8/25 and 4/26 mothers with secondary

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language: NR

Maternal age: 30 or younger (7/26 mothers); >30 (13/19 mothers)

Approached: NR

Eligible: 670

Enrolled: 72

Successfully completed: 51

Baseline: 36 mothers

End: 25

Baseline: 36 mothers

End: 26

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

— [South Korea]

Ra (2021)

Pre–post test design with nonequivalent control group

Evaluate a mobile-based maternal feeding education program for overweight prevention in infants based on breastfeeding attitude, self-efficacy, and duration, recognition of hunger and satiety cues, and knowledge regarding providing solids foods

Inclusion: Mothers who gave consent to participate, primary caregivers; infants born >37 wks and weighing >2,500 g at birth.

Exclusion: Mothers with twin infants, infants with congenital deformities (e.g., cleft palate) or other health issues related to feeding difficulties and if mother participated in other feeding education programs for overweight prevention in infants within 1 yr of this study

First time pregnant mothers with more than 36 weeks gestational age were recruited from two obstetrics and gynecology clinics

Reported by intervention/control

SES: 73%/79% perceived SES as middle-income (not defined)

Education level: 93%/71% 2 or 4-yr college

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: 32/31 yrs

Approached: 33

Eligible: 33

Enrolled: 33

Completed: 29

Baseline: 19

End: 15

Baseline: 14

End: 14

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

Food4toddlers [Norway]

Roed et al. (2021)

2-arm RCT

Determine the effect of the Food4toddlers eHealth intervention, which aimed to enhance toddlers’ diets by shaping their food and eating environment

Inclusion: Parents had to have a child born between August 2016 and April 2017 and the parents had to be literate in Norwegian

Exclusion: NR

Participants were recruited through Facebook (short video with a link to the project website)

SES: NR

Education level: 45% 4 yrs of college or less

Race: NR

Ethnicity: 86% born in Norway

Language spoken: NR

Paternal age: 32 yrs

Approached: 404

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 298

Completed (follow-up 2 n used): 174

Baseline: 148

End: 144

Follow-up 2: 84

Baseline: 150

End: 147

Follow-up 2: 90

Roed et al. (2020)

2-arm RCT

Conduct a process evaluation of Food4toddlers eHealth intervention targeting food environment, parental feeding practices, and toddlers’ diet and to examine possible differences in these areas according to education and family composition

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

— [France]

Tournier et al. (2021)

Pilot experimental intervention with prospective follow-up

Test if providing extended recommendations (compared to current national recommendations) to mothers when their infant was between 8 and 15 mo old would result in a higher exposure to textured foods and a higher food texture acceptance by their infant

Inclusion: Parents >18 yrs old. Children in good health (no food allergy, tube feeding, chronic disease, or gastroesophageal reflux requiring medication), >37 wks and >3 kg

Exclusion: Children introduced to complementary foods before 4 mo or after 6 mo, using the baby-led weaning method, and those already involved in another study on eating behavior

Flyers distributed in maternity wards, pediatric offices, day care centers, an internal consumer database via a local recruitment agency

Reported by Intervention/Control

SES: NR

Education level: 23%/23% mothers with HS diploma at most

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language: NR

Maternal age: 32/32 yrs (mean)

Approached: 69

Eligible: 64

Enrolled (actual start of intervention): 61

Successfully completed at 15 mo follow-up: 60

Baseline: 31

End: NR

Baseline: 30

End: NR

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

— [Australia]

Wen et al. (2020)

Three-group RCT

Determine the effectiveness of either nurse-led telephone or SMS support in improving infant feeding practices and tummy time and reducing screen time

Inclusion: Aged 16 yrs or older, between wks 24 and 34 of pregnancy, able to communicate in English, had a mobile phone, and lived in the recruitment areas

Exclusion: NR

Pregnant women were recruited by research assistants at antenatal clinics with a letter of invitation

SES: 55% ≥ $80,000 household income 62% employed (included paid/unpaid maternity leave)

Education level: 66% university

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: 54% English, 46% Other

Maternal age: 85% above 25-39 years

Approached: 4,429

Eligible: 3,217

Enrolled: 1,498

Randomized: 1,155

Follow-up completed at 6 months: 947

Follow up completed at 12 months: 920

Baseline telephone: 386 6-mo

Follow-up: 293 12-mo

Follow-up: 286

Baseline SMS: 384

6-mo follow-up: 338

12-mo follow-up: 322

Baseline: 385

6-mo follow-up: 316

12-mo follow-up: 312

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

Early Food for Future Health [Norway]

Helle et al. (2019b)

RCT

Evaluate the effects of an eHealth intervention on parental feeding practices and infant eating behaviors

Inclusion: Parents eligible to participate in the study if they had a 3–5 mo old infant, were literate in Norwegian, and responsible for providing food to their infant

Exclusion: NR

Parents were recruited through Facebook advertising and through emailing Norwegian municipalities child health clinics

Intervention/control at baseline

SES: NR

Education level: 83%/80% college/ university degree

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: 7%/8% not Norwegian as native language

Maternal age: 31/30 yrs

Approached: 1,010

Eligible: 960

Enrolled: 715

Completed T2 (child age 12 mo): 455

Completed T3 (child age 24 mo, 1 yr of cessation of intervention): 295

Baseline: 360

End T2: 236–269

End T3: 152–178

Baseline: 358

End T2: 219–264

End T3: 143–165

Helle et al. (2019a)

RCT

Evaluate the effects of the intervention at child age 24 mo, 1 yr after cessation

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

OTIS [Sweden]

Johansson et al. (2019)

RCT

Study effects of a systematic introduction of taste portions and a novel protein-reduced complementary diet based on Nordic foods on fruit and vegetable intake, growth and iron status to 9 mo of age

Inclusion: Healthy, singleton infants, 4–6 mo of age >37 wks and >2,500 g living in Umeå and remain in the study area and would not commence child care outside the home

Exclusion: Chronic illnesses that would affect nutrient intake or outcomes; iron deficiency or any other biochemical abnormality, or started complementary feeding at the time of recruitment

Singleton parents recruited by letter

SES: 78%/77% annual household income between 20-49.9 Euros

Education level: 71%/67% university

Race: NR

Ethnicity: (of mother) 98%/95% Sweden

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: 31 yrs (both groups)

Approached: 2,504

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 250

Completed: 232

Baseline: 125

End: 111

Baseline: 125

End: 121

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

— [United Kingdom]

Coulthard et al. (2014)

Quasi-experimental

Examine the effectiveness of different vegetable exposure methods over a 9-day period in two groups of infants: those introduced to solids prior to the age of 5.5 mo, and those introduced after 5.5 mo as is recommended

Inclusion: Infants had to be healthy, full term, had been breast fed from birth and had been breastfed exclusively until the age of introduction of complementary feeding

Exclusion: Infants who had eaten peas, were not exclusively breast fed until complementary feeding, had been weaned earlier than anticipated or were being weaned directly onto finger foods (baby-led weaning)

Parent–infant dyads were recruited from children’s centers, playgroups, and post-natal groups

SES: NR

Education level: 16 yrs

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: early introduction: 31 yrs;

later introduction: 34 yrs

Approached: 77

Eligible: 60

Enrolled: 60

Completed: NR

[early introduction] Baseline: 29

End: NR

[late introduction] Baseline: 31

End: NR

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

— [United Kingdom]

Owen et al. (2018)

Three group RCT

Investigated whether parents’ attempts to introduce fruit and vegetables through repeated taste exposure were helped by prior visual familiarization to foods—specifically, looking at picture books about foods immediately before these were offered to children to taste

Inclusion: NR

Exclusion: NR

Recruited from the University’s Child Development Group’s database, advertisements placed on parenting websites, and flyers placed in local nurseries

SES household income indicator (% £50k+ pa): (VBG: 50%; FBG: 55%; CG: 42%)

Education level (% with degree): (VBG: 48%/ FBG: 60%/ CG: 59%)

Race: 83%/86%/82% White British

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: NR

Approached: NR

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 127

End: 105

Follow-up: 78

Fruit book group/veggie book group

Baseline: 42/46

End: 34/36

Baseline: 39

End: 35

— [Norway]

Beinert et al. (2017)

RCT

Examine the long-term effect on toddlers’ fruit and vegetable intake and sweet beverages, and skepticism for new food, of a 2-day intervention on how to prepare homemade food for toddlers

Inclusion: NR

Exclusion: NR

Parents were recruited through health care centers

Reported by Intervention/Control

SES: NR

Education level: 89%/80% some college or more

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: 30/31 yrs

Approached: NR

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 110

Completed: NR

Baseline: 56

End: NR

15 mo: 44

24 mo: 40

Baseline: 54

End: NR

15 mo: 27

24 mo: 24

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

— [United States]

Mennella et al. (2017)

RCT

Determine the effects of the timing and duration of eating a variety of vegetables during breastfeeding on the liking of vegetables in both members of the dyad

Inclusion: A healthy, term, singleton birth; an establishment of lactation with the intention to exclusively breastfeed for >4 mo; and no reported allergies to fruits or vegetables

Exclusion: NR

Pregnant women or newly parturient women were recruited from advertisement in local newspapers, websites, and Philadelphia Women, Infants, and Children offices

Reported by 0.51.5/1.52.5/2.53.5/0.53.5 months/control

SES: 65%/47%/50% /71%/67% household income >$50,000

Education level: 76%/67%/50%/71%/ 67% college

Race: African

American: 18%/40%/29%/21%/27%

Caucasian: 59%/47%/43%/64%/60%

Asian: 0%/7%/0%/0%/7%

More than one: 24%/7%/29%/14%/7%

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: 33/31/30/32/32 yrs

Approached: NR

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 97

Completed: NR

Exposure 0.5–1.5 mo

Baseline: NR

End: 17

Exposure 1.5–2.5 mo

Baseline: NR

End: 15

Exposure 2.5–3.5 mo

Baseline: NR

End: 14

Exposure 0.5–3.5 mo

Baseline: NR

End: 14

Baseline: NR

End: 15

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

— [Norway]

Øverby et al. (2017)

RCT

Evaluate if a two-day course for parents on nutrition and applied baby food preparation influenced child’s intake of homemade foods, lipid concentration, and vitamin D status

Inclusion: NR

Exclusion: NR

Parents attending 6-mo checkup at four health care clinics were invited to participate

Intervention group/control group

SES: NR

Education level: maternal (17 years or more) 87%/ 90%

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: 30/31 yrs (mean)

Approached: 143

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 110

End: 59

Baseline: 56

End (12-mo follow-up): 39

Baseline: 54

End (12-mo follow-up): 20

— [United Kingdom]

Hetherington et al. (2015)

Exploratory trial

Test the effects of providing vegetables step-by-step in milk and then in cereal during complementary feeding on intake and liking of puréed vegetables; investigate the acceptability of this strategy among mothers

Inclusion: NR

Exclusion: Infants under the age of 12 wks were not able to participate but could be part of the study after this time; infants with a chronic health condition that required medication, born prematurely before 37 wks of gestation, fed hydrolysed-protein formula, or had a known food allergy

Advertising in the local community within mother and baby groups and a recruitment agency

SES: NR

Education level: 43% below university

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language: NR

Maternal age: 32 yrs (average)

Approached: NR

Eligible: 40 mothers

Enrolled: 40

Successfully completed: 35

Baseline: 20

End: 17

Follow-up (6 mo): 15

Follow-up (18 mo): 11

Baseline: 20

End: 18

Follow-up (6 mo): 16

Follow-up (18 mo): 3

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

— [Netherlands]

Barends et al. (2014)

Longitudinal intervention study

Follow-up study to examine whether the group that started weaning with vegetables continued eating more vegetables than the group that started weaning with fruits.

Inclusion: Met criteria of previous 19-day study (same study cohort).

Exclusion: NR

Recruited for this follow-up study via a previous 19-day intervention study; parents completed informed consent at baseline

Reported by intervention (veggie) vs comparator (fruit):

SES: (reported mean or median) NR

Education level: High 40%/48%

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language: NR

Maternal age: 31/32 yrs

Approached: NR

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 101 parent–infant pairs

Successfully completed: NR

Baseline: 51

End: NR

Follow-up: NR

Baseline: 50

End: NR

Follow-up: NR

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

Barends et al. (2013)

Longitudinal intervention study

Investigated the effects of repeated exposure to either vegetables or fruits on an infant’s vegetable and fruit acceptance during the first 18 days of weaning

Inclusion: Healthy infants between 4 and 7 mo old, who were not being weaned yet

Exclusion: Infants with known food allergies, swallowing or digestion problems, or other medical problems that could influence the ability to eat

Recruited from the area of Wageningen and Almere in the Netherlands where both the research locations were via local newspapers, maternity or infant welfare centers, postnatal care groups, and a mailing to subscribers of babyinfo. nl (a Dutch advertisement website that gives a box with free products for subscribers expecting a baby)

Green bean group/artichoke/apple/plum

SES: NR

Education level: High 58%/44%/ 38%/63%

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language: NR

Maternal age: 31/30/21/32

Approached: NR

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 101 parent–infant pairs

Successfully completed: NR

Green bean group/artichoke/apple/plum

Baseline: 24/27/24 /24

End: NR

Follow-up: NR

NR

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

— [France, Germany]

Maier et al. (2008)

Experimental

Examine effects of breast or formula feeding and experience with different levels of vegetable variety early in weaning on new food acceptance during 2 mo following the start of weaning

Inclusion: Mothers with infants having no illness or allergy who had not begun to give vegetables

Exclusion: NR

Flyers posted at local hospitals, pediatric practices, day care centers, and nurseries, asking them to contact the team by telephone if interested to participate in a study of infant feeding practices; consent form completed by mother

In Dijon: (average taken for breast-fed (BF) group/formula-fed (FF) group at baseline

SES: NR

Education level: NR

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language: NR

Maternal age: 29/30 yrs

In Aalen: (average taken for BF group/FF group at baseline

SES: NR

Education level: NR

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language: NR

Maternal age: 30/30 yrs

Approached: NR

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 147 mother–infant pairs participated in phases A and B (in both locations); 143 in phase C

F(BF) group Baseline: 45 infants (Dijon) and 38 (Aalen)

End: NR

FF group Baseline: 27 infants (Dijon) and 37 (Aalen)

End: NR

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

— [United States]

Mennella et al. (2008)

Experimental

First study: examine the effects of repeated dietary experience with either one fruit or a variety of fruits on infants’ acceptance of pears and green beans Second study: determine whether different dietary variety experiences affect infants’ acceptance of the target vegetables

Inclusion: Healthy infants with at least 2 wks of experience eating cereal or fruit from a spoon and little experience with the target fruits and vegetables

Exclusion: NR

Mothers with infants ages 4–9 mo were recruited from advertisements in local newspapers and from WIC programs in Philadelphia, PA.

SES: NR

Education level: NR

Race: 55% Black; 30% White

Ethnicity: 3% Hispanic/Latino, 12% other or mixed

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: 26 yrs

Approached: NR

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 74 infants total (Study 1: 39 infants; Study 2: 35)

Successfully completed: 60

Values here include both studies.

Study 1: Baseline: 20 infants

End: NR

Study 2: Baseline: green bean group (GBG) 11; between meal (BM)–within meal (WM) 12

End: NR

Study 1: Baseline: 19 infants

End: NR

Study 2: Baseline: BM Variety 12

End: NR

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

— [United States]

Forestell and Mennella (2007)

Experimental

Evaluate the effects of breastfeeding and dietary experiences on fruit and green vegetable acceptance by 4- to 8-mo-old infants

Inclusion: Only infants who had been weaned to cereal but had little experience with vegetables and fruits

Exclusion: NR

Mothers of infants ages 4–8 mo old were recruited through advertisements in local newspapers, breastfeeding support groups, and WIC in Philadelphia, PA

SES: 44% (20/45) WIC participants

Education level: 27% with some college education

Race: 36% Black, 46% White

Ethnicity: 0% Asian, 7% Hispanic/Latino, 0% Indigenous, 11% mixed/other

Language: NR

Maternal age: 32 yrs for green beans (GB) group and 32 yrs for green beans plus peaches (GB+P) group

Approached: NR

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 45

Successfully completed: NR

GB group Baseline: 16

End: NR

Follow-up: NR

GB-P group Baseline: 29

End: NR

Follow-up: NR

— [Germany]

Koehler et al. (2007)

RCT

Examine the effects of nutritional counseling for the infant diet focused on complementary feeding and total diet by use of dietary scores

Inclusion: Mothers speak German, be available by telephone, and provide written informed consent of participation; infants were in good health, full-term birth (>37

Mothers were recruited and enrolled from maternity wards and through nationwide health insurance company

SES: NR

Education level: 61% “high”

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: NR:

Maternal age: 67% 30 yrs or older

Approached: NR

Eligible: 727

Consented: 235

Enrolled: 183

End: NR

intervention group (IG)1 Baseline: 55

IG2 Baseline: 40

IG3 Baseline: 47

Baseline: 41

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
wks of pregnancy), and birth weight exceeding >2,500 g.

Exclusion: NR

— [United States]

Krebs et al. (2006)

RCT

Assess the feasibility and effects of consuming either meat or iron-fortified infant cereal as the first complementary food.

Inclusion: the infants were required to be healthy, born at term with birth weights appropriate for gestational age, and to be exclusively breastfed and receiving no routine vitamin or mineral supplements.

Exclusion: NR

Advertisements in physicians’ offices and parenting newsletters and word of mouth.

SES: NR

Education level: NR

Race: NR

Ethnicity: NR

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: NR

Approached: NR

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 88

Completed: 72

Baseline: 46

End: NR

Follow-up: NR

Baseline: 42

End: NR

Follow-up: NR

— [Canada]

Verrall et al. (2006)

Prospective process evaluation

Evaluate innovative communication strategies promoting iron nutrition for infants at risk for iron deficiency anemia in a northern Aboriginal community.

Inclusion: NR

Exclusion: NR

Survey/questionnaires responders post intervention recruited from telephone list provided by health care offices.

SES: NR

Education level: NR

Race: NR

Ethnicity: 100% Cree

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: NR

Approached: 70

Eligible: NR

Enrolled: 45

Completed: 45

Baseline: 45

End: 45

NR

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Study Design Study Objective Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Recruitment Population Characteristics Number of Individuals Approached and Completed the Intervention Number of Participants in Intervention Group Number of Participants in Comparator Group

— [Canada]

Verrall and Gray-Donald (2005)

Cross-sectional

Evaluate the impact of a food-based approach in promoting iron-rich complementary feeding for mothers with infants at-risk for iron deficiency anemia (IDA).

Inclusion: NR

Exclusion: NR

Survey/questionnaire responders post intervention recruited from telephone list provided by health care offices.

Time period 1/2

SES: Employed 28%/27%

Education level: 10/9 yrs

Race: NR

Ethnicity: 100% Cree

Language spoken: NR

Maternal age: 24/28 yrs

Approached: 126

Eligible: 96

Enrolled: 54

Complete: NR

Time period 1:

Baseline: 32

End: NR

Time period 2:

Baseline: 22

End: NR

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

TABLE E-2 Intervention Description

Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
Health Care
INFANT [Australia]

Zheng et al. (2022)

Hesketh et al. (2020)

Spence et al. (2014)

Cameron et al. (2014)

Spence et al. (2013)

Campbell et al. (2013)

Intervention (4 to 18 mo): educational strategies including brief didactic sessions, use of group discussion and peer support, exploration of perceived barriers, use of visual and written messages, follow-up delivery of messages mail-outs. All educational concepts will be developed iteratively, that is, messages will be repeated and expanded upon over the course of the intervention.

Follow-up (2 and 3.5 yrs): parents completed questionnaire before home visit, researchers visited each participant’s home to collect child anthropometric data, physical activity data, and collect questionnaires. Dietary recalls were conducted at unscheduled times following the home visit.

Maternal and child health centers Live; remote tech-interactive; remote tech noninteractive Multifaceted: counseling (individual and peer) (Verbal) didactic sessions, group discussion and peer support, exploration of perceived barriers, visual and written messages, follow-up mail Dietitian

Number of contacts/duration of visits: six 2-hr sessions delivered at 3-mo intervals during the regular meeting time of the first-time parents’ group

Duration of full intervention: 15 mo; follow-up occurred at 2 yrs and 3.5 yrs post-intervention

Parenting support theory; social cognitive theory; anticipatory guidance framework
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
— [Italy] de Franchis et al. (2022) Children were weaned with a Mediterranean diet schema using only fresh foods appropriately adapted to infants (smoothie or crushed foods). Fruit and vegetables were proposed as purée and various kinds of fresh blue fish were proposed at 7 mo.

Mothers were encouraged to cook in a tasty way and to taste food before offering it to the kid. They also received a reinforcing message on nutritional education toward the Mediterranean diet at each pediatric visit.

Pediatric visit Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: education; counseling; tasting opportunities

Feeding experience Communication (written) Pediatrician Duration/intensity not described well. Reinforcement lasted 5 minutes at the end of the clinical visit.

Adherence described and may give a sense of intensity.

NR
GeliS [Germany] Hoffmann et al. (2021) Participants received counseling on adequate gestational weight gain based on IOM recommendations and the importance of a healthy antenatal lifestyle in relation to optimal offspring development during childhood. Women were also provided information on the introduction of complementary foods, infant hunger and satiety signals, and infant feeding practices according to recommendations. Prenatal visits and on postpartum visit Live; remote tech noninteractive

Single counseling

Communication (verbal, written)

Resources (pedometer, list of local exercise programs)

Previously trained midwives, gynecologists, or medical staff Three antenatal face-to-face counseling sessions (~wk 15, ~wk 18, ~wk 32) and one postpartum face-to-face counseling session (6–8th wk postpartum). Each session was 30–45 minutes. NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
BBOFT [Netherlands] Vlasblom et al. (2020) BBOFT+ intervention provides targeted education and guidance of parents.

At well-child visits, care professionals used a booklet which contained illustrations of parents and children performing desired behaviors and age-appropriate items.

Intervention consisted of building a positive relationship, risk assessment, introducing booklet, asking parents what booklet items they would like to focus on, providing that information.

Well-child visit Live: Remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: counseling; education

Communication (written); visuals N/A 8 to 11 contacts in the first yr, 5 total in the second yr Social learning theory
van Grieken et al. (2017) The eHealth module provides customized advice regarding health behaviors for preventing overweight (promote breakfast consumption, stimulate exercise, discourage sweetened beverages, discourage TV).

Parents were invited to complete eHealth module 1 mo before 18 and 24 mo well-child visit. The module included tailored advice and developing an implementation-intention plan. The plan was discussed with the care team at the well-child visit. Follow-up email with advice was sent.

Well-child visit; internet Website; communication (verbal) Physician, nurse, and assistant 1 mo prior to well-child visit parents prompted to visit the website. They attended the visit. Then 1 mo later received a reminder including tailored advice. Occurred at 18 mo and 24 mo Theory of planned behavior; social cognitive theory; information processing theories (e.g., McGuire communication model); social ecological model
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
Starting Early Program [United States] Messito et al. (2020) The main intervention components were individual nutrition counseling in prenatal and postpartum periods and nutrition and parenting support groups (NPSG) coordinated with well-child visits.

NPSG addressed feeding (responsive feeding, age-appropriate healthy foods, portion sizes, etc.), activity, and parenting (family meals, soothing without feeding). Consistent groups of 4–8 families were seen together from 1 mo to 3 yrs. Picture based plain language handouts and two nutrition education DVDs were provided.

Pediatric visit Live; remote-live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted counseling (one on one); other (support group)

Communication (verbal and written); media (DVD) Registered dietitian that was a certified lactation consultant Two individual counseling sessions (3rd trimester and peripartum period) and 5 peer-support group sessions at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 9 mo well-child visits Social learning theory
— [Israel] Globus et al. (2019) Four 2-hr training sessions were delivered in small subgroups of 8–12 dyads. All groups were trained by the same clinical dietitian and social worked when infants were 4–6 mo. An internet-based forum was also set up where facilitators provided written information and to respond to maternal requests based on needs until the infant was 12 mo. Social worker clinic Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted component intervention: educational (group and individual); counseling

Communication (verbal, written); visuals (handouts) Dietitian and social worker Occurring weekly—four 2-hr training sessions were delivered in small subgroups of 8 to 12 dyads Attachment theory
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

The first part of the session was led by the dietitian focusing on nutritional issues and the second part was led by the social worker focusing on parent-child feeding relationships.

Each part incorporated psycho-educational material through discussion and films, in addition to actual exercises and real-time feeding practice.

Outcome data collected via questionnaire at 12 mo of age.

PROBIT [Italy] Morandi et al. (2019) “Intervention pediatricians” were trained to provide parents with standardized oral and written information concerning protective practices at all routine visits (1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 mo of age). Health care visits Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: counseling; education

Communication (verbal and written) Trained or control pediatrician 2 yrs (5 routine pediatric visits) NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
LIMIT [Australia] Dodd et al. (2018)

Dodd et al. (2014)

Women randomized to lifestyle advice participated in a dietary and lifestyle intervention over the remainder of their pregnancy: components included a combination of dietary, exercise, and behavioral strategies. Individualized dietary advice included maintaining a balance of carbohydrates, fat, and protein and to reduce intake of foods high in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats, while increasing intake of fiber and promoting consumption of two servings of fruit, five servings of vegetables, and three servings of dairy each day; also completed goal setting during sessions; also included a PA component.

Follow-up: conducted 18 mo after birth, after ethics approval, and after obtaining informed parental consent.

NR (but met for planning sessions with dietitian for some in-person meetings; some through telephone but location not specified) Live; remote-live

Multifaceted: antenatal counseling (individual)
Communication (in-person, telephone) Research dietitian and trained research assistants Number of contacts/duration of visits: planning session had information reinforced during subsequent inputs provided by the research dietitian (at 28 wks’ gestation) and trained research assistants (via telephone call at 22, 24, and 32 wks gestation and a face-to-face visit at 36 wks’ gestation. (5 interactions total, duration of each visit not reported)

Duration of full intervention: NR

NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Grow2 Gether [United States] Fiks et al. (2017) Intervention participants joined a private Facebook peer group for mothers and focused on healthy parenting and infant growth.

Four separate peer groups (9–13 women) were formed and each group was facilitated by a psychologist. The curriculum included infant feeding practices (11 wks), sleep (7 wks), positive parenting (12 wks: 4 activity, 4 parenting expectations, 4 infant cues and calming), and maternal well-being (8 wks).

Facebook group was structured around video-based curriculum (posted weekly through 6 mo and bi-weekly 6–9 mo) and encouraged participant interaction. Information also provided in written posts.

Facebook group and two in-person meetings (prenatally for introductions and setting of ground rules and once at 4 mo of age) (unsure location). Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: education; other (peer support); counseling.

Video media, website, written materials, some in-person Psychologist Run-in period where participants received and responded to weekly texts containing pregnancy advice

Two in-person meetings and access to Facebook group/lessons for 11 mo—2 mo prenatal to facilitate bonding before delivery and continued to 9 mo of age

11 wks of infant feeding curriculum and 12 wks of positive parenting curriculum

NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
NOURISH [Australia]

Magarey et al. (2016)

Daniels et al. (2015)

Daniels et al. (2014)

Daniels et al. (2013)

Daniels et al. (2012)

Intervention was a comprehensive skills-based program which focused on feeding and parenting practices that mediate children’s early feeding experiences.

Intervention included interactive group sessions (12) co-led by a dietitian and psychologist and included two modules (Module 1: establishing solid feeding including variety and texture, neutral repeated exposure to healthy foods, limited exposure to noncore foods and realistic expectations of growth and nutritional requirements; Module 2: promote development of a positive feeding environment and managing toddler eating behavior in the context of increased autonomy. Encourages structured food choice and eating pattern, positive role modeling and avoidance of coercion, use of rewards, and emotional feeding).

Existing child health clinic Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: education (group interactive sessions); counseling

Communication (verbal and written) Dietitian and psychologist with standardized training 12 fortnightly group sessions (10–15 caregivers per group) co-led by dietitian and psychologist [each 1–1.5 hrs]

Module 1 was 3 mo in length.

Social cognitive theory, anticipatory guidance, attachment theory
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Growing Leaps and Bounds [United States] Schroeder et al. (2015) Intervention was based on Growing Leaps and Bounds modules (educational materials aimed to promote exchange between patient and pediatrician about nutrition feeding and activity, providing parents with information to enhance self-efficacy, helping parents make healthy food choices for the infants and themselves.

12 sets of educational brochures were designed to be presented and discussed with caregivers at pediatric visits (age 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24 mo—then annually until 5 yr). Parents also received phone calls every mo (providing encouragement and for answering questions) and reminder post cards (containing educational messages).

Clinical staff received training before start of the sessions and refresher sessions held every 2-3 mo.

Clinic visits Live; remote live human-to-human; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: education; counseling

Communication (written and verbal)—in person and phone calls Trained pediatricians, nurse practitioners, and clinic staff 12 visits during ages 1 to 24 mo, then annually until 5 yrs

Staff training refreshers held every 2–3 mo

NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
— [United Kingdom, Greece, Portugal] Fildes et al. (2015) Mothers of 4- to 6-mo-old infants were randomized to either an intervention group, who received guidance on introducing five vegetables (one per day) as first foods repeated over 15 days, or a control group who received country-specific ‘usual care.’ Outcomes of interest included infant’s consumption (grams) and liking (maternal and researcher rated) of an unfamiliar vegetable. Participant’s home or pediatrician’s office Live; remote tech-noninteractive

Single intervention; counseling

Feeding experiences, visuals, communications Researcher or health professional Number of contacts/visits: NR

Duration of visits: NR

Duration of full intervention: Feb 2011‒July 2012

Mothers determined precise timing of visitation

NR
— [United States] French et al. (2012) Intervention Group 1: maternal-focused (MOMS) anticipatory guidance aimed at maternal eating habits with a focus on seven different elements in eating behaviors, including frequency of meals, family meals, milk consumption, increased fruit and veggie consumption, and limiting soda and fast food. Simple messages were used to increase behaviors protective against the development of obesity. Mothers in this group received direct guidance regarding their own eating patterns. Message development focused on how mothers ate and the influence of mothers’ behaviors on their children. Pediatric primary care clinics in Nationwide Children’s Hospital primary care network in Columbus, OH Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: counseling (individual)

Communication (in-person well visits), visuals (handouts) Clinic physicians, nurses, and medical assistants Number of contacts/duration of visits: delivered at the 2-, 4-, 6-, 9-, and 12-mo well child visits (duration of each visit not reported)

Duration of full intervention: 12 mo

NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Intervention Group 2: Ounce of Prevention (OP) received a detailed program of infant feeding focusing on serving size and tips for introducing different foods for the infant; focused on feeding behaviors of mothers.
First Steps for Mommy and Me [United States] Taveras et al. (2011) Multifaceted intervention consisting of brief focused negotiation by pediatrician during five routine visits, four individualized coaching and motivational counseling telephone calls with study health educator (3 wks, 6 wks, 3 mo, and 5 mo postpartum), invitation to four group-parenting skills training workshops and comprehensive educational materials.

Pediatricians were trained on focused negotiation skills based on concepts of motivational intervening and epidemiology of health consequences of excess weight gain. Pediatricians led the group parenting skills training workshops.

Health care setting Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: education; counseling

Communication (written and verbal) Primary care providers and study health educator 6 mo NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
TARGet Kids! [Canada] Maguire et al. (2010) Parents in the intervention group were given a sippy cup and shown how to use it. Parents were also told about the risks of continued bottle use, including tooth decay and iron deficiency (and iron deficiency associated behaviors). Parents were instructed to limit milk consumption to 16 oz a day and discontinue bottle use in the following wk using a stepwise protocol (given in a handout as well).

Outcomes measured at 2 yrs of age.

Health care setting Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: educational; counseling (individual)

Communication (verbal, written), visuals (handouts) Nutrition-trained research assistant 9 mo to 2 yrs NR
— [United States] Sanghavi (2005) Participants were first checked in by a clerk, who registered the child via a password-protected Internet form. The parent was then directed to the education kiosk, where he or she logged on a touch-enabled computer using their registration information, completed the instructional tutorial, and then returned to the waiting room. The clerk then printed the report of the visit, which the provider reviewed during his or her visit Gallup Indian Medical Center Remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: educational; counseling

Other: computerized kiosk in waiting area; written materials Computerized kiosk Number of contacts/duration of visits: 2 times—10 to 20 minutes on average

Duration of full intervention: 4 mo

NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
with the parent and child, and then inserted into the medical record. For the first 2 mo of the 4-mo study period, all parents of healthy 6-wk-old and 4-mo-old infants (the control group) received standard well-child care. Prior to the face-to-face visit, patients were handed a packet of reading materials about well-child care to be reviewed in the waiting room, as was routine practice before the study. After the provider visit, parents were asked to complete a written questionnaire assessing well-child knowledge.
ECE
EniM [Spain] Roset-Salla et al. (2016) The intervention group received educational lessons that covered both theoretical and practical content on food groups, Mediterranean diet, physical activity and food labels, and progressive introduction to food groups for children. Outcome measures were assessed via questionnaires and other metrics during workshops. Parents in the control group received non-nutrition education classes on a different topic. ECE/day care centers Live single intervention: educational (group workshops), other-knowledge assessment Communication Nurses trained in nutrition Number of contacts/duration of visits (minutes): 4 workshops that lasted 90 minutes each session

Duration of full intervention: school yr 2010‒2011

NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
— [United Kingdom] Ahern et al. (2014) Children received a 6–8 exposures to a root vegetable purée with added apple purée (flavor–flavor group) alternating with 6–8 exposures to another with nothing added (repeated exposure group) with a third purée group (control). Pre- and post-intervention intake measures of the three purées with nothing added were taken to assess change in intake. Follow-up measures took place 1 mo and 6 mo post-intervention. Nurseries (ECE) Live single intervention: tasting opportunities of RE vs FFL Feeding experiences Nursery staff or experimenters Duration of contacts/visits: NR Exposure baseline phase: children received up to 200g (2 separate pots of 100-g purées) of all three vegetable purées on 3 separate days at their usual snack time. Exposure intervention phase:

Test days had at least 1 day in between them and no more than 3 and began 2–5 days after baseline. Each child received 6–8 exposires of the root veggie purée with added apple flavor alternating with 6–8 exposures of purée with nothing added. Each exposure included 100 g of purée with an additional 100 g if the child wanted.

NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

Exposure post-intervention: all three veggie purées offered to children on 3 separate days 2–5 days after intervention with two more intake follow-ups at 1 and 6 mo postintervention.

Duration of full intervention: NR

— [Belgium] Verbestel et al. (2014) Family-based healthy lifestyle intervention aimed at increasing daily consumption of water (instead of soft drinks), milk, fruits and vegetables, increasing daily physical activity and decreasing daily consumption of sweets and savory snacks and daily screentime behavior. BMI was measured at baseline. ECE/day care centers Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multicomponent: educational (individual); other knowledge assessment

Communication and visuals Researchers Number of contacts/duration of visits (minutes): not reported

Duration of full intervention: 1 yr

Theories of information processing, the elaboration likelihood model, and the precaution-adoption process model
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
— [United Kingdom] Caton et al. (2013) Children were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (RE, FFL or FNL). Each child was offered 10 exposures to their version of a novel vegetable (artichoke). Pre- and post-intervention measures of artichoke purée and carrot purée (control vegetable) intake were taken. ECE Live single intervention: tasting opportunities of RE vs FFL vs FNL Feeding experiences Nursery staff or experimenters Duration of contacts/visits: once per wk two pots of artichoke were offered for 3 wks total and this was offered 2 wks from the end of the study. After 5 wks, children were offered two pots of carrot.

Exposure baseline phase: first, children received up to 200 g (up to two pots) of puréed artichoke (target vegetable: RE recipe) or two pots (260 g) of puréed carrot (control vegetable); 2–3 d later children were offered the other vegetable, and this was counterbalanced.

Exposure intervention phase:

Associative learning theory
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
children assigned to 1 of 3 conditions (RE, FFL, FNL) 2-4 days after baseline testing. Each child was offered one pot (100 g) of artichoke for 10 exposures.

Exposure post-intervention: children were offered both pots of carrot and artichoke on separate occasions, 2–3 d apart.

Duration of full intervention: 5 to 6 wks

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
— [United States] Clark et al. (2009) Child care providers evaluated a social learning theory-based website for infant feeding knowledge and attitude and behavior changes after viewing the infant feeding website. ECEs in Colorado Remote tech noninteractive

Single

Other: knowledge assessment

Website Delivered through survey on website Number of contacts/duration of visits (minutes): not reported for number of contacts but the average time for the online pre/post/follow-up survey was 20 minutes (range of 16–27 minutes) to complete

Duration of full intervention: 3 mo

Social learning-based theory
Cooperative Extension
NEAT [United States] Horodynski and Stommel (2005) Intervention consisted of two components: four group-based lessons and 18 structured reinforcement activities.

During the lesson, children were in separate child care. The lessons included instructor led discussion, videotape viewing, and hands-on learning activities. After the activities the toddlers joined the caregivers in food tasting, food

Early Head Start site and home visit Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: education; tasting opportunity; other (knowledge reinforcement)

Communication (verbal), media, activities, feeding experience Lessons by trained nutrition instructors from county extension programs

Reinforcement by Early Head Start home visitor

Four nutrition lessons (90 minutes) and 18 structured reinforcements over 6 mo Bandura’s self-efficacy theory
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
preparation, and family eating time. Reinforcement occurred during home visit by trained Head Start staff. These included content areas such as child development, feeding, nutrition, and parenting. Reinforcement dealt with cognitive and affective activities (e.g., presenting caregiver with scenario).
WIC
SMS Intervention [United States]

Macchi et al. (2022)

Gibby et al. (2019)

Palacios et al. (2018)

The intervention SMS focused on reinforcing WIC messages on breastfeeding, prevention of overfeeding, delaying introduction of solids, and delaying/reducing baby juice consumption.

SMS were sent automatically using web-based SMS messaging platform from the time the participant was enrolled until 4 mo later.

Phone/text Remote tech noninteractive

Single

Other (knowledge reinforcement)

Communication (text message) Researcher-designed text messages developed with WIC staff input 18 messages (1 per wk for 4 mo)

Each message was 35–50 words

Trans theoretical model of health and behavior change
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
— [United States] Scheinmann et al. (2010) Women received a free copy of an English/Spanish DVD that covered content derived from anticipatory guidance sources such as USDA and AAP.

The goal was to encourage breastfeeding and increase maternal knowledge of appropriate infant feeding practices.

Received DVD at waiting room of WIC center; watched DVD at home Remote tech noninteractive

Single: education

Video media Researcher-designed video Duration: Women were provided a 25-min educational DVD to watch at home consisting of five “chapters”: 0–6 mo; 6–12 mo; 12–18 mo; 18–24 mo; food and behavior. (No information provided on whether mothers watched it or how often)

There was a 3- and 6-mo follow-up

NR
Home Visit
Sleep SAAF [United States] Hernandez et al. (2022) A responsive parenting intervention delivered by community research associates at infant age 3 and 8 wks. The intervention content provided messaging on responsive parenting in the context of feeding, crying, sleeping, and interactive play. Home visit Live

Single: one-on-one counseling

Communication (verbal) Trained community research associates from the Center for Family Research at the University of Georgia Intervention content was delivered at the 3-wk visit (90–120 min on average); booster training at the 8-wk visit (which lasted 45–60 min on average) NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
INSIGHT [United States]

Harris et al. (2020)

Hohman et al. (2020)

Savage et al. (2018)

Hohman et al. (2017)

Savage et al. (2016)

Nurses provided intervention curricula (on responsive parenting [RP]) with obesity prevention messages delivered each home visit. The RP curriculum focused on four infant behavior states: drowsy, sleeping, fussy, and alert. Specific messages on feeding taught parents to recognize hunger and satiety cues, offer age appropriate foods, portion size, repeated exposure, not to use food as a reward, etc. Home visits Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: education (instruction and guidance); counseling

Communication (verbal)

Video media (of calming strategies—not related to feeding)

Research nurses Wks 3–4, 16, 28 and 40 after birth nurses visited participants homes Parenting sensitivities and responsive feeding/parenting
Babys First Bites [Netherlands] Van Vliet et al. (2022) Repeated exposure to target vegetable/fruits for first 19 days of weaning, plus phone calls or home visit to motivate parents.

Repeated vegetable exposure (RVE): exposure to green beans or cauliflower as target vegetable. Five phone calls at child age 4‒6, 8, 13, and 16 mo.

Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting-Feeding Infants (VIPP-FI): exposure to fruits and a sweet vegetable. Five home visits using video-feedback at child age 6, 8, 13, 16 mo.

Combination of RVE and VIPP-FI

Home (visits and phone calls) Live; remote-live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted:

RVE: tasting opportunities; one-on-one counseling

VIPP-FI/combo: tasting opportunities; one-on-one counseling; education

All: feeding experiences, communication (phone and in person) and printed overview

VIPP-FI/combined: video media

Researchers 19 days of food exposure and 1 yr of 5 calls/home visits NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
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Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
Family Spirit Nurture [United States] Rosenstock et al. (2021) Built off Family Spirit (congressionally legislated home-visit strategy to promote maternal and child health/well-being) and uses the same format/delivery system. 6 lessons focusing on optimal infant feeding practices, responsive feeding, optimal complementary feeding practices, whole family eating practices, and avoiding sugar-sweetened beverages. Home visits Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: one-on-one education; counseling; other (referrals)

Content incorporated cultural teachings

Communication (verbal and written summary handouts); activities (interactive activities, goal setting) Navajo paraprofessionals Six lessons every 2 wks from 3–6 mo postpartum NR
Delta Healthy Sprouts [United States] Tussing-Humphreys et al. (2019) Parents as Teachers (PAT) includes one-on-one home visit lessons (perinatal educational curriculum), optional monthly group meetings, developmental screenings, and a resource network for families. PAT curriculum lessons aim to increase parental knowledge and practices.

Parents as Teachers Enhanced (PATE) is built on the PAT curriculum by adding maternal weight management and early

Home Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: education; group counseling, other (resource network)

Communication, activities, videos, goal setting Parent educators (college-educated women residing in target communities who completed PAT training program) Duration: 18 mo

Number of lessons: not reported, but each PAT lesson was 60–90 minutes and PATE lesson was 90–120 minutes

PATE: guided by social cognitive theory and transtheoretical model of behavior change
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
childhood obesity prevention components, including diet and physical activity.
— [United States] LoRe et al. (2019) Parents in the intervention group received a 6-mo computer-based curriculum designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity. The curriculum consisted of 12 modules that were implemented in sequence during home visits and facilitated by a research assistant in one-on-one educational sessions.

The content of the modules was built on AAP Bright Futures recommendations. For each module the home visitor and parent discussed a specific topic promoting a healthy lifestyle, reviewed certain practices or activities that could be easily implemented, and developed goals for diet and activity.

Home/online Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: education; counseling

Website, communication (verbal) Computer-based curriculum and research assistant facilitated educational sessions 6 mo—12 modules Theory of behavior change
ECHO [United States] Cloutier et al. (2018) Visitation program (Nurturing Families Network, NFN) or an enhanced program (NFN+) that incorporated behavioral change strategies (e.g., goal setting, problem solving) and focused on six obesity-associated behaviors (breastfeeding, juice/sugar-sweetened beverages, solids, infant sleep, TV/screen time, and soothability) with linkages to community resources. Home visitation Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multicomponent: education

Communication, visuals NFN home supervisors and visitors Number of contacts/duration of visits (minutes): 60-min visits for 2 mo and then biweekly home visits by NFN home visitors

Duration of full intervention: Nov 2013–Dec 2014

Chronic care model
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
BLISS [New Zealand]

Morison et al. (2018)

Williams Erickson et al. (2018)

Taylor et al. (2017)

The intervention group receives well-child care plus additional parent contacts for support and education.

BLISS advice received through a home visit at 5.5 mo, 7 mo, and 9 mo providing individualized advice on supporting introduction of complementary foods using BLISS approach. Staff encourage responsive feeding, attention to hunger and satiety cues, suggest parents offer “easy foods,” and provide age-appropriate recipes. Additional support available if requested.

BLISS resources provided include recipe books, everyday food lists, and safety information—follow baby led weaning philosophy but address concerns of inadequate iron intake, choking, and growth faltering.

Home visit Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: education; counseling

Communication (written and verbal) [recipes and everyday food list]; visuals BLISS researchers (experienced lactation consultant and research staff supervised by a team of dietitians, pediatricians, and speech therapists) 12 mo total (3rd trimester to 9 mo of age)

3rd trimester to 6 mo—lactation consultation

BLISS advice and resources—at least three contacts with a trained researcher (5.5, 7, 9 mo)

NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
POI [New Zealand] Fangupo et al. (2015) Three intervention groups and one control group. The intervention groups received support and education according to group allocation in addition to usual care.

1. Food activity and breastfeeding (FAB) intervention consisted of 8 additional parent contacts for education and support (only 4 of the 8 are related to the food intervention, while the others are related to breastfeeding and physical activity). Trained research staff discussed nutrition messages (e.g., offer 2 different fruits each day, limit intake of high sugar foods etc.) provided written and visual resources during individual face-to-face sessions.

2. Sleep intervention received 2 additional parent contacts providing resources on sleep habits.

3. Combination group received FAB and sleep contacts

Hospital and home visit Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: education; counseling (one-on-one and group)

Written and visual resources Trained research staff under supervision of nutritionists and pediatricians FAB: Eight additional face-to face contacts. Seven are individual sessions and one group session (18 mo). Four are relevant to food (4, 7, 13, and 18 mo)

Sleep: two additional contacts (one antenatal session [note FAB has antenatal too] and one individual home visit at 3 wks)

Combined: Nine intervention visits in total

NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
— [France] Remy et al. (2013) The study was designed in six periods: pre-exposure, exposure, postexposure test, follow-up tests at 2 wk, 3 mo, and 6 mo.

Three experimental groups: basic (RE), sweet (FFL), and energy-dense (FNL).

During exposure period infants in each group were exposed 10 times to artichoke purée (based on group assignment). Parents received instructions from trained experimenter at home visit and instructed to choose lunch or dinner and remain consistent. Parents reported observations 2–3 times per wk.

Home Live

Single (tasting opportunity)

Feeding experience Trained researcher Exposure period lasted ~41 days 10 exposures Pre- and post-exposure test before exposure period NR
— [Australia] Wen et al. (2011) At each visit, the nurse addressed four key areas: infant feeding practices, infant nutrition and active play, family physical activity and nutrition, and social support. Appropriate resources were also made available to mothers. Home-based visitation Live; remote-live

Multicomponent: educational (individual)

Communication Community nurses Number of contacts/duration of visits (minutes): 1 home visit at 30 to 36 wks gestation and 5 home visits at 1, 3, 5, 9, and 12 mo after birth with each visit lasting 1–2 hrs between nurse and mother with infant NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Duration of full intervention: entire RCT was 3 yrs long (Jan. 2007–Dec. 2010), but this study reports the 12 mo results
— [United Kingdom] Watt et al. (2009) The intervention consisted of offering practical and nonjudgmental support and advice on infant feeding practices (types of foods and drinks to give, when to stop using a bottle, etc.).

Monthly home-based support visits were offered from 3 mo of infant age until 12 mo.

Home visits Live

Multifaceted: education; counseling (support/listening to challenges); other (knowledge reinforcement)

Communication (verbal) 27 trained volunteers (both mothers and paraprofessionals). Training involved a 12-session program delivered over 4 wks On average five volunteer home visits (range: 1–10) lasting on average 60 min Social support theory
Other
— [United States] Harris et al. (2022) The intervention group was assigned to view two sugary drink counter-marketing videos. The videos presented information to counteract common misperceptions about children’s fruit drinks and toddler milks in a positive and entertaining manner. Home Remote tech, noninteractive

Single Other (counter marketing)

Video media Researcher-developed videos Groups assigned to watch two videos, each less than 60 seconds NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
— [New Zealand] Rapson et al. (2022) Intervention at the start of complementary feeding (CF) with the primary endpoint assessed at 9 mo of age; infants received either vegetables only (veg-only) or a combination of fruit and vegetables (control) for a duration of 4 wk, starting from the first day of CF at about 4–6 mo of age. The primary outcome measure was intake of target vegetables (broccoli, spinach) provided by the study at 9 mo of age and secondary was daily intake of vegetables at 9 mo with infants’ iron (serrum ferritin) status measured at all time points. Home Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: tasting opportunities; counseling

Communication (verbal), feeding experiences, media (video) Mother At 9 mo of age, mothers were provided 3 foods (re-hydrated weight 80 g each) of broccoli, spinach, and pear over 3 consecutive days. Mothers were asked to feed at the same time as during the initial 4 wk intervention (feeding lasting within 1 hr)

Duration of full intervention: 4 wks

NR
— [United States] Cauble et al. (2021) The intervention involved six weekly group-based phone counseling sessions starting in late pregnancy. The didactic lessons included topics such as Introduction to Breastfeeding, Breastfeeding Basics, Pumping 101, Back to Work, Introducing Solids, and Nutrition and Physical Activity for Breastfeeding. Each lesson encouraged group participation by incorporating participant questions, discussion, and assigned tasks for the next week. Home/telephone conference calls Remote-live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: group counseling; education

Phone communication, written/printed manual Certified lactation consultant and registered dietitian Six weekly 60-min group-based phone counseling sessions NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
— [United States] Johnson et al. (2021) Caregivers and children participated in a video-recorded laboratory visit during which infants were offered four versions of puréed kale: plain, 1.2% or 1.8% added sugar, or 0.2% added salt. Caregivers rated their children’s liking for each kale version. Videos were coded for the number of tastes accepted and for children’s behaviors and acceptance of each kale version. Research lab Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: tasting opportunities, educational

Communication (verbal), feeding experiences, media (video) Experimenter and research assistant Number of contacts/duration of visits: At the lab, caregivers and infants/toddlers attended a single laboratory visit lasting about 90 min

Duration of full intervention: 1 day

NR
— [Germany] Kalhoff et al. (2021) After written consent (at the latest by the age of 4 mo) the families were randomized into 2 groups, the intervention group (IG) and the control group (CG). During the 3 mo intervention, the IG received the newly developed frozen products. Parents were advised on the general recommendations for infant nutrition in Germany and were asked to feed the study food at least 5 days per wk. Acceptance of a menu containing a known and an unknown vegetable was evaluated by measuring the amount consumed and assessing the infants liking by the mother at the beginning (T1) and at the end (T2) of the intervention. Home Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: tasting opportunities

Communication (verbal), feeding experiences, media (video) Researchers gave supplies, and mothers implemented intervention at home. Starter phase: parents fed products to child at least 5× a wk. Mothers fed their infants the two different menus (known, unknown order randomized) on 2 different days (approximately 7 days apart).

First acceptance test (T1): two feeding sessions (several days in 1 wk).

After 90 days of individual intervention, a second acceptance test (T2) was conducted. The procedure was the same as for T1.

Duration of full intervention: 3 mo

NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
— [South Korea] Ra (2021) Mobile-based maternal feeding education program for overweight prevention of infants. Themes/content of the program included breastfeeding, hunger/satiety cues, not providing sweet beverages or high calorie snacks, etc.

The education program was provided to the experimental group through mobile from 38 wks gestation to 6 mo after childbirth. Researchers encouraged mothers to access website at least once every 2 days.

Mobile-based education Remote tech noninteractive

Single: education

Website Developed by researchers and clinicians 38 wks gestation to 6 mo after childbirth

Encouraged to access website once every 2 days

Social cognitive theory
Food4toddlers [Norway]

Roed et al. (2021)

Roed et al. (2020)

Food4toddlers was developed using basic steps from the Model of Planned Promotion for Population Health.

The eHealth intervention included a website with four main elements: modules (2–4 lessons) covering an introduction and seven topics promoting healthy food and eating environments, recipes, a discussion forum, and highlighted information about food and beverages.

Home (eHealth module) Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: education; counseling

Website, media, communication (written and verbal) Researcher-developed website 6 mo access to the website Social cognitive theory
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

In addition, when a person accessed the website, a video appeared with information about the study and its focus on how important just a small weekly increase in vegetable consumption is for the child.

Participants received weekly emails each with a link to a new lesson expanding content of the intervention.

— [France] Tournier et al. (2021) Infants were enrolled at 7.5 mo old. At 8 mo old, they participated in two lab sessions (measurements before intervention); then parents were randomly allocated to either intervention group (IG) or control group (CG).

IG received French recommendations and individualized counseling on food texture introduction combined with the provision of infant textured foods. At 15 mo old (end of the intervention period), children participated again in two lab sessions.

Research lab Live; remote-live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: education; counseling (individual), food provision

Communication (verbal), phone, visuals (booklet) Researchers

Follow-up research: Dietitian individualized advice and support in the lab at 8 mo and by phone for the following mo

Two experimental sessions—An interval between the last meal/snack and the session was set at approximately 2 h. During the session, 3 trials of each food were run. Each food was first shown to the child in a transparent bowl for 10 seconds and then offered.

Duration of full intervention: 7 mo with follow-up at 8 and 15 mo

NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
— [Australia] Wen et al. (2020) The intervention consisted of staged information booklets mailed to the intervention groups, each followed by either a nurse-led telephone support session or SMS intervention, antenatally and at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 mo after birth. Home Live-remote; remote tech noninteractive

Single: education

Written material, communication (verbal/phone call or SMS) Nurses 1 yr duration: 3rd trimester to 10 mo of age

5 SMS contacts or phone calls (30–60 minutes each) and mailed booklets

Health belief model
Early Food for Future Health [Norway]

Helle et al. (2019b)

Helle et al. (2019a)

A webpage with monthly age-appropriate videos addressing infant feeding topics, together with corresponding cooking films/recipes, was offered to participants in the intervention group. Video clips were 3–5 minutes long and focused on feeding related aspects (appropriate food, textures, taste preferences, etc.). Email with link to educational webpage Remote tech noninteractive

Single: education

Media, website Unsure 6 mo of monthly video clips of 3–5 min duration each (n=7) plus monthly cooking films with recipes Attachment theory, social cognitive theory, and anticipatory guidance
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
OTIS [Sweden] Johansson et al. (2019) The intervention group food choices were made based on the New Nordig Food Manifesto. (Reduced protein intake and systematic introduction of fruits and vegetables with repeated exposures during first weeks of complementary food introduction).

Each group (when infant ready) commenced 24 days of systematic taste portions (portions made by parents using given recipes).

The intervention group was also invited to participate in a closed Facebook group to inspire and support parents through images, videos, messages, and other recipes.

Home Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: tasting opportunity; education

Feeding experience, visuals, media, website, communication (written) Researcher dietitian, research nurses, and a doctoral student 24-day taste program NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
— [United States] Owen et al. (2018) Parents were randomly assigned to “fruit book,” “vegetable book,” or control. Upon recruitment parents were asked to specify one fruit and one vegetable they wanted their child to eat but the child refused. If none, parents asked to identify an unfamiliar fruit or vegetable.

Each book contained six pages presenting information as “farm to fork.” Parents were asked to look at the book with their children for 5 minutes each day for 14 days.

Parents then asked to offer their child a taste of both target foods every day.

Home Remote tech noninteractive

Single: educational (individual)

Communication (written: book) Books developed by researchers 14 days—5 minutes a day of book exposure. Then 15 days of taste exposure NR
— [Norway] Beinert et al. (2017) The first day course focused on introduction of solid foods to infants (regular meals, iron rich foods, fruit purées, etc.) Participants were informed about the importance of introducing new food items before 2 yrs to prevent food neophobia. The second day dinner meals were demonstrated (purées of carrots, potatoes, cauliflower, avocado, etc.) Purées with vegetables and chicken/tuna dishes were also introduced. Unclear Live

Multifaceted: education; tasting opportunity

Communication (verbal); feeding experience Unclear 2 days, 4-hr sessions NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Øverby et al. (2017) Courses gave parents nutritional information and instructions on how to prepare nutritious and varied dishes. The first course day focused on food typically eaten for breakfast and lunch in Norway, and participants prepared various purées, porridges, breads, and spreads. The second day focused on dinners.

Participants were given written pamphlets with recipes.

University kitchen laboratories Live; remote tech noninteractive

Single: education (group cooking classes)

Communication (verbal and written); Home economics teacher and master’s student Two course days which lasted 4 hrs NR
— [United States] Mennella et al. (2017) Mothers were randomized to drink vegetable juices at different times during lactation/breastfeeding (0.5–1.5 mo, 1.5–2.5 mo, 2.5–3.5 mo). Home Live

Single: tasting opportunity

Feeding experience Researchers explained procedure to mothers 7‒8 mo NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
— [United Kingdom] Hetherington et al. (2015) Each group followed a 35-day complementary feeding intervention. Intervention group infants received 12 daily exposures to vegetable purée added to milk (days 1–12), then 12 × 2 daily exposures to vegetable purée added to baby rice at home (days 13–24), then the next 11 days exposure to veggie purée. Mothers were given a 35-day diary to record infant food intake at home and other notes immediately after feeding using a scale that measured infant’s reaction to feeding, similar feeding, and rating of feeding occurred in the lab with a video to capture data and review for analyses. Research lab; home Live; remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: tasting opportunities; educational

Communication (verbal), feeding experiences, media (video) Researcher Number of contacts/duration of visits: 12 daily exposures to veggie purée added to milk then 12 × 2 daily exposures of the veggie purée + baby rice at home, then an 11-day exposure to only veggie purée; 5 total lab days

Duration of full intervention: 35 days

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
— [United Kingdom] Coulthard et al. (2014) Infants that had been introduced to complementary food early (before 5.5 mo) or late (after 5.5 mo) were randomly assigned to single taste or variety exposure.

The single-taste group were given carrot purée (Ca) every day for 9 consecutive days, and infants in the variety group were given parsnip (Pa), courgette (Co) and sweet potato (Sp) with daily changes for 9 consecutive days (1 purée pot per day). The exposure phase ran from days 2 to 10 of the study. Half of the infants in each group were early introduction of foods and later introduction of foods based on when they were beginning complementary feeding.

Home visit Live

Single: tasting opportunity

Feeding experience Researchers 2 days of testing (Day 1 and Day 11) in which the researcher visited the home

Days 2–10 were exposure days

NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
— [Netherlands] Barends et al. (2014) At two follow-up timepoints (12 and 23 mo), mothers were given one spoon to feed their child and another spoon for the child to self-feed from a bowl with 2 emptied jars of purée. The mothers fed their children at their usual pace until the spoon was rejected 3 consecutive times by the children. Children had to taste at least 3 spoons. Mothers also rated how much their child enjoyed the purée. In lab Live

Multifaceted: other (taste preferences)

Feeding experience Mother with testing food supplied by research staff Number of contacts/duration of visits: three times in the lab (baseline, 12 mo, 23 mo)

Duration of full intervention: 23 mo (baseline to 12 mo, 12‒23 mo)

NR
Barends et al. (2013) Mother–infant pairs participating in this first part of the study were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups. After being fed rice flour porridge for 5 days to get used to solid foods, two groups received exclusively vegetable purées consisting of either green beans or artichoke on every other day during 18 consecutive days. The other two groups received exclusively fruit purées consisting of either apple or plums every other day. On the other 9 days, the vegetable groups received other types of vegetables, and the fruit groups other types of fruits, Number of contacts/duration of visits: On days 1, 2, 17, 18 and 19, the vegetables or fruits were given in one of the two laboratories. On days 3–16 the mothers fed their infant the vegetable or fruit purées at home

Duration of full intervention: 19 days

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
selected by the researcher, to bring variety in the diet. On day 19, the vegetable groups received their first fruit and the fruit groups their first vegetable purée. On days 1, 2, 17, 18, and 19, the vegetables or fruits were given in one of the two laboratories. On days 3–16 the mothers fed their infant the vegetable or fruit purées at home.
— [France, Germany] Maier et al. (2008) Breast- or formula-fed infants received their first vegetable (carrot purée) and, over the next 9 days, either carrots every day; 3 vegetables changed every 3 days; or 3 vegetables changed daily. On the 12th and 23rd days they received new vegetable purées, zucchini tomato, then peas. Several weeks later, they received two more new foods: meat and fish. Acceptance of new foods was measured by quantities eaten and by liking ratings.

Delivered in 3 phases: Phase A, days 1–12: veggie introduction and test of a first new veggie B, days 13–23: repeated exposure and test of second new veggie C, test of meat and fish consumption

Research lab; home Live

Multifaceted: tasting opportunities

Communication (verbal), feeding experiences Researchers; mothers (at home) Phase A: 12 days total of in-lab feeding (duration of each visit not reported)

Phase B: 10 days of at home feeding and Day 23 (last day) in the lab

Phase C: first day in lab, next 11 day feeding at home, and then next 2 days in the lab

Duration of full intervention: about 1 mo

NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
— [United States] Mennella et al. (2008) Study 1 (fruits): evaluated infants’ acceptance of pears on days 1 and 11 and green beans on days 2 and 12. During the home exposure period, one group fed only pears at the target meal (pear group), whereas the other group fed a fruit that was different than the one experienced during the previous 2 days (BM group).

Study 2 (veggies): evaluated infants’ acceptance of green beans on days 1 and 11 and alternating spoonful of carrots and spinach on days 2 and 12. The infants in the green bean group were fed only the target vegetable, green beans, whereas those in the between-meal variety group (BM vegetable variety group) and the between-meal and within-meal variety group (BM–WM) were fed a variety of vegetables. The BM vegetable variety group was fed only one vegetable each day and green and orange vegetables were alternated daily, whereas the BM–WM variety group was fed two vegetables each day (one green,

Research center; home Live; remote-live

Multifaceted: tasting opportunities

Communication (verbal), phone, feeding experiences Researchers; mothers (at home) Each mother–infant dyad went to the research center 2 days before (days 1 and 2) and after (days 11 and 12) the 8-day home exposure period. The exposure occurred during a target meal that occurred at the same time of day as research center exposure sessions and the 8 consecutive days of the home exposure period.

Duration of full intervention: 8 days

NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
one orange). In the latter group, the pair of vegetables varied from day to day, but one of the pair was experienced the prior day.
— [United States] Forestell and Mennella (2007) Two groups of mother–infant dyads were randomly assigned to the green bean group or green bean + peach group. Sensory lab portion: mothers fed their child until they rejected the food three consecutive times or finished two jars of food. Right after feeding sessions, mothers rated how much they thought their infant liked the food. Mothers went into the research lab 2 days before and after an 8-day home-exposure feeding period.

Home exposure period: mothers fed jarred purée food contents of one jar of puréed green beans until the infant either refused the food on three consecutive occasions or finished the contents of the jar. Infants in the comparative group received a jar of peaches 1 hr after the green beans.

Research lab; home Live

Multifaceted: other (taste preferences)

Feeding experiences Mothers with testing food supplied by research staff Number of contacts/duration of visits: 4 at the lab, 8 at home—infants determined pace and duration of feeding

Duration of full intervention: 12 days

NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year Intervention Description Intervention Location Intervention Type Intervention Mode Intervention Delivered by Intervention Duration/Intensity Theoretical Framework Cited
— [Germany] Koehler et al. (2007) Intervention was various modes (four groups total) of nutrition counseling for mothers.

IG1: Mothers were offered a telephone hotline three times per wk, open 2 hrs each

IG2: Mothers received the telephone hotline and additional written information on dietary schedule recommended by German Pediatric Society, distributed in 3 parts.

IG3: Mothers received the telephone hotline, written information, and were offered additional personal telephone counseling.

Home (telephone and written materials) Live; remote tech noninteractive

Single: counseling

Communication (written and verbal) Counselor from study center 10 mo (2 mo of age to 12 mo of age) NR
— [United States] Krebs et al. (2006) Infants were assigned to meat (puréed beef) and cereal as first complementary food at least 6 mo of age.

The infants remained on the assigned food (plus fruits and vegetables as desired) until 7 mo of age when they were allowed to liberalize their diet to all age-appropriate foods, including the alternative study food.

Home Live

Single: provision of test food

Feeding experience Researchers explained procedure and provided test foods 2 mo (starting approximately 5 mo of age stopped at 7 mo of age) NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
— [Canada] Verrall et al. (2006) Assessments and interviews were done to identify preferences and values to focus communication strategies on. The results were provided to the community through radio shows, community display, and an information booklet sent to all mothers who participated in initial interviews. Key messages were used to promote awareness around iron deficiency anemia and promote iron-rich infant food and support breastfeeding. Interpersonal communication method conveyed information to target audience about making homemade baby food. Mass media and interpersonal communication Remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: education; other (social marketing)

Communication (written), visuals, media, other (activities) Researcher-developed communication through community program 6 mo total but time varied depending on activity

Cooking workshop: two 2-hr sessions

Radio: four dialogues played 4 times a wk at various times during the day

Two basic underlying concepts of current cognitive–behavioral theories/models guided the project: Knowledge is a mediating factor for behavior and knowledge alone is insufficient to change behavior.
Verrall and Gray-Donald (2005) Time 2 mothers (November 2002–2003). Through needs assessment, four intervention objectives were identified: increase awareness of iron deficiency anemia, promote optimal iron-rich complementary food, promote benefits of homemade baby food, support breastfeeding.

Ten key messages (with images) were developed and disseminated within the community through mass media and interpersonal communication strategies (infant food cooking activities, posters, newsletters).

Mass media and interpersonal communication Remote tech noninteractive

Multifaceted: education; other (social marketing)

Communication (written), visuals, media, other (activities) Researcher-developed communication 6 mo total, but time varied depending on activity

Cooking workshop: two 2-hr sessions

Radio: four dialogues played 4 times a wk at various times during the day

NR
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

TABLE E-3 Outcomes

Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments
Health Care
INFANT [Australia] Zheng et al. (2022) Sweet snacks, water, fruits, vegetables, other—non-core drink

Caregiver-focused

Intervention group had a lower “discretionary consumption” than the control. No evidence of between-group differences was found for the fruit, vegetables pattern score.

Healthy parental monitoring of eating, division of responsibility for child feeding, provision of fruits and veggies at meal and snack times NR NR Dietary intake: Assessed by a 68-item quantitative FFQ

Lifestyle patterns: PCA analyses

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Robust multicomponent intervention based on anticipatory guidance, parenting skills, and peer support frameworks. Intervention design considered the health care system structure and practices in Melbourne, Australia. Intervention had an impact on “less consumption of unhealthy food + TV watching” (PCA analysis pattern) at >3 yrs.

Study was done with White, well-educated families in a health care system that is different from the one currently in place in the United States. No impact on fruit and vegetable intake pattern, which is inconsistent with what they reported in other papers based on different dietary modeling analyses.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Hesketh et al. (2020)

Child-focused Caregiver-focused

At the first follow-up, children who had received the intervention had more favorable dietary intakes across all outcomes than their peers in the control condition. The strongest impacts were seen for fruit, vegetable, water, sweet snacks, and vegetable variety but diminished magnitude of effect at second follow-up for all the above except for non-core drinks and sweet snacks. At 3.6 yrs and 5 yrs of age, children whose parent participated in the study had more favorable diets than their peers. Stronger dietary effects were seen at the first follow-up (2 yrs post-intervention) than the second follow-up (3.5 yrs post-intervention).

NR At 3.6 yrs and 5 yrs of age, children whose parent participated in the study had similar adiposity outcomes across both IG and CG groups.

Child diet: 3× 24-hr diet recalls

Sedentary activity: Acceler-ometry

Anthropo-metrics: BMI z-scores

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes
Robust multicomponent intervention based on anticipatory guidance, parenting skills, and peer support frameworks. Significant impact on sugary snacks and unhealthy drinks. Intervention design considered the health care system structure and practices in Melbourne, Australia. Long-term impact at >3 yrs on healthier dietary patterns. Illustrates importance of long-term post-intervention follow-ups.

Study was done with White, well-educated families in a health care system that is different from the one currently in place in the United States. No impact on child adiposity.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments
Spence et al. (2014)

Child-focused

Maternal dietary intake was associated with child diet quality but was not a mediator.

Caregiver-focused

Post-intervention, lower use of foods as rewards was found to mediate the direct intervention effect on child diet quality.

Post-intervention, higher maternal feeding knowledge was found to mediate the direct intervention effect on child diet quality.

Self-efficacy was associated with child diet quality but alone was not a mediator.

Health related: NR

Maternal mediators: self-completed questionnaire post-intervention

Maternal knowledge of feeding behaviors: Purpose-designed 12-item tool

Maternal self-efficacy: Assessed using a combination of seven previously developed items and two purpose-designed items

Maternal feeding practices: six subscales from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes
Robust multicomponent intervention based on anticipatory guidance, parenting skills, and peer support frameworks. Intervention design considered the health care system structure and practices in Melbourne, Australia. Mediation analysis useful for untapping potential “mechanisms” for intervention effects, in this instance maternal knowledge and not using food as a reward (responsive feeding). Also identifies maternal self-efficacy as a determinant of child dietary quality (but not a mediator of impact of intervention).

Study was done with White, well-educated families in a health care system that is different from the one currently in place in the

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

Maternal diet (modeling): FFQ previously validated among a sample of Australian women

Child dietary index: three unscheduled telephone multipass method 24-hr recalls post-intervention where parents received a purpose-designed food measurement booklet to aid in food quantity estimation OPDI used for measuring child dietary targets

United States. Unclear validity or value added of OPDI scores.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

Cameron et al. (2014)

Child-focused

Maternal education moderated the effect of the intervention on vegetable consumption, sweet snacks, and water; maternal age moderated the effect of the intervention on vegetable consumption and water intake; a significant intervention effect only for mothers with a university degree for the consumption of vegetables and sweet snacks; highly significant intervention effect

NR

Collected BMI but did not report on outcomes.

Infant diet: 3× telephone administered multi-pass 24-hr recall

Physical activity: ActiGraph accelerometers

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Robust multicomponent intervention based on anticipatory guidance, parenting skills, and peer support frameworks. Intervention assessed through a robust cluster-randomized trial design. Effect modification analysis addressed equity issues as they found different results on impact of intervention on unhealthy dietary behaviors as a function of maternal education. Intervention design considered the health care system structure and practices in Melbourne, Australia.

Study was done with White, well-educated families in a health care system that is different from the one currently in place in the United States. No impact on BMI.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
was observed in infants with younger mothers (<32 yrs) for increasing vegetable and water consumption.

Spence et al. (2013)

Child-focused

Three dietary patterns were identified by PCA; however, the scores did not substantially differ between the intervention and control arms.

NR

OPDI scores were higher in the intervention group compared with the comparator group.

Dietary data: A five-pass, computer-assisted, standardized recall process was developed and used based on the method validated by the USDA

Diet quality: Obesity Protective Dietary Index (OPDI)

Dietary patterns: principal components analysis (PCA)

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Robust multicomponent intervention based on anticipatory guidance, parenting skills, and peer support frameworks. Confirms impact of intervention on healthier dietary patterns. Intervention design considered the health care system structure and practices in Melbourne, Australia.

Study was done with White, well-educated families in a health care system that is different from the one currently in place in the United States. Unclear validity or value added of OPDI scores.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

Campbell et al. (2013)

Child-focused

Caregiver-focused Reductions in sweet snack consumption in 20-month-old children; at mid-intervention (9 mo), intervention group children had lower noncore-drink intake than control group children. No significant differences between groups at end of study for other dietary outcomes (fruits, vegetables, water, noncore savory snacks).

NR

No difference in BMI between groups.

Child diet: 3× 24-hr diet recalls

Sedentary activity: Accelerometry

Anthropometrics: BMI z-scores

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Robust multicomponent intervention based on anticipatory guidance, parenting skills, and peer support frameworks. Impact on sugary snacks and unhealthy drinks. Intervention design considered the health care system structure and practices in Melbourne, Australia.

Study was done with White, well-educated families in a health care system that is different from the one currently in place in the United States. No impact on fruit, vegetable, water and savory snacks intake, and BMI.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

— [Italy]

de Franchis et al. (2022)

MedDiet foods

Child-focused

At the third follow-up visit (36 mo), the MedDiet group had a higher percentage of parents reporting that their children had good adherence to the MedDiet (higher KidMed score). Of the 16 items asked on the KidMed questionnaire, there were six significant differences between groups [the MedDiet group children had parents reporting higher regular consumption of fresh and cooked vegetables, fish, and nuts and reporting that they were less likely to eat fast food, baked goods, or pastries for breakfast, sweets].

NR

NR

No difference in BMI between groups.

Adherence: KidMed questionnaire and adult questionnaire.

  1. Yes
  2. No
  3. No
  4. Yes

Child well clinic waiting area computer/kiosk based. Good potential for WIC counseling/education. Anticipatory guidance. Native Americans. High completion rate (95%). Very strong impact on child nutrition knowledge improvements.

Duration and intensity not described well; control group may not be generalizable.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

GeliS [Germany]

Hoffmann et al. (2021)

Introduction of complementary food (specifics not provided).

Caregiver-focused

A higher proportion of parents of infants in the intervention group reported providing whole grain products compared with control. Other solid foods did not differ between groups. The intervention group introduced complementary food later than control.

RF: Infant hunger and satiety (specifics not provided).

NR

Infant weight was lower in the intervention group from birth to 4 mo, similar to control at 6 mo, then higher at 12 mo.

Infant feeding practices: Questions adapted from German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Large sample size, well designed intervention.

Study primarily designed to assess maternal outcomes. Not a weakness but of note: (1) groups differed little with respect to infant outcomes; and (2) weight was higher at 12 mo among intervention infants, raising possibility of unintended consequences.

BBOFT [Netherlands]

Vlasblom et al. (2020)

Difference of homemade food and food in jars. Sweets/food not used to reinforce.

Child-focused

At 6 mo, fewer children in the BBOFT+ group consumed sweet beverages compared with control. No significant

Do not use food as a reward, family meals, no watching TV while eating.

Child-focused

No significant difference in daily breakfast between BBOFT+ and control at any time point.

No difference in BMI at 6, 14, or 36 mo.

Questionnaires with questions adapted from Dutch questionnaires used in previous studies.

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No

Appropriate number of clusters and participants within clusters, statistical analyses appropriately accounted for clustering, detailed description of intervention provided. Less generalizable to U.S. populations because intervention conducted in the

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Snacks: water or diluted juice, bread crust or crackers. Prevention of extra food and used healthy alternatives. difference at 14 or 36 mo. context of Youth Health Care centers, a distinct feature of the health care ecosystem in the Netherlands.

van Grieken et al. (2017)

Less SSB

Child-focused

At 36 mo, children in the intervention group with normal-weight mothers had less sweetened beverages per day.

Breakfast daily

Child-focused

Significantly more male children in the intervention group ate daily breakfast at 36 months.

No difference in BMI at 36 mo of age.

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Appropriate number of clusters and participants within clusters, statistical analyses appropriately accounted for clustering, detailed description of intervention provided. Less generalizable to U.S. populations because intervention conducted in the context of Youth Health Care centers, a distinct feature of the health care ecosystem in the Netherlands. Low overall rates of obesity further reduce generalizability to the United States.

Obesity at 36 mo was very low: 4–6%

Largely a study of negative results.

Study professionals and parents were not blinded

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

Starting Early Program [United States]

Messito et al. (2020)

Healthy first foods, homemade baby food purées

Caregiver-focused

At 10 mo, more intervention mothers were less likely to have introduced juice, given juice in a bottle, or cereal in a bottle.

Recognizing infant feeding cues, non-feeding soothing techniques, signs infant is ready for solids, responsive feeding, interacting during meals, family meals, self-feeding, cup introduction, allowing infant to decide how much to eat, how much to feed, and healthy meal and snack routines

Caregiver-focused

The intervention group was more likely to have daily family meals and had higher knowledge scores. The intervention group exhibited lower subscale scores in pressuring/controlling, indulgent and laissez-faire domains compared with controls.

Increasing number of NPSG sessions attended was correlated with giving breast milk as the only milk source, giving less cereal in the bottle, higher knowledge scores, and lower pressuring with cereal.

Health related: NR

Feeding practices: Infant feeding practices study II questions

Feeding knowledge: eight questions generated from StEP curriculum

Feeding styles: Infant Feeding Style Questionnaire (validated)

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Hispanic/Latino study sample, high proportion with less than high school education, intervention fidelity and adherence assessed and described, intensive intervention (prenatal and frequently in the first year) by registered dieticians represents potential maximum achievable in this manner.

Outcomes described were all obtained by parent report, methods state that medical records were reviewed but no outcomes from medical records (e.g., anthropometry) are reported.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

— [Israel]

Globus et al. (2019)

Solid foods, iron, and vitamin D supplementation

NR

Infant hunger/satiety cues, emotional feeding, responsive feeding

Both caregiver-focused and child-focused

Maternal behaviors are modifiable for first-time mothers, leading to better feeding interactions at age 12 mo, as based on evaluations of filmed feeding interactions. Mothers from the intervention group were more attentive to infants’ cues, enabling them to initiate interactions, control the pace, amount of food, and ending of the meal.

NR

Mother–infant or toddler interactions: Chatoor Feeding Scale (CFS); blinded video tapings of mother–infant feeding interaction done at 12 mo.

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Blinded videotaping to assess how to feed

Not randomized; feeding environment not assessed

Highly educated mothers; funds insufficient to complete videotaping of all infants in control group

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

PROBIT [Italy]

Morandi et al. (2019)

Encouraged alternating protein sources correctly. Discouraged adding sugar to foods or beverages, and giving the child beverages other than milk or water.

Child-focused

There was no difference in SSB consumption at 2 yrs between groups.

Encouraged breastfeeding, feeding on demand, responsive feeding, timely complementary feeding, giving based on the child’s appetite and playing active games with the child. Discouraged pressing the child to eat more, rewarding or punishing the child with food.

Caregiver-focused

Feeding on demand was more prevalent in the intervention arm at 3 mo. There were no group differences in outcomes at 6 and 12 mo.

No significant difference in BMI between groups at 2 yrs

Pediatrician completed data collection forms (yes/no questions)

  1. Yes, although it was methodologically unsound (assumed an ICC similar to an individually-randomized trial).
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No

Uses existing clinical provider

Participants recruited by pediatricians who were aware of group assignment, outcome assessment was not blinded.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

LIMIT [Australia]

Dodd et al. (2018)

Fruits, vegetables, saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, fiber, dairy

Child-focused

NR

Provision of different meals for children; family mealtime; food encouraging behaviors; bottle at bedtime

Caregiver-focused

NR

No effect of an antenatal dietary intervention on child growth or adiposity at 18 mo of age

No difference in prevalence of child BMI z-scores >85th percentile for children born to women in the intervention group

Prevalence of child BMI z-scores >85th percentile: using skinfold thickness measurements with a strict protocol

Child neurodevelopment: Ages and Stages Questionnaire

Child dietary intake: questionnaire based on an Australian Longitudinal Study

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Intervention focuses on prenatal period which is believed to be key for life-course approach to childhood obesity prevention.

No data on impact of prenatal intervention on maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy. Hence not possible to know why intervention had no impact on childhood obesity risk factors. Very little information on implementation aspects of study provided.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

Dodd et al. (2014)

NR

NR

No significant difference in the risk of infants born large for gestational age in the lifestyle advice group compared with standard care group. Infants born to women allocated to lifestyle advice, however, were less likely to weigh above 4,000 g than standard care group.
In a post hoc analysis, there was no difference in total gestational weight

NR

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Intervention focuses on prenatal period which is believed to be key for life course approach to childhood obesity prevention.

No data on impact of prenatal intervention on maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy. Hence not possible to know why intervention had no impact on childhood obesity risk factors. Very little information on implementation aspects of study provided.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
gain in the lifestyle advice group vs standard care group.
For women, no significant differences between the two treatment groups in the proportion of women whose weight gain was below, within, or exceeded the IOM recomendations based on BMI in early pregnancy.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

Grow2 Gether [United States]

Fiks et al. (2017)

Avoiding juice and other SSB

Child-focused

SSB introduction was not different between groups.

Responsive feeding, feeding styles and responsiveness to infant cues, bonding with baby and understanding cues

Caregiver-focused

At 9 mo, mothers in the intervention group had higher IFSQ feeding behavior scores and were less likely to report pressuring their children to finish food.

There were no significant differences in weight-for-length z-scores between groups.

Behavioral outcomes: Self-report in survey

Maternal infant feeding practices: 10 questions from Infant Feeding Style Questionnaire (IFSQ) [previously published]

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. No
  4. No

Social media intervention has increasing relevance for dissemination of information. The participant population in this study was entirely low income.

Sample size was small; social media platform used is dated.

NOURISH [Australia]

Magarey et al. (2016)

Nutritional requirements of healthy infants

Child-focused

At 5 yrs of age (follow-up) there were no group or time-by-group differences in dietary outcomes or CDQ scores. There were no time-by-group

Solid feeding including variety and texture, neutral repeated exposure to healthy foods, neutral limited

Child-focused

Children in the intervention group were reported by parents to have lower food

NR

Weight and length, infant food intake: two 24-hr food records and one phone 24-hr recall

Infant food preference: Wardle tool adapted to Australian target foods

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No

Theoretically informed intervention; clearly described; intensive intervention

High intensity and duration of the intervention may be a barrier to scalability.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
differences in child food preferences. The intervention children liked a higher proportion of specified fruits, but preferences for vegetables and discretionary foods did not differ by group. exposure to noncore foods and realistic expectations of the growth. Positive feeding environment and managing toddler eating behavior in the context of increasing autonomy and transition to eating with the family and in wider social settings. Encourages a structured food choice and eating pattern, positive role model-ling and avoidance of coercion, use of rewards, and emotional feeding. responsiveness and higher satiety responsiveness. There was a time effect for child eating behavior.

Infant feeding behavior: Childrens Eating Behavior Questionnaire

Maternal feeding style and practices: Infant Feeding Questionnaire, Child Feeding Questionnaire, Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire (PFSQ).

Parenting skills: four scales from Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

Daniels et al. (2015)

NR

Caregiver-focused

At 5 yrs of age (follow-up) significant group effects were seen for six of nine scales, with intervention mothers reporting less non-responsive feeding.

In response to children’s refusal of food they normally eat, mothers in the intervention group used

Time was significantly associated with BMI z-score but no time by group interaction.

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
fewer non-responsive strategies (three of six items) and more responsive strategies (two of two items). In response to child refusal of unfamiliar foods (neophobia), mothers in the intervention group were less likely to disguise the food and more likely to continue to reoffer new foods (two of four items).
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

Daniels et al. (2014)

Caregiver-focused: Intervention group was reported by parents to like more fruits and to have been exposed to a wider variety of vegetables and were more limited in the reported number of “liked” and “tried” beverages.

Child-focused: Proportion of intervention vs control children consuming specified foods on 24-hr recalls were in desirable direction but not statistically different.

Child-focused

The intervention group children were rated higher by parents on satiety responsiveness, lower on emotional overeating, fussiness, and food responsiveness.

NR

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

Daniels et al. (2013)

NR

Caregiver-focused

There were significant differences by group in the expected directions on six of nine subscales from the CFQ23 and PFSQ24 and on 11 of 12 individual items assessing responses to food refusal.

Fewer (but not significant) intervention children were classified as overweight or obese.

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

Daniels et al. (2012)

NR

Caregiver-focused

Intervention mothers reported a slightly higher awareness of cues than control mothers and were more likely than those in the control group to report it was mostly/only their child who decides how much the child eats. There were no group differences in the mothers’ perceptions of their child’s feeding behavior.

Rapid weight gain less common in intervention infants. No group differences between groups length z-scores.

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Proportion of mothers reporting their child was easy to feed, picky or fussy eater, or unwilling to eat unfamiliar food.

Growing Leaps and Bounds [United States]

Schroeder et al. (2015)

Cereal, vegetables, SSBs, milk

Caregiver-focused

Intervention group was less likely to use cereal or stage 1 vegetable (purées) as first complementary food. Intervention group offered less soda, sweet tea, punch, cow’s milk than control.

NR

Caregiver-focused

Parents in the intervention group exerted significantly more dietary restriction on their child, and were more active in monitoring child feeding than those in the control group.

No effect of intervention on BMI, height, weight or BMI z-score at 24 mo

Child feeding practices: Tips on Parenting Study instrument; Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ)

Dietary assessment: Authors developed an FFQ for this study.

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes, infant weight by SNAP participants

Intervention group included the low-income urban site.

48% Black participants, intervention in pediatric office was intensive and might represent the maximum of what could be achieved in a pediatric office, included written materials that could be scalable.

Randomization occurred by cluster, and there were only four clusters, which greatly limits power. Statistical analysis did not describe accounting for clustering, and ICC was not reported, suggesting, that statistical analysis did not appropriately account for clustering.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

— [United Kingdom, Greece, Portugal]

Fildes et al. (2015)

Vegetables, fruit; offering variety of vegetables

Child-focused

No significant effect of the intervention on vegetable intake, controlling for the effect of country. No group differences in fruit intake or liking were observed in the taste test in any of the three countries.

Introducing vegetables early in the weaning process, recognition of infant facial features in response to feeding (responsive feeding), exposure feeding

NR

Infant food preferences: UK intervention infants ate significantly more unfamiliar vegetables and were rated by both mothers and researchers as liking the vegetable more compared with infants in the control group 1 mo after solid foods were introduced, no significant difference was found in Portugal and Greece.

Health related: maternal BMI (self-reported)

Feeding method: Assessed with one question in questionnaire completed pre- and post-intervention.

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Addresses key question on veggies as first foods to facilitate subsequent acceptance of novel veggies. Included objective measures of veggie intake and acceptance assessed through direct observation. High study retention. Positive findings in one but not all countries suggest importance of contextual factors (e.g., lower veggie intake among infants in the UK) [lower fidelity/compliance in Portugal could not be ruled out].

Study was conducted in three European countries with different health care systems and, to some extent, different pediatric nutrition recommendations than the United States. Very limited RE-AIM implementation information. If this intervention were to work in the United States, it could have strong nutrition counseling implications for the WIC program.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

— [United States]

French et al. (2012)

Fruits, vegetables, milk, SSBs. Other: fast food

Caregiver-focused

MOMS group had more fruits and vegetables given to infants than the BF group.

Meal/snack frequency, responsive feeding

Caregiver-focused

The mothers in both intervention groups (MOMS and OP) had healthier child feeding habits than those in the BF control group. Providing mothers with information aimed at changing their own eating patterns showed positive differences in reported infant feeding behaviors.

By age 12 mo, the OP group of mothers reported fewer family meals than MOMS and BF.

Health related: NR

Maternal nutritional intake: Questions from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Fruit and Vegetable module

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Well-designed comprehensive anticipatory guidance intervention that included how and what to feed the infant (as well as maternal nutrition); U.S.-based

Only 57% completers (unclear why) did not test group-based model. May have implications for improving design of WIC nutrition counseling and education.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

First Steps for Mommy and Me [United States]

Taveras et al. (2011)

NR

Child-focused

Infants in the intervention group (IG) practices were less likely than infant in the control group (CG) to be introduced to solid foods before 4 mo of age (Note: there are no relevant outcomes on what to feed for our purposes—timing of introduction).

Maternal responsiveness to satiety cues, maternal use of feeding to soothe practice

No differences at 6 mo on breastfeeding duration or exclusivity. No differences in maternal responsiveness to infant satiety cues or use of feeding to sooth (Note: duration of breastfeeding not relevant outcome for us).

There were no group differences in maternal postpartum weight retention (PPWR) at 6 mo comparing the IG with the CG.

Change in WL z-scores from birth to 6 mo appeared lower among IG infants compared with CG infants but not statistically significant.

There was a trend toward fewer IG infants being in the highest quartile of WL z-scores at 6 mo of age.

Mother’s dietary intake: Brief FFQ

Fast food intake: Question adapted from another source used in cohorts of adults and adolescents

SSB intake: Validated questions associated with adult BMI

Breastfeeding: Birch questionaires

Infant feeding behaviors and timing of solid foods: Infant feeding questionnaire

Infant BMI: Seca scale (weight) and Shorr boards (height)

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes, some quartile comparisons

Pilot study

Limited to highly educated population; there were no significant findings relevant to what to feed or how to feed; mother’s self-report; no randomization, power analysis for outcomes; very small numbers in comparator group.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

TARGet Kids! [Canada]

Maguire et al. (2010)

Juice, cow’s milk

Child-focused

Both the intervention group (IG) and control group (CG) had similar intake of cow’s milk and juice.

Age at bottle-weaning, breastfeeding, cup-use, age at breast-weaning, bottle-use in bed

Child-focused

Children in the IG were less likely to be using a bottle during the day at 2 yrs and less likely to be using a bottle in bed. Children in the IG started using a cup 3 mo earlier and were weaned from the bottle 4 mo earlier than children in the CG. There were significant absolute risk differences in bottle use in the IG compared to CG during the day and in bed at 2 yrs. 86% of parents of children using bottle said there was

No difference in iron depletion at 2 yrs of age for children in either the IG or CG.

Iron depletion: Ferritin testing via Siemens Immulite 2500 analyzer

BMI: SECA, stadiometer, and scale

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

86‒89% college educated

Earlier introduction of cup-only positive effect: how to feed—relevant to our report

Blinding information: staff, pediatricians, and lab personal were blinded to group assignments. Parents were not blinded to allocation group, sippy cups were masked when delivered.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
continued bottle use because the child “likes the bottle better than the cup” and 25% responded that the child “does not drink enough using a cup.”

— [United States]

Sanghavi (2005)

Formula, milk, other: solid foods, honey, breast milk

NR

Knowledge of sleeping with bottle and formula/breast milk, weaning bottle by 12 mo of age

NR

Parents in the intervention group compared to the control group scored higher on questions testing their knowledge of nutrition.

Health related: NR

Knowledge assessment: included infant nutrition along with multiple unrelated nutrition topics using a 21-item questionnaire.

  1. No
  2. No
  3. No
  4. No

Child well clinic waiting area computer/kiosk based; good potential for WIC counseling/education; anticipatory guidance; Native Americans; high completion rate (95%); very strong impact on child nutrition knowledge improvements

Only focused on knowledge about what to feed; limited information on RE-AIM implementation aspects

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
ECE

EniM [Spain]

Roset-Salla et al. (2016)

Dietary fats (Mediterranean Diet), other-fiber, CHO type

Child-focused

Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet improved in the intervention group compared to the control group. No significant differences were observed between the two groups of children for food and nutrient intakes.

Not included in intervention delivered but breastfeeding was assessed as a comparative factor between the IG and CG.

NR

For parents: significant improvement in Med Diet adherence and consumption of vegetables, fish, olive oil, and vitamins C and D for the intervention group compared to the control group, with a subsequent decrease in the intake of butter, margarine, and industrial bakery products for the intervention group.

Health related: NR

Med Diet adherence: Kidmed test (children), MDQI 14-item test (adults)

Child macro-micronutrient intake: FFQ adapted from adult FFQ BMI-weight/height

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Design and results: educational intervention in parents in ECE setting during the time 1–2-yr-olds added to the family table can improve healthy eating.

Study participants have high education level

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

— [United Kingdom]

Ahern et al. (2014)

Vegetable consumption

Child-focused

Children consumed more sweet veggie compared to the other 2 veggies offered; older children (>24 mo) ate less veggie purée immediately post-intervention than the younger children (<24 mo); significant increase in intake by exposure 3 but no further significant increase found after 3rd exposure.

Repeated exposure to vegetables through flavor–flavor learning for children

Child-focused

No main effects on condition (repeated exposure, flavor–flavor learning, control), but statistically significant interaction between exposure and condition; post-intervention intake and change in intake was significantly correlated with all three conditions.

Significant increase in intake by exposure 3 but no further significant increase found after 3rd exposure. Intake of the FFL purée also increased from pre- to post-intervention, when no longer paired with the sweet tasting fruit purée (associative learning indicator), but both FFL and RE conditions increased veggie consumption with no clear advantages of FFL over RE.

Leicester SMSSE portable stadiometer for child height and Seca digital scales for child weight; purée measured before serving but no details on how it was measured.

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No

Overall support for current literature on frequent exposure increasing acceptance.

The timing of intervention and age children resulted in the younger children not participating in the 6-mo follow-up, biased sample per researchers.

Lack of participant characteristics, attrition of the study participants at 6 mo, small sample size make it challenging to assess scalability.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Measured anthropometrics of children (BMI).

— [Belgium]

Verbestel et al. (2014)

Water, SSBs, fruits, vegetables, Other: sweets and savory snacks

Child-focused

The intervention was not effective in increasing parent-reported increasing daily consumption of water, unsweetened milk, fruit, and vegetables, consumption of soft drinks, sweetened milk, sweets and savory snacks.

Meal/snack frequency

NR

There was a significant time-by-condition interaction indicating that the intervention had a positive effect on BMI z-score. BMI z-score decreased in both groups but decreased more in the intervention group than the control group.

Child dietary intake: 24-item FFQ taken by parents at home

BMI: height/weight (Seca scales)

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Family-based healthy lifestyle in ECE can lead to healthier weight outcomes in toddlers.

Negative development of lifestyle behaviors over 1 yr of time

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

— [United Kingdom]

Caton et al. (2013)

Vegetable consumption

Child-focused

Intakes of both vegetables increased significantly from pre- to post-intervention; changes in intake for artichoke increased more than carrot even after controlling for carrot intake at baseline.

Repeated exposure to vegetables through flavor–flavor learning and flavor–nutrient learning for children.

Child-focused

RE, FNL, and FFL were equally effective at promoting the intake of a novel vegetable (artichoke) in pre-K children

A significant time-by-condition interaction was observed, demonstrating elevated intake in the RE condition at post-test and follow-up.

Measured anthropometrics of children (BMI)

Child height: Leicester SMSSE portable stadiometer

Child weight: Seca digital scales

Purée measured before serving but no details on how it was measured; for purée, all pots were weighed before and after to determine grams of purée served.

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Study design that separated investigation into two age cohorts: 23 mo and younger and 24 mo and older; selected ECE centers to account for SES and balanced ethnic backgrounds.

Environmental/home/cultural factors not studied. Also further studies needed to examine the effect of RE with foods in their pure form.

Results showing RE can be a simple technique that can be applied in both home and ECE settings.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

— [United States]

Clark et al. (2009)

Milk, breast milk, formula, water

Caregiver-focused

Intervention group respondents perceived that breast milk provided the most benefits to infants.

Responsive feeding, other: breastfeeding.

Caregiver-focused

Intervention group: respondents perceived that breastfeeding provided the most benefits to infants; did not feed infants every 2 hrs compared with control group.

Intervention group met more of the breastfeeding-friendly center criteria (e.g., offering mothers water to drink, private spaces to breast-feed).

At follow-up, no significant differences in knowledge, attitude, and behavior changes were found among the three time periods.

Health related: NR

Pre/post/follow-up survey with 42 closed- and open-ended questions asking providers about their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward feeding breast milk, formula, and solid food to the infants through the INFAnet Nutrition for Child Care Providers.

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Thoughtful conceptual design; bilingual resources included though not used

First of its kind study with inconclusive results

More research needed

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments
Cooperative Extension

NEAT [United States]

Horodynski and Stommel (2005)

Introducing new foods, parental concerns about what to feed

NR

Adult modeling positive behavior, addressing parents’ concerns about how to feed, and parenting skills

Child-focused: No significant difference in toddler feeding self-regulation between groups

Caregiver-focused: Caregiver knowledge was greater in the intervention group (note baseline knowledge of intervention group was slightly lower than in control). Caregiver self-efficacy increased slightly in both groups,

NR

Toddlers feeding self-regulation: Child-Parent Mealtime Behavior Questionnaire (CPMBQ) which was adapted from the Children’s Eating Behavior Inventory (CEBI)

Parental knowledge: Facts on Feeding Children tool developed for this study.

Feeding self-efficacy questionnaire

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No

Focus on low-income families who tend to be at high risk; high participation rate (100% classes, 91% for 18 reinforcement activities), included process evaluation positive, use of existing cooperative extension and Early Head Start services, included 4-wk and 6-mo follow-up measures.

Mostly White sample, all self-reported measures, no behavior changes documented, unclear if adequately powered.

Feasible collaboration between cooperative extension and Early Head Start with high participation rates by parents; authors suggest that more tailored reinforcement activities would be helpful.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
but not significantly different between groups. Proportions of families observed with TV on during meal time visit decreased, but not significantly, in the intervention group over time.
WIC

SMS Intervention [United States]

Macchi et al. (2022)

Breastfeeding, delaying solids, delaying and reducing baby juice consumption

Child-focused

At baseline, infant nutrient consumption was the same between groups. At the end of the study, the intervention group had significantly higher intakes of calcium, protein, zinc, and grains. Milk consumption was the same between groups.

Prevention of overfeeding, recognizing satiety cues, readiness for introductory foods, when to feed solids

NR

NR

Infant feeding practices: validated FFQ

Behavior change: qualitative interview delivered by trained interviewer.

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No

WIC-based texting campaign is highly implementable; fairly low-dose, low-cost with high acceptability yet low impact; ethnically diverse WIC study sample. Method could be implemented across settings within and outside of WIC.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

Gibby et al. (2019)

NR

Caregiver-focused

Most participants reported that the messages led them to make changes in the way they fed their infants, such as talking to their infant during feedings and observing hunger cues. However, some participants made no changes in feeding.

Focus was on acceptability of text messages, reported high acceptability of text messages.

Health related: NR

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

Palacios et al. (2018)

Caregiver-focused

No statistically significant difference between introduction of juice between groups at the end of the study

Caregiver-focused

Feeding practices were not different between groups, but there was a trend for a greater proportion of caregivers in the intervention group stopping the feeding when infants showed signs of being full compared with controls.

Child-focused

No significant differences in weight status at the end of the trial

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes, by those who were breastfeeding initially vs those not.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

— [United States]

Scheinmann et al. (2010)

Age appropriate feeding messages derived from anticipatory guidance sources from USDA (not described).

Caregiver-focused

Knowledge of age appropriate infant feeding practices. Of the nine questions, one [size of baby’s stomach] demonstrated increased knowledge in the video group [note: control had higher baseline knowledge of this]. Three questions had greater knowledge in control group at 3- or 6-mo follow-up.

Age appropriate feeding messages derived from anticipatory guidance sources from USDA (not described).

Caregiver-focused

Of the seven behavior questions asked, only knowledge on “age to introduce solids” was higher in the video group.

NR

Questionnaire adapted from Bright Futures Nutrition Series.

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. No
  4. No

Highly implementable intervention (DVD to take home); foreign-born Latina sample.

Unclear how caregivers used the DVD intervention and what other follow-up might have been offered/reminders to watch, questions about what was learned, etc.

Low-dose intervention perhaps even more achievable today with social media/online videos (rather than DVDs) that achieved small but measurable impacts. Could be integrated across settings.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Home Visit

Sleep SAAF [United States]

Hernandez et al. (2022)

Avoid adding infant cereal to a bottle

Caregiver-focused

Around half of the mothers in both groups reported adding cereal to infants’ bottles. No difference between groups on introduction of solids.

Recognize hunger and satiety cues, feeding expectations.

Caregiver-focused

Mothers in the responsive parenting group used significantly less pressure to finish/soothe and reported less pressure with cereal (not statistically significant). This group reported higher endorsement of the statement “I let my baby decide how much to eat.” Most mothers in each group used milk/formula to soothe. The responsive parenting group were significantly less likely to soothe with other beverages.

Feeding mode (breast or formula) and maternal age moderated the group effect on use of pressure to finish/soothe.

Health related: NR

Introduction of solids/bevegages: maternal self-report

Pressure based feeding practices: IFSQ

Food to soothe: Babys Basic Needs Questionnaire

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No

African-American target population; two home-based sessions (90-120 min at 3 wks; 45–60 min at 8 wks).

Assessed a very high number of outcomes (18) with only three significant; low-dose/low-impact. But promising in terms of embedding responsive feeding interventions in HV programs and targeting African-American families.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

INSIGHT [United States]

Harris et al. (2020)

Vegetables, fruits, SSB, and high fat snacks.

NR

Recognize hunger and satiety cues, to offer age-appropriate foods and portion sizes, to use food for hunger only and not as a reward or punishment to soothe a distressed but not hungry child, and to use repeated exposure to promote acceptance of foods, the impor-

Caregiver-focused

Mothers who received the responsive parenting intervention reported using less food to soothe at 18 mo and perceived their child to have lower emotional overeating at 30 mo.

NR

Infant dietary intake: FFQ

Mothers self reported feeding behavior: Baby’s Basic Needs Questionnaire

Feeding beliefs and behavior: IFSQ

Child emotional overeating (Harris at 30 months): Children’s eating behavior questionnaire

Feeding mode: Infant Feeding Practice Study 2 FFQ from the CDC

Anthropometry: Maternal pre-pregnancy weight collected from medical records; maternal height collected from

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No

Conducted a mediation analysis, conducted multiple imputation to account for missing values.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
tance of modeling healthy eating behaviors, shared feeding responsibility, and establishment of routines and limits. medical records or Shorr portable stadiometer whereby BMI was calculated from the height and weight measures; infant recumbent length and weight measured with Shorr stadiometers and Seca digital scales; conditional weight gain measured by calculating scores from standardized residuals from the linear regression of weight for age at 28 wks on weight for age at birth.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

Hohman et al. (2020)

Child-focused

Second-borns from RP group families had greater frequency of vegetable intake (and vegetable variety) than second-borns in the control group.

NR

Mothers reported having introduced a greater total number of foods to their second-born child than they did for the firstborn. Further differences in combined firstborn vs second-born described in paper.

Health related: NR

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No

Adjusted for multiple comparisons; unique in that it looked at potential impact of intervention on second child without additional intervention.

Impact on only one outcome of many examined (second-born vegetable intake)—but vegetable intake is probably one of the harder outcomes to impact.

Scalability: appealing to potentially intervene with first-time mothers and to continue to be effective.

Savage et al. (2018)

Caregiver-focused: Mothers in the responsive feeding group were more likely to introduce vegetables as a first complementary food (both

Caregiver-focused: At 8, 20, and 32 wks, mothers in the RP group were less likely to report that they encouraged their child

NR

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes, by breast vs formula-fed.

Reported some effect sizes: medium to large effects on “pressure” related outcomes (pretty impressive for a nutrition education related intervention—usually small effect sizes are expected). Looked at many outcomes and did not adjust for multiple comparisons—

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
groups began complementary feeding around 4–6 mo).

Child-focused: At 1 yr, there were few differences between groups in dietary intake as measured by the FFQ. The RP group reported their children consumed less snacks than the control and more vegetables daily, but no difference in exposure to fruit juice, SSB, fried foods, or fruit.

to finish the bottle if their infant stopped drinking before the milk was gone. At 28 wks, mothers in the RP group had lower scores on all three pressure subscales of the IFSQ (pressure to finish, pressure to soothe, and pressure with cereal) than mothers in the control group; there was no difference on restriction or responsive satiety. At 52 wks, mothers in the RP group reported lower use of pressure to eat and greater use of the two structure-based feeding scales, limiting exposure to unhealthy foods, and consistent feeding routines. many p-values (0.03–0.05) probably no longer considered significant if they adjusted for multiple comparisons.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

Hohman et al. (2017)

Child-focused

At 9 months, RP group infants were less likely than control to be in the formula, low-variety class or formula, high-energy-density class relative to the formula, fruits and veggies class. No differences in class membership by intervention group were noted for the breastfed, low-variety and breastfed, fruits and veggies classes.

NR

Child-focused

Infants who were predominantly breastfed with low-fruit/veg and high-energy-dense food intake had significantly higher BMIs than breastfed or formula-fed infants that had adequate intake of fruit/veg and other appropriate complementary foods. Breastfed or formula-fed infants with high-fruit/veg appropriate complementary food

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. No
  4. No

Adjusted for multiple comparisons; nurse that measured height and weight was blinded to study group; long-term follow-up (2 years).

Health outcome associated with dietary pattern vs study group.

Scalability: main impact of the intervention was on increasing quality of diet in infants who were primarily formula-fed at 9 months (maybe has high relevance in the United States).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
pattern had significantly lower BMI percentiles/scores than other dietary patterns. Intervention increased proportion of infants in the formula-fed with high-fruit/veg appropriate complementary food pattern.

INSIGHT [United States]

Savage et al. (2016)

-

NR

NR

RP infants gained weight more slowly than control group infants; infants in the RP group also had lower mean weight for-length percentiles at 1 yr than infants in the control group and were less likely to be overweight at 1 yr.

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Follow-up to 1 yr, adequate study size, limited dropout, important health concern (rapid weight gain), intensive intervention with multiple home visits

Population was demographically lower risk, unclear what proportion who were invited agreed to participate, substantial staff time for delivering intervention.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

OVERALL: U.S.-based; focus on responsive feeding with some parts of curriculum similar to one already used by some state WIC agencies (Baby Behavior); fairly low dropout (14%); comparator used equivalent educational intervention [contact time] on different topic (reduce issues related to Hawthorne effect); nurse-delivered (trained professional); assessed fidelity of message delivery (moms/nurses noted messages delivered at each session); used validated questionnaires

Many outcomes self-reported by moms (social desirability bias); primiparous moms only (limits generalizability); moms were older, English-speaking, mostly White, highly educated/higher income (limits generalizability).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Scalability—challenge: many home visiting programs are not staffed by nurses (and getting more and more challenging to staff home visiting programs with nurses with nursing shortage—many have moved to paraprofessional model); strength: intensity (four sessions) probably very reasonable for most home visiting programs to deliver.
Baby’s First Bites [Netherlands] Van Vliet et al. (2022) Study states: repeated vegetable exposure to promote vegetable intake, acceptance, and liking.

Child-focused

No difference in vegetable intake between groups at 18 mo or 24 mo.

RVE: repeated vegetable exposure

VIPP-FI: enhance sensitive parenting during feeding (recognize hunger and satiety cues and increase sensitive feeding and autonomy support).

Child-focused: There was no difference in self-regulation skills between groups.

Caregiver focused: Of the eight behaviors assessed, combined and VIPP-FI mothers had higher levels of responsiveness at

Child-focused: No differences in BMI z-score between groups

Purée intake: weighed jars post feeding

Vegetable intake: 24 hr dietary recall using online Compl-eat program (using Dutch food composition database): data processed by dietitian

Self-regulation: eating in the absence of hunger experiment (published)

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No

Rigorous study design

Very highly educated White population receiving a fairly intensive intervention yet minimal impact. Most promising impact on increasing maternal sensitivity on how to feed.

Blinding information: Researchers coding data were blinded. Participants were not blinded.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments
18 mo (not 24). VIPP-FI mothers marginally demonstrated more sensitive behavior during mealtime (at 18 mo) than AC.

Mother report of child feeding behavior: CEBQ-T

Maternal feeding behavior: researcher observed and coded, self-reported

Family Spirit Nurture [United States]

Rosenstock et al. (2021)

Added sugar, SSB, traditional Navajo diet

Caregiver- and child-focused

Less reported SSB consumption at 6 mo (immediate post), 9 mo (3 mo post-intervention) and 12 mo postpartum

Role modeling healthy habits, division of responsibility, responsive feeding, hunger/satiety cues.

Caregiver-focused

More responsive feeding behaviors at 9 mo (3 mo post-intervention) and 12 mo postpartum (not statistically significant)

Lower BMI z-scores in intervention vs control group at 9 mo (3 mo post-intervention) and 12 mo postpartum (not statistically significant)

Interviews (developed by study team), maternal self-report, study staff observations, and medical records

Infant SSB consumption: Pre-School Beverage Intake Questionnaire

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No

Co-designed with community; comparator used fairly equivalent educational intervention [six sessions intervention vs three sessions control contact time] on different topic (reduce issues related to Hawthorne effect); post-intervention time points assessed and impact demonstrated; impact on both caregiver reported

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

Responsive feeding: Maryland Infant Feeding Study

Infant feeding history: Adapted BEVQ-PS

Infant height/weight: extracted from medical charts

(SSB, responsive feeding) and objective outcomes (BMI z-scores); corrected for multiple comparisons; effects demonstrated for population with many economic and environmental challenges with accessing healthy foods (almost the whole Navajo Nation is a food desert) and high health risk (high prevalence of maternal obesity and diabetes)

Extracted infant height/weight from medical charts (vs measuring using research grade equipment and protocols); conducted at single site; follow-up only until 12 mo

Scalability—strengths: culturally sensitive; many HV programs now use trained paraprofessionals; intensity (six sessions) probably reasonable for most home visiting programs to deliver

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

Delta Healthy Sprouts [United States]

Tussing-Humphreys et al. (2019)

Toddler-friendly meals

Child-focused: Nutrient intake compared with the recommendation—no treatment or covariates were significant. Nutrient intake increased as age increased in both groups (no treatment effect, but time effect).

Caregiver-focused: The largest treatment difference was seen between not introducing SSB before 12 mo (not significant).

Knowledge: Could not compare PAT to PATE due to

Infant feeding cues, introduction of solids, toddler feeding, managing rejection and demands

NR

NR

Infant dietary intake: 24-hr dietary recall

Participant knowledge/belief: true/false statements (appears to be designed for this study)

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

African-American target population

Study retention very low and numbers in results section vs figures do not match; baseline differences in the groups made it difficult to study impact of intervention.

PAT vs PATE with no true control group means we are only looking at potential added benefit of added curriculum around maternal weight management and child obesity prevention (PATE) over the standard PAT intervention.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
baseline differences, but all maternal knowledge response changes (baseline to end of study) were in the positive direction (i.e., increased knowledge)

— [United States]

LoRe et al. (2019)

Incorporate five food groups into diet, cook fresh food at home, maximize healthy nutrients, select healthy restaurant options, food preparation safety, allergies and choking, limit sugary drinks

. NR

Positive food socialization behaviors while introducing new foods

Caregiver-focused

Parents in the intervention group had significantly higher knowledge than control post-intervention.

NR

Parental knowledge: questionnaire designed for study

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. No
  4. No

RCT with pairs matched on child age, intervention tailored to low-income families who tend to be at high risk.

Whether all subjects had all home visits and completed all modules not mentioned, sample primarily African American, limiting generalizability, no long-term follow-up and no behavior change measures after intervention completed, but this is planned as is a 5-year study.

Online modules could be scaled up but unclear whether parents will complete modules in the absence of home visits.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

ECHO [United States]

Cloutier et al. (2018)

SSB, juice, solids, fruit, vegetables

Caregiver-focused

Those who completed the ECHO program were less likely to have introduced juice/SSB at 6 mo and when introduced, introduced juice at an older age compared with those who did not complete the program. Fruit and vegetable intake did not differ between groups. Those who stayed in the NFN+ program longer also breastfed for a longer time at 12 mo.

Cup use, other-breastfeeding

NR

Infants of completers had a higher BMI than infants of non-completers at birth but a lower BMI at 6 and 12 mo. Infants whose mothers completed ECHO had a lower WFL z-score at 12 mo compared with those who did not complete the program.

Maternal diet intake: self-report

Breastfeeding and feeding behaviors: questionnaire

Adiposity: BMI and WFL

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Use of an existing evidenced-based home visiting program to deliver intervention

Small sample size, high dropout rate, behavior changes not sustained

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

BLISS [New Zealand]

Morison et al. (2018)

Provision of three foods types at each meal: iron-rich food, energy-rich food, fruit or vegetable; offer easy foods during illness and recovery; age-appropriate foods

Child-focused: At 7 mo, BLISS group had greater total food variety, with greater intake of dairy, grains and milk, snacks and beverages, meats and proteins. No significant difference was seen for fruit and vegetable consumption. Differences in food preferences between groups was not significant.

Caregiver-focused: Children were offered savory vegetables and savory non-meat high-protein foods and lumpy foods more often than control at 12 mo.

Resources to avoid choking; responsive feeding; baby-led weaning

NR

Adjusting for time of introduction of complementary food strengthened some of these relationships.

Health related: NR

Infant energy self regulation: team created eight-item scale (questionnaire)

Infant eating behavior: Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire by Wardle

Infant feeding questionnaire: Toddler-Parent Mealtime Behavior Questionnaire

Dietary assessment: 3 day weighed diet record

  1. Yes
  2. NR
  3. Yes
  4. No

No comments listed

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

Williams Erickson et al. (2018)

Child-focused

At 7 mo BLISS infants ate more fat and sodium than controls. Other nutrients were similar to control. Nutrient intakes were similar at 12 mo and 24 mo.

At 7 mo, grains and cereals contributed more energy in the BLISS group, as did meats, milk, and miscellaneous foods compared with controls.

At 2 yr, more dietary variety in fruits and vegetables than controls

NR

NR

  1. Yes
  2. NR
  3. Yes
  4. No

More CF variety in Rx compared to controls?

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

Taylor et al. (2017)

Child-focused

No significant difference in energy intake at 12 or 24 mo

Child-focused: BLISS infants were more likely to feed themselves most or all of their food than control infants at every age.

Caregiver-focused: Mothers of BLISS infants rated their infants as significantly less fussy or picky about food, whether measured by the CEBQ or TMBQ at 12 mo but not 24 mo.

Parents indicated that BLISS infants were less satiety responsive than control infants at 24 mo.

No significant difference in BMI z-scores at 12 or 24 mo.

  1. Yes
  2. NR
  3. Yes
  4. No

Novel intervention, blinded assessment of outcome, 1- and 2-yr follow-up, considered both reported infant eating behaviors and BMI

20% attrition at 24-mo follow-up, limited study size for some outcomes, very demanding protocol

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

POI [New Zealand]

Fangupo et al. (2015)

Food-based what-to-feed guidance (fruit, vegetables, treats, beverages)

Child-focused

At 24 mo, absolute intake of foods (meat, vegetables, sweet drinks, etc.) and energy/nutrient intake were not statistically significantly different between those who received the FAB intervention and those who did not receive the intervention.

Appropriate parenting styles (repeated exposure, responsive parenting) Food-based (portion size, family meals)

Child-focused: Infant eating behavior was not significantly different between groups.

Caregiver-focused: At 18 mo, of the 16 parental feeding practices assessed, only child control was greater in the FAB group. At 24 mo, the only significant difference was that the FAB group was more likely to report that they encourage nutrient-dense foods.

NR

Baseline questionnaire: Questions same as New Zealand census, self-report

Infant eating behaviors: Parental self-report responses to questions and home inventory by Fulkerson et al (2008).

Parental feeding practices: Subscales from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire and Murashima’s Feeding Control Instrument

Infant dietary intake: EAT FFQ

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No

Well-designed intervention, intervention clearly described, trial conduct clearly described.

Outcomes assessed by parent report. Not a study weakness but worth noting: intervention is time-intensive and few differences found between the groups despite intensive intervention.

Stratified block allocation was used to control for SES Modified ITT analysis not described in further detail.

Blinding information: Nurses were blinded during assessment of anthropometric outcomes but not FFQ or questionnaire outcomes. Statistical analysis was blinded.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

— [France]

Remy et al. (2013)

Vegetable consumption/acceptance

Child-focused

Intake and liking of artichoke purée was greater in FFL and RE than FNL during the exposure period.

After the exposure period, comparison between pre and post artichoke acceptance, the greatest increase was seen in RE (liking and intake), intake increased for FFL group, and neither intake or liking increased for FNL.

No significant change in artichoke purée intake was observed between post-exposure and the follow-ups. Liking of artichoke decreased at the 6 mo follow-up for all groups. At the 6 mo follow-up carrot liking was greater than artichoke in FNL group only (others groups had similar liking).

Repeated exposure to vegetables, flavor‒flavor learning, and flavor–nutrient learning

NR

NR

Infant feeding/intake: Weighed jars

Infants liking: Parent self-report using 9 point scale (previously published)

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No

Carefully standardized/provided foods for infants to consume; compared three approaches (repeated exposures, flavor–flavor learning, flavor–nutrient learning).

French infants (likely different family diet context/approach than the United States); study findings are well known/well accepted at this point (repeated exposures are helpful strategy for increasing child vegetable acceptance/intake).

Not a scalable intervention, outside context of recommending that caregivers use repeated exposure strategy (already included in some of the other interventions we will probably discuss in more depth).

Groups matched for age, gender, and mode of milk feeding.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

— [Australia]

Wen et al. (2011)

Water, other: breast milk

NR

Cup usage, other: breastfeeding and appropriate timing to introduce solid foods, responsive feeding, weaning.

Caregiver-focused

The intervention decreased the proportion of mothers using food for reward by 7% and increased the proportion of children drinking from a cup by 7% as well as reduced the proportion of children having a bottle to go to bed by 9%.

The intervention also decreased the age at which infants started tummy time and increased daily practice of tummy time by 7%.

Health-related: NR

Duration of breastfeeding and timing of introduction to solid foods: Short telephone interview

Time child spends on their tummy: Survey at 6 mo time period

Cup usage, bottle at bedtime, food for reward: Face-to-face interview at 12 mo time period (questions selected from the New South Wales Child Health Survey and the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study)

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Home-based early intervention improved some infant feeding practices.

The impact of the study on infant weight gain is not answered and the attrition of younger, poorer, and less educated mothers’ limits generalizing outcomes.

— [United Kingdom]

Watt et al. (2009)

Types of foods/drinks—emphasis fruits and vegetables

Child-focused: At the 12 and 18 mo follow-up there was no significant difference between

When to introduce solids; when to stop feeding using a

Caregiver-focused

There was no significant difference be-

No significant difference in weight at 18 mo follow-up.

Nutritional data: self report; 24-hr multiple pass recalls with methods validated in low income population

  1. Yes
  2. No
  3. Yes
  4. No

Conducted with economically disadvantaged population; based on a theoretical model (social support theoretical model).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
vitamin C intake or other micro and macronutrients assessed. At 12 and 18 mo, infants in the intervention were more likely to consume some food types (pears, apples, potatoes, carrots, chips).

Caregiver-focused: At 12 mo, infants in the intervention group were significantly less likely to be given goats or soya milks and were more likely to be eating three solid meals per day compared with infants in the control group.

bottle (cup feeding) tween mothers’ knowledge and confidence in following recommendations on how to feed at 12 mo. At 18 mo, mothers had significantly more knowledge on when bottle use should be discouraged.

Dietary intake: FFQ for mother fruit/veg intake

All other outcome data collected through interviews with mothers—no details on interview questions, source, etc.

Conducted in the United Kingdom; greater loss to follow-up than other home visiting interventions; description of intervention content is fairly vague (empower women to follow current guidance on later stages of infant feeding practice—when to introduce, types of foods/drinks (emphasis fruits and vegetables), when to stop using a bottle); no mention of responsive feeding approaches; no mention of fidelity of delivery of the intervention being monitored; looked at many outcomes across two time points and did not correct for multiple comparisons—many p-values (0.03–0.05) probably no longer considered significant if they adjusted for multiple comparisons; used only bivariate tests (no modeling).

Scalability challenges: greater intensity (nine sessions) than other interventions, which may not be as reasonable given all other topics home visiting programs must cover; strengths: many HV programs now use trained paraprofessionals.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments
Other

— [United States]

Harris et al. (2022)

SSB

Caregiver-focused

The countermarketing videos significantly reduced caregivers’ overall positive attitudes about fruit drinks and toddler milks, as well as perceptions of product convenience and value. Watching the counter-marketing videos also reduced positive attitudes about food and beverage companies and reduced intention to serve fruit drinks and toddler milks.

NR

NR

NR

Video Experiment Survey (published in supplementary material)

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

RCT with control group watching videos that were similar to intervention videos on likability, believability, inactiveness and relevance, included relevant covariates in analyses, included diverse participants, included screentime survey to disguise study intent.

Short-term trial, no behavior outcomes, not powered to assess impact differences among population subgroups.

Videos slightly more beneficial in influencing intentions re. serving less sugary drinks than serving more healthy drinks.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

— [New Zealand]

Rapson et al. (2022)

Fruits, vegetables (purées)

Child-focused

Overall: Providing vegetables as first foods increased vegetable intake at 9 mo of age. At 9 mo, veg-only infants consumed target vegetables (broccoli and spinach) at a faster rate and showed greater acceptance for target vegetables than the control group. The rate of eating and acceptance of pear was comparable among intervention groups and veg-only infants consumed more vegetables than controls.

NR

NR

Introducing vegetables as the first food was not signitifantly associated with iron status at 9 mo.

Intake of target veggies at home and liking of food by infant: Weighted food diary

Daily intake of veggies: FFQ

Food acceptance: video recordings

Liking of vegetables: 5-point mother-rated Likert scale

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Large study, rigorous design with blinding, clear goals.

Short-term outcomes only.

Blinding information: Were participants or data collectors blinded? Yes

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

— [United States]

Cauble et al. (2021)

Types of solid food to feed

NR

How much the infant should be eating, mealtime tips and choking hazards.

NR

No significant difference in breastfeeding rates between group

No differences between groups were found regarding the time for introduction of solids.

Health related: NR

Use of solid foods: self-report survey

Structured interviews

  1. No
  2. No
  3. Yes
  4. No

Included positive process evaluation (though at least one in-person contact requested), high participation in multiple follow-up assessments (post-intervention during pregnancy as well as at infant ages: 1 and 2 wks, 2, 4, and 6 mo).

Mostly White sample, included WIC participants who would have received counseling on infant feeding, self-report measures, pilot to test feasibility so not adequately powered.

Limited information for our purposes as very little of intervention addressed what solid foods to introduce, how much infants should eat, and mealtime tips.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

— [United States]

Johnson et al. (2021)

Added sugar, added salt, plain vegetable

Child-focused

Infants 6 to <12 mo accepted more tastes and were rated by caregivers as liking the kale more than older toddlers. The plain kale was more likely to be accepted and the first version offered was more likely to be rejected.

Other: breastfeeding, self-feeding

Child-focused

Older infants (≥18 mo) exhibited more avoidant behaviors, more playing, and more self-feeding than younger infants (6 to <12) mo. Children who were reported to have been breastfed more in the last 7 days were more likely to self-feed.

NR

Children’s food acceptance:

  1. maternal perceptions of liking-9-point hedonic scale
  2. successful tastes- feeding protocol measured by experimenter
  3. rate of acceptance- video coding scheme Feeding Infants: Behavior and Facial Expression Coding System (FIBFECS)
  4. positive/negative behaviors-video with Noldus The Observer XT coding software

Caregiver BMI-height with Holtain stadiometer and weight with Seca 634 bariatric scale

Infant BMI: Ellard length boards and Seca 334 infant scale; WHO growth standards used to calculate BMI z-scores.

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Precise question, multiple exposure groups

Subjective outcomes, short-term follow-up only, narrow questions

Blinding information: Caregivers and researchers blinded to order of introduction and researchers blinded for coding of videos.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

— [Germany]

Kalhoff et al. (2021)

Vegetable, Other: commercialized foods

Child-focused

Infants fed vegetable-based frozen meals for 3 mo accepted a new vegetable better than infants fed commercial meals in jars. Infants in the control group ate significantly less of the unknown than of the known menu, while infants in the intervention group ate similar amounts of both meals.

Other: repeated exposure

NR

The low acceptance of frozen menus before the intervention and the better acceptance 3 mo later may be due solely to the effects of repeated exposure.

An additional examination of the consumption of the known menus in both groups confirmed that there was no difference between the amounts eaten either before or after the intervention.

Health related: NR

Infant’s liking of food: 9-point scale assessed by mother and video cassettes to assess baby face responses.

Infant food intake: weighed before and after feeding

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Addresses specific issue in infant taste preferences.

Small study, substantial attrition, subjective outcomes

Blinding information: Neither participants nor data collectors were blinded.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

— [South Korea]

Ra (2021)

Providing solids

NR

Responsive feeding practices; methods for providing solids

Caregiver-focused

Recognition of hunger and satiety cues of infants increased over time, but there was no group difference. There was no group difference in knowledge of providing solid food for overweight prevention.

Breastfeeding self-efficacy and attitude differed by group.

Health related: NR

Recognition of hunger and satiety cues: Infant Feeding Questionnaire translated into Korean

Caregiver knowledge: Previously published instrument (Scheinmann)

  1. Yes (but unclear which outcome this was based on and author states statistical power was insufficient in discussion)
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No

Website content based on literature review, and content validity based on five pediatricians and child nursing professors (content validity index calculated but unclear method and meaning), website access checked and if mother did not check for 3 days, sent text message to encourage daily checking.

Convenience sample, all primiparas so limited generalizability, unclear which solid foods were encouraged/discouraged for overweight prevention, modest sample size, no pilot testing of website content with participants and no process data on how well liked or used, control group did not receive any web-based education.

Not effective for outcomes of interest for our purposes (e.g., recognizing hunger and satiety cues), mothers were encouraged to access the website at least once every 2 days for 6 mo, which may not be sustainable or acceptable for many (4 of 19 women dropped out of intervention).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments
Food4toddlers [Norway]

Roed et al. (2021)

Importance of early eating habits with focus on accessibility, availability, and variety of healthy food and beverages; foods appropriate for different ages

Child-focused

There was a larger increase in vegetable intake (frequency and variation) from baseline to follow-up 1 in the intervention group (not observed at follow-up 2). No significant differences in fruit intake or discretionary foods.

Repeated exposure, basic tastes and spicy food; self-feeding skills and children’s ability to self-regulate food intake; use of food as a reward; family meals; children’s participation in cooking

NR

NR

Infant food intake: parent-reported FFQ

Feeding practices: food neophobia scale, comprehensive feeding practices, questionnaires from nationwide diet survey, FCQ SCQ, questions developed for this study

Knowledge: agree/disagree questions about perception of learning

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No

In this study, we observed that giving parents access to an eHealth intervention during toddlerhood increased their children’s vegetable consumption frequency. The intervention effect was attenuated and no longer significant 6 mo postintervention. This intervention was from 10–17 mo and then follow up at 2 yrs. The question may be asked as to whether they were then truly on the family diet which does not includes these fruits and vegetables.

Roed et al. (2020)

NR

Caregiver-focused

Caregiver learned information from using the intervention website.

NR

  1. Yes
  2. No
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

22 lessons

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

— [France]

Tournier et al. (2021)

Types of purée (smooth vs rough), vegetable, fruit, meat, textured foods

Child-focused

The more children were exposed to textured (i.e., non-puréed) foods, the more they accepted a variety of food textures during lab sessions.

Choking hazards, food textures, responsive feeding

Caregiver-focused

Providing information and monthly counseling to parents about the introduction of food textures to their child’s diet resulted in an increase in parents’ introduction of small/soft pieces but not on the introduction of more complex textures.

Parents in the intervention group introduced more texture variety of soft/small food pieces than parents in the control group.

Being a firstborn child was significantly associated with a lower texture exposure score.

Food texture acceptance was related to children’s appetite traits at 12 mo old: children who had higher scores for food responsiveness and enjoyment of food and a lower score for food fussiness had a higher texture acceptance score.

Health related: NR

Food texture exposure: Questionnaire with corresponding food texture exposure scores (TexExp)

Food acceptance: measured with a food acceptance score

Children’s saliva flow rate and children’s chewing performance: measured using a cotton swab method

Chewing efficiency: assessed from children’s ability to comminute a model gel inserted in a mesh feeder during a standardized duration

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Novel topic of food texture, long-term follow-up

Narrow question

Blinding information: mothers aware of study aim but blinded to allocation group.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

— [Australia]

Wen et al. (2020)

Timing of solid introduction, breastfeeding

NR

Cup feeding, not using food as reward, family meals, meals together

Caregiver-focused: At 6 mo, the telephone support group had a greater odds of appropriate timing of introduction of complementary foods, practicing tummy time, and drinking from a cup than control group. The SMS group had greater odds of appropriate timing of introduction of solid complementary foods compared to the control group (not significant after Bonferroni.

NR

Outcomes: assessed by questionnaires used for previously published HBT study

  1. Only for BMI z-score measured at 2 yrs)
  2. Only for recruitment site
  3. Yes
  4. No

Double-blind RCT, nurses received training on motivational interviewing, process data showed 61–87% participated in phone calls (but no process data on opening of mail or use/acceptability of information) and 81% of participants completed follow-up, 2 yr outcomes forthcoming.

Self-report outcomes, no control for potential confounders, not powered to compare between intervention groups

Telephone better than SMS for several outcomes (e.g., cup use, family meals, more physical activity), but may be less sustainable as more mothers dropped out of telephone (12%) than SMS (2%) group.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
correction) At 12 mo, of the 8 outcomes assessed, the telephone support group had greater odds of children having no bottle at bedtime, having family meal, no screen time, child active >2 hr/d (not significant after Bonferroni correction). The SMS group also had greater odds of no bottle at bedtime and no screen time. No differences in having a meal together (not necessarily eating same foods as parent), no use of food for reward.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

Early Food for Future Health [Norway]

Helle et al. (2019b)

Appropriate food types and textures; how taste preferences evolve; how to make homemade food

Child-focused

At 12 mo: of the 11 items assessed under child eating behavior, there were group differences in two (food responsiveness and food approach dimension) (intervention group was higher). Of the four child intake categories, at 24 months children in the intervention group had a higher time per day score for fruits and vegetables. In key food variety score, children in the intervention group had higher food variety

Responsive feeding practices

Child-focused: At 12 mo, of the four mealtime habits assessed, three were significantly different by groups (intervention group more likely to report child eating the same dinner as family, less likely to report parents making separate dinner for child, child playing or watching TV while eating). Children in the intervention group

No group differences in anthropometry at 12 mo of age (secondary outcome)

Child feeding behaviors: Wardle et al. questionnaire

Child’s willingness to try new foods: child food neophobia scale

Childs food intake: FFQ developed for this study

Mealtime routine and parent feeding style: infant feeding questionnaire (previously published, NOURISH trial)

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

RCT, included primiparas and mothers with other children, used validated tools to assess feeding practices, included process evaluation at child age 12 mo (video clips: 85% mothers reported watching all/most, 96% said easy to understand, 11% said did not learn something new; cooking films: 66% watched all/most, 92% easy to understand, 9% did not learn something new; no differences detected by maternal education), included 1 yr post-intervention follow-up measures.

Well-educated sample, all self-report measures except for child BMI, FFQ used to assess child intake, retention rate lower than expected (wanted 500 per group) so power diminished.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
score for vegetables, but not fruits. were more likely to eat breakfast and dinner with their family compared to control (no difference in lunch and snack).

Caregiver-focused: No evidence of group differences

Promising results from what appears to be a scalable intervention assuming internet access after 6 mo of intervention, but effects no longer detectible 1 yr later (albeit power substantially diminished) suggesting need for a life course approach with ongoing interventions across various stages of childhood.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

Helle et al. (2019a)

Child-focused

At 24 mo, of the 11 items assessed under child eating behavior there were group differences for food responsiveness and emotional overeating. There were no significant differences between food category (fruits, vegetables, snacks, soft drinks) between groups or consumption of homemade dinners.

Child-focused: At 24 mo, there was no significant difference in meal-time habits or meals eaten with family between groups.

Caregiver-focused: At 24 mo, of the 6 maternal feeding practices/styles assessed, instrumental feeding was significantly lower in the intervention group.

At 24 mo, no group difference in weight-for-age z-score, while BMI-for-age z-score was significantly higher in intervention compared to control group. This between group difference disappeared after imputing missing 24 mo values and adjusting for baseline values (considered exploratory analysis).

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×

OTIS [Sweden]

Johansson et al. (2019)

Target foods, how to make and feed purées

Child-focused: No significant differences in energy or fat intake at 6 or 9 mo between the groups. The control group consumed significantly more protein per body weight than the intervention group (6 and 9 mo). At 9 mo, fruit and vegetable intake were greater in the intervention group.

Caregiver-focused: Intervention group families served homemade baby food more often.

Enhance parents’ willingness to complete taste portion of study.

NR

There were no significant differences in anthropometric outcomes at 9 mo.

Infant dietary assessment—5-day food records (parental report on type of food consumed/offered and time of day

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Worth noting what is a Nordic diet: emphasis on intakes of regionally produced fruits, berries, vegetables, tubers, and legumes, higher intakes of whole-wheat, vegetable fats and oils, fish, and egg (apparently less meat not sure what kind). It is interesting that the FBDG for this age include the idea of taste portions that we do not have. In any case, they provided the foods to both groups. All families had means, they note that intervention group gave more Nordic fruits and vegetables whereas control group fed more exotic fruits and vegetables.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

— [United Kingdom]

Owen et al. (2018)

Vegetables, fruits

Child-focused

Liking of the target foods was reported to increase after 2 wks of daily taste exposure, and this change in liking was maintained for several mo. Changes in liking and intake of targeted vegetables were related to the number of times children tasted the vegetable during the taste-exposure phase. Taste exposure increased reported liking of fruits (but, surprisingly, not intake of fruits) among

Repeated exposure

Child-focused

Looking at picture books about vegetables immediately before children are offered repeated tastes of these at home enhances their liking and intake of vegetables relative to children receiving taste exposure alone, with effects lasting several mo.

Child-focused two wks of looking at a picture book about a disliked or unfamiliar vegetable boosts children’s liking and consumption of the food over and above the impact of repeated taste exposure.

Looking at picture books appears to have disrupted the increases in food neophobia and food fussiness that are character

Questionnaires: Fruit and Vegetable Familiarity and Liking Questionnaire, Child FFQ, Children’s Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Food Fussiness Subscale, Child Food Neophobia Scale

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

No comments left

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
all children, regardless of whether they had received a book about the fruit. istic of children around their second birthday.

Health related: NR

— [Norway]

Beinert et al. (2017)

Introduction of solid foods: water as thirst quencher, iron rich food, nutritious fruit purées, porridges, bread and toppings (and how to prepare these items)

Child-focused

Of the six infant consumption outcomes assessed, two were significantly different between groups at 15 mo of age (consumption of commercially or homemade porridge), and none were significantly different at 24 mo of age.

Let infants taste as many new food items as possible

Child-focused

There were no significant differences in reports of children being skeptical of new foods between groups.

NR

Child food consumption: FFQ

Food skepticism: one question “to which degree do you feel your child is skeptical when new food is introduced” 1-6.

  1. No
  2. No
  3. Yes
  4. No

They did not say how they encouraged variety, but they recognize that their thinking was general and they did not give specific behavioral advice like repeated exposure. They also recognize that perhaps they overemphasized the homemade porridge and did not understand enough about how families feed fruits and vegetables.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

Øverby et al. (2017)

Iron, vitamin D supplementation, diet variety, fruit, whole grains, vegetables, unsaturated fats, meat, dairy.

Child-focused

At age 15 mo, the intervention group had lower intakes of ready-made porridge (2.0 vs 5.8 servings per week), lower intake of canned baby food (2.9 vs 6.3 servings per week) and higher intakes of homemade porridge (4.8 servings vs 0.9 servings per week) compared with the control group.

Regular meals (meal timing), home food preparation

NR

Child-focused

The intervention group had higher HDL cholesterol concentrations at 2 yrs than the control group, which they attribute to homemade porridge (oatmeal)

Food consumption: FFQ at 6, 15, and 24 mo

BMI: height and weight categorized into normal weight, overweight and obese according to the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs at 2 yrs.

Weight gain velocity: between 6 and 24 mo of age was calculated by dividing weight gain by the number of mo between the two appointments.

Blood serum sample: blood tests at age 15 and 24 mo; 25OH vitamin D3 and 3-epi25OH vitamin D3 in plasma was done with HPLCAPCI-MS/MS. Forty microliters of

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No

This study suggests that teaching parents how to prepare food in the home can increase the frequency of feeding those foods in the diets of children in this group. It seems this was a personalized class as it took 2 yrs to recruit and they were way under, and has high attrition. Overall the “how to feed” may not be one we are interested in.

Blinding information: No blinding of participants or researchers

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
human plasma were diluted with 120 µl isopropanol with deuterium labeled 25OH-vitamin D3 as the internal standard.

— [United States]

Mennella et al. (2017)

Vegetables

Child-focused

The timing of when mothers drank the vegetable juices affected their infants’ acceptance of the carrot-flavored cereal but not of the plain or broccoli-flavored cereals. Infants who had 1 mo of exposure to the vegetable flavors beginning when they were 2 wk of age were more accepting of the carrot-flavored cereal. There were no differences between the groups whose exposure began either at 1.5 or 2.5 mo and the control group. Timing was more important than duration.

NR

NR

NR

Infants’ vegetable acceptance: Behavior monitored and videotaped at research center, weighed food before and after.

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

No comments listed

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

— [United Kingdom]

Hetherington et al. (2015)

Vegetable, milk, water, rice, cereal, breast-milk

Child-focused

Overall: early exposure to a rotation of vegetable flavors first added to milk then to cereal increased intake and liking of these vegetables during complementary feeding.

In the lab: the intervention increased vegetable intake overall, intake increased with time in both groups, and carrots were eaten in greater amounts than green beans.

Infants in the intervention group (IG) consumed the vegetable purée at a faster rate than those in the control group (CG), and the rate

Baby-led weaning, breastfeeding, responsive feeding

NR

Despite differences in ratings by mothers and researchers on perception of infant liking of food during feeding, liking was significant for all vegetables and all time points (but researchers were not blinded to group assignment for the study).

Health related: NR

Maternal diet: FFQ

Infant food intake and feeding experiences at home: 35-day food recall diary completed by mother, adapted FFQ and Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ).

Infant food intake and feeding experiences in lab: Video analyses

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Well-defined study question, rigorous approach to data collection and analysis, extended follow-up.

Small study size, narrow question.

Blinding information: Researchers not blind to group assignments.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
of eating increased from the first to second exposure; carrot was eaten more rapidly than green bean.

At home: IG ate more overall and carrot was eaten in greater amounts than green bean compared to the CG. At 6 mo, vegetable intake was significantly different as expected, since number and portion size of vegetables eaten increased, but no main effect on group.

By day 35, no differences in intake were found between the two groups.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

— [United Kingdom]

Coulthard et al. (2014)

Vegetables

Child-focused

Both groups ate more of the baseline vegetable (carrot) than follow-up vegetable (pea)

No effect of carrot or pea intake between early and late exposure or single vs variety.

There was an interaction between age of introduction and exposure on pea consumption: among late exposure infants, the variety group ate more pea at follow-up than the single taste group suggesting variety of vegetables introduced

NR

NR

NR

Intake of target vegetable (g): Maternal food diary

Infant liking of the vegetable: Maternal rating on 5-point scale

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No

Single or variety of vegetables introduced was randomly assigned.

Short-term feeding trial; age of introduction was not randomly assigned and could have biased results, vegetables tested also varied in consistency which may have impacted results, all infants breastfed through 6 mo limiting generalizability, short-term (9-day) trial.

Limited information for our purposes as focus was on identifying how best to feed infants, not how best to impact recommended feeding practices.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
is helpful for infants introduced to solids according to the WHO recommended time of 6 mo.

— [Netherlands]

Barends et al. (2014)

Vegetables and fruits

Child-focused

Weaning exclusively with vegetables results in a higher daily vegetable consumption until at least 12 mo of age; at 12 and 23 mo of age, fruit (apple) and veggie (green beans) intake did not significantly differ between the groups.
Weaning with vegetables led to a 38% higher daily vegetable consumption at home at the age of 12 mo compared with the fruit weaning group. At 23 mo, the green beans intake for both groups had dropped significantly while apple intake was stable.

NR

NR (see staff notes for Guidelines)

There was a significant main effect of age in both pickiness and openness of food between 12 and 23 mo of age.

Daily energy intake: At 12 mo of age, the groups only differed significantly in the intake of mono- and disaccharides, but energy percentages were not significantly different.

Infants’ intake purées at 12 and 23 mo of age: Collected in the laboratory through pre- and post-weighing of bowls and spoons and the difference was used to calculate actual intake.

Daily vegetable and fruit intake: 3-day food record and parents weighed all food served at dinner with a provided scale.

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Rigorous protocol, extended follow-up period to 23 mo.

Narrow focus rather than comprehensive program, outcome based on maternal report only.

Blinding information: Experimenter blinded, parents not blinded to type of purée received but blinded to knowledge of another comparison group.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

Barends et al. (2013)

Fruits and vegetables

Child-focused

Mean vegetable intake in the vegetable group increased significantly between days 1 and 2 and days 17 and 18. Fruit intake in the fruit group increased significantly. Fruit intake was significantly higher than vegetable intake from the start.
The first intake of green beans in the fruit groups at day 19 was as low as the green beans intake in the vegetable groups at the 1st exposure on days 1 or 2. Similarly, the first apple intake in the fruit groups on days 1 or 2 did not differ from

Repeated exposure

Child-focused

Repeated exposure to fruit had no effect on the vegetable intake. The mean intake of green beans and plums increased significantly after repeated exposure.

Also measured sensory profiles: taste, after taste, smell, and mouth feel.

After the feeding, the mothers rated on a 9-point scale how much the infant liked the purée, just like they did in the lab.

Health related: NR

Vegetable and fruit intake: The mother was instructed to empty both jars completely on a plate and to put all that was left over after the feeding, including the vegetable purée that was spilled on the table, floor, bib, child’s face, etc., back in the jar and to seal the jar with the lid and put it in the refrigerator.

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

No comments listed

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
the first apple intake of the vegetable groups on day 19.

— [France, Germany]

Maier et al. (2008)

Vegetables, formula, breast milk

Child-focused

Variety early in weaning increased new food acceptance. Offering three vegetables for 3 consecutive days each did not significantly increase intake of new foods relative to no changes so this regimen was not efficient in increasing acceptance of new foods.

Weaning, Other: breastfeeding, flavor variety

Caregiver-focused

Breastfeeding early in weaning increased new food acceptance but was affected by time where no significant effect found during phase C (meat and fish consumption). Breast-fed infants’ liking was rated higher by mothers and observers.

The combination of breastfeeding and high variety produced greatest new food intake.

Health related: NR

At-home infant food intake: Infant food diary completed by mother.

In lab infant food intake: Weighed jar and bib before and after feeding.

Food likeness: Likert scale rated by mother and observer.

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Careful measurement of food intake, well-defined study question

Narrow focus subjective outcomes

Blinding information: Mothers not blind to treatment.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

— [United States]

Mennella et al. (2008)

Fruits and vegetables

Child-focused

First study: 8 days of dietary exposure to pears or a variety of fruits between meals (not including pears) resulted in greater consumption of pears by the infants but this increased acceptance did not generalize to green beans.

Second study: 8 days of vegetable variety both between and within meals led to increased acceptance of green beans, carrots and spinach and

Repeated exposure

Child-focused

Repeated opportunities (exposure) to taste a particular or a variety of foods may promote willingness to eat fruits and vegetables.

NR

Infant intake at home: Mothers contacted by phone to report daily food intake for infants.

Infant intake at lab: Amount of food consumed during each session was assessed by weighing the container of food and the bib immediately before and after each feed on a Mettler PM 15 top-loading balance. The difference in the weight of the bib before and after the feed was subtracted from the weight of the food to account for any food that was spilled.

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Well-defined study question, included measured intake

Small study size, narrow question

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
those who were solely fed green beans ate more after exposure. Infant liking of food: 9-point scale

— [United States]

Forestell and Mennella (2007)

Vegetable and fruit

Child-focused

Breastfed infants were significantly more accepting of fruit (peaches) when first introduced compared with formula-fed infants, as determined by intake, rate of consumption, and facial expressions. Repeated opportunities to taste green beans enhanced similar acceptance in both breastfed and formula-fed infants.

Other: breastfeeding

Child-focused

Breastfeeding did not offer an advantage for vegetable (green bean) acceptance, either before or after exposure to the vegetable.

Infant facial expressions were measured to assess liking of foods.

Health related: NR

Infant facial expressions: video analyses using the Observer program and Facial Action Coding System

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

Considered possible different responses based on history of breastfeeding, rigorous research methods, inclusion of infant facial expression.

Small study size, narrow question

Mothers completed questionnaires on their own eating habits and their infant feeding habits; researchers stratified some analyses based on breast-fed vs formula fed infants; 12/45 mothers had college education and 10/45 breastfed their infant.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments

— [Germany]

Koehler et al. (2007)

Food-based meal advice almost complying with German reference nutrient intakes. Complementary food starts with vegetables that are subsequently completed to a full meal by addition of potatoes meat and plant oil. Second complementary meal

Child-focused

Increasing the intensity of counseling significantly improved two of the four meal scores and daily nutrition scores. Counseling by written information did not increase compliance with recommendations.

NR

NR

NR

Compliance with recommendations: standardized telephone interviews; mothers were asked to report actual food and meal consumption of the infant.

  1. No
  2. No
  3. Yes
  4. No

Transition to family foods by 10 mo of age. They were comparing three methods of counseling, one being support for problem solving, then anticipatory guidance + problem solving, then as well the cold call, do you want some advice? They really cannot conclude that the support plus information did nothing, but again these were passive whereas the third group was active. Also their dietary metrics do not work for us.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
consists of milk, wholegrain cereals, and fruit juice. Fruit and wholegrain cereals are the main components, excluding milk, of the third meal.

— [United States]

Krebs et al. (2006)

Intake and acceptance of target food

Child-focused

Acceptance of beef and cereal was similar. Zinc and protein intake was higher in the meat group, iron was higher in the cereal group at 7 mo.

NR

NR

Growth was similar between groups except for head circumference which was greater in the meat group.

3-day diet records for complementary foods completed twice monthly.

Parents perception of reaction to assigned weaning food and perception of infants tolerance to assigned food.

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. Yes

RCT, anthropometry, biochemical, and development measures included with follow-up at infant age 12 mo, included relevant covariates in analyses, important contribution as Zn status not adequately addressed in current complementary feeding guidelines in the United States.

Short-term feeding trial, only breastfed infants limiting generalizability

Limited information for our purposes as focus was on identifying how best to feed infants, not how best to impact recommended feeding practices.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2023. Complementary Feeding Interventions for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2: Scoping of Promising Interventions to Implement at the Community or State Level. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/27239.
×
Trial Name [Country] Author Last Name, Year What-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to What to Feed How-to-feed Topics Covered Impact on Outcomes Related to How to Feed Impact on Health-Related or other Feeding-Related Outcomes Tools Used Notes on Statistical Methods* Committee Comments
— [Canada]

Verrall et al. (2006)

Iron rich food, homemade baby food

Caregiver-focused

Knowledge of what to feed was increased. Sale of infant iron-fortified cereal, iron-fortified biscuits, meat and broth increased.

NR

NR

NR

Evaluations/questionnaires were distributed after activities and dialogues.

  1. No
  2. No
  3. No
  4. No

No comments listed

Verrall and Gray-Donald (2005)

Iron-rich food, juice (SSB), homemade baby food

Child-focused

Intake of complementary iron-rich food increased significantly (even after controlling for maternal age) between time 1 and time 2. No significant difference in vitamin C. Consumption in juice decreased significantly from time 1 to 2.

NR

NR

NR

Infant dietary assessment: 24-hr recall (with visual aids)

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No

No comments listed

* Notes on statistical methods: (1) Was there any sample size calculation? (2) Considerations for co-variates/co-founding? (3) Correction for testing multiple hypothesis? (4) Within group analysis?

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