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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

INDEX

A

α1-antitrypsin

definition, 528

See also Acute-phase proteins;

Proteins

Abbott Laboratories. See Ross Products Division, Abbott Laboratories (ROSS)

Acetylcholine (ACH), 72, 461

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV), 37, 39, 398, 449-450, 543-544, 545, 547

exercise effects on, 375

exercise practical recommendations for, 375-376

sports, close-contact, transmission of, findings, 374-375

vitamin A deficiency and, 282, 283, 284

vitamin C and E supplementation effects on, 263, 290, 294-295

wasting syndrome of, exercise effects on, 375

See also AIDS-related complex (ARC);

Diseases and disorders;

Emerging infections;

Infectious diseases and disorders

Acquired immunity. See Antigen-specific immunity

ACTH. See Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)

Activation phase, 517-519, 521

definition, 527

See also Antigen-specific immunity;

Immune response (IR)

Active nonspecific defense mechanisms, 512-513

See also Host defense mechanisms;

Nonspecific immunity

Acute-phase proteins, 43, 515

See also α1-antitrypsin;

C-reactive protein (CRP);

Haptoglobin;

Orosomucoid;

Proteins

Acute-phase reactions, 3, 6, 11, 13-14, 126, 132-133, 133-134, 514-515

See also Immunity;

Nonspecific immunity

Acute-phase response, 13, 133, 361, 391-392

See also Liver

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

Adaptive immunity. See Antigen-specific immunity

ADH. See Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)

Adipogenesis inhibitory factor. See Interleukin-11 (IL-11)

Adrenal gland. See Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA); Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system

Adrenalectomy (ADX), 424

glucocorticoid treatment in animals after, 418-419

interleukin-1 lethality in animals after, 416-418, 419

See also Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA);

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system;

Surgical procedures

Adrenocorticosteroid (CS), 411, 415, 416-417, 418, 419, 421, 422

See also Glucocorticoids;

Hormones

Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), 71, 72, 74, 189-190, 394, 410-411, 412, 414, 415, 452, 454, 463, 470

See also Hormones

Adrenoglucocorticoid regulation, 189-190

See also Immune function

Adults

Vitamin A doses and toxicity, considerations for, 281-282, 284-285

See also Demographics

Africa

Ebola outbreak, 37, 543

measles unusual manifestations, 547

sub-Saharan, Vitamin A deficiency in, 281, 282

Age and aging, 68

bereavement and elderly subjects, immunological response to, 211

exercise and age-related immunity, studies review, 212, 376-377

immune response and, summary, 290

nutritional supplementation to boost immunity, 214

vitamin C supplementation effects on immune response, clinical trials, 263, 292-293

vitamin E supplementation effects on immune response, clinical trials, 263, 291-292

See also Demographics

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 43-44, 102, 537, 538, 539

See also Department of Health and Human Services

Agriculture Department, U.S. See U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

AIDS/HIV. See Acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV)

AIDS-related complex (ARC), 375

See also Acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV);

Diseases and disorders

Air Force. See U.S. Air Force (USAF)

Airplanes

flight over several time zones, biologic rhythms effects of, 451, 464-465

ALA. See α-linolenic acid (ALA)

Alcohol use and abuse

immune function role of, 66-67

α-linolenic acid (ALA), 305, 306, 308-309, 310, 311

See also Saturated fatty acids

Allergen

definition, 527

Allergy, 524

definition, 527

time-dependent changes in, 460-462

See also Anaphylactic reaction;

Antigen-specific immunity;

Arthus reactions;

Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH);

Diseases and disorders;

Histamine;

Hypersensitivity, immediate;

Hypersensitivity reactions

Allograft. See Surgical procedures

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

Altitude, high

immune function effects of exposure, 80

See also High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE);

Stress and stressors

American Heart Association, 264

Amino acids (AAs), 14, 42

branch chain amino acid (BCAA), 42, 43

coxsackievirus viral evolution and selenium deficiency, changes in, 349

doses and toxicity of, 110

immune function role of, 49-51, 105, 110

military personnel supplementation, conclusions, 128

military situations, special concerns in, 110

See also Arginine;

Glutamine;

Nutrients;

Proteins

Anaphylactic reaction

definition, 527

See also Allergy

Anaphylatoxin (C3a), 209

definition, 528

See also Complement system

Anemia, 10

iron deficiency, supplementation for, impact on infectious disease risk, 264, 328

military personnel deployment and, recommendations, 130

military recruits screening for and iron supplementation, 328-329

military women in basic combat training, iron status of, 62-63

military women recruits, prevalence of, 150

See also Diseases and disorders;

Iron, dietary

Anergy, 237

See also Immune response (IR)

Animals

adrenalectomized animals, glucocorticoid treatment of, 418-419

adrenalectomized animals, interleukin-1 lethality to, 416-418

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, abnormal, conditions lethal to animals, 417

mice as natural hosts of emerging infections, 546, 547-548

monkeys, Ebola-Reston outbreak in, 38, 543

Anthrax, 6

See also Biological warfare

Antibiotics

resistant organisms, disease introduction/dissemination factor, 545

See also Drugs

Antibodies, 233, 337, 538

definition, 528

functions of, 522-523

inflammatory reactions, participation of, 522-523

See also Antigen-specific immunity;

Fragment-antibody (Fab);

Fc (crystalline fragment);

Immunity;

Immunoglobulin;

Immunoglobulin A (IgA);

Immunoglobulin D (IgD);

Immunoglobulin E (IgE);

Immunoglobulin G (IgG);

Immunoglobulin M (IgM);

Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA)

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH). See Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)

Antigen-presenting cells (APCs), 520

Antigens, 209

definition, 528

See also Immune response (IR)

Antigen-specific immunity, 238, 512, 520, 522-524

response phases, 517-519, 521

See also Activation phase;

Allergy;

Antibodies;

Antigens;

B-cells;

Cell-mediated immunity (CMI);

Cognitive phase;

Discrimination of self from nonself;

Diversity;

Effector phase;

Humoral immunity (HI);

Hypersensitivity reactions;

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

immunity;

Memory;

Self-limitation;

Specificity;

T-cells

Antioxidants, 4, 14, 117

delayed-type hypersensitivity response to tetanus toxoid using beverage supplement, SFAS study, 178, 179

peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation using supplementation, SFAS study, 178, 179

See also β-carotene;

Vitamin C;

Vitamin E

Apodemis aggrarious, 546

Arachidonic acid (AA), 305, 306, 307-308, 312

See also Saturated fatty acids

ARC. See AIDS-related complex (ARC)

Arginine, 4, 7-8, 14, 42, 51, 111, 127

doses and toxicity, 111

See also Amino acids (AAs);

Nutrients

Arginine vasopressin (AVP), 410-411, 412, 413-414, 415

See also Vasopressin (VP)

Army, U.S.

See U.S. Army

Arthus reactions

definition, 528

See also Allergy;

Hypersensitivity reactions

Ascorbic acid. See Vitamin C

Asia

Southeast, Vitamin A deficiency epidemiology, 281

southern, Vitamin A deficiency epidemiology, 281

Asthma

allergic, children with, circadian rhythms in, 462

allergic, time-dependent changes in, 455, 456, 460-462

bronchial, biologic rhythms role in, 449, 461

vitamin C and E supplementation effects on lung function in, studies review, 263, 295-296

See also Diseases and disorders;

Respiratory diseases and disorders

Athletes and athletics, 68

exercise, practical guidelines for, 377-379

immune response, infection, and exercise relationship, studies of, 365-370

infection, effects on physical performance, studies of, 373-374

marathon runners immune function effects of exertion, study findings, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 371, 372

nutrient supplements and exercise, review of studies, 378-379

sports, close-contact, and transmission of HIV, findings, 374-375

upper respiratory tract infection susceptibility and exercise, studies of, 371-373

ATSDR.

See Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)

Autoimmune disease

definition, 528

linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA) management of, clinical trials findings, 310-311

See also Diseases and disorders;

Immune function

AVP.

See Arginine vasopressin (AVP)

B

Bacillus Calmette-Guirin (BCG) vaccination, 241, 459

See also Vaccines and vaccination

Bacteria.

See Microbes; Microbial virulence

Bangkok, Thailand

infectious disease risk in, 545

Basophil, 443

definition, 528

See also White blood cells (WBC)

β-carotene, 7, 14, 109, 127, 134

See also Antioxidants

B-cell growth factors, 224-225

See also Cytokines;

Interleukin-4 (IL-4);

Interleukin-6 (IL-6);

Interleukin-14 (IL-14)

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

B-cell growth factor-2. See Interleukin-5 (IL-5)

B-cells, 171, 361, 422

biologic rhythms and, 445, 450-451, 464, 466, 467, 470

definition, 528

overview of, 521-522

See also Antigen-specific immunity;

B-cell growth factors;

Lymphocytes

B-cell stimulatory factor-2. See Interleukin-6 (IL-6)

BCG. See Bacillus Calmette-Guirin (BCG) vaccination

Bereavement

elderly persons and, immunologic responses to, 210, 211

See also Emotional stress;

Mortality

Beverages

antioxidant supplementation using, Special Forces Assessment and Selection study, 178, 179

See also Food

Bifidobacterium bifidum, 320

Biochemistry, 25

cytokines nature, 222

glutamine, physiologic biochemistry of, 266-268

Biologic rhythms. See Chronobiology; Chronopharmacology; Chronotherapeutics; Circadian rhythms; Circannual rhythms; Circaseptan rhythms

Biological warfare

military immunization against, 6

military personnel threat from biologic agent, 140

See also Anthrax

Biotechnology, 6

military personnel use of products to sustain immune function, risks and benefits, 106

Blood

collection of, blood lymphoid cell measurement in whole-blood cultures, experimental methods, 251

cytokines and markers in, development and field testing, future research, 133-134

donors of, blood lymphoid cell measurement in whole-blood cultures, experimental methods, 250

volume of, and lymphocyte proliferation in whole-blood cultures, experimental methods, 251, 253

See also Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs);

Phagocytes;

Plasma cells;

Platelets;

Serum;

White blood cells (WBC);

Whole-blood cultures

Blood diseases and disorders. See Anemia, iron deficiency; Blood

B-lymphocytes. See B-cells

Board on Military Supplies, viii

See also National Academy of Sciences (NAS)

Body composition. See Body weight (BW); Lean body mass

Body fat, 24

Ranger I study, percent change in, 168

Ranger II study, percent change in, 172

Special Forces Assessment and Selection Course study, percent change during, 176

Body mass. See Lean body mass

Body temperature

immune response factors, 210-211

Body weight (BW), 28, 147

Ranger I and II studies, percent change in, 168

Special Forces Assessment and Selection Course studies, loss during, 175

Bone marrow

biologic rhythms and white blood cell numbers/functions, 440, 441, 446, 447, 450, 451

transplants, glutamine supplementation effects on patients, 263, 269-270

See also Blood

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

Bosnia

military personnel psychological stress effects on, 142

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), 39, 545

See also Diseases and disorders;

Emerging infections;

Infectious diseases and disorders

Breast cancer

menstrual cycle effects on surgery survival rates, 466

See also Cancer;

Diseases and disorders

Breastfeeding

Vitamin A deficiency risks for lactating women, 263, 280-281, 282

See also Infants;

Women

BSE. See Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)

β-thalassemia, 325-326

See also Diseases and disorders

Burma

malaria in World War II troops, 23, 140

Burns

glutamine supplementation, effects on, 263, 268-269

See also Diseases and disorders;

Injuries

Business. See Commerce

C

C3a. See Anaphylatoxin (C3a)

Cachexin. See Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)

Cairo, Egypt

infectious disease risk in, 545

Calciferols. See Vitamin D

Calories

deficiency reduction effects, Norwegian Ranger Training Course, 188

intake during Ranger I and II training studies, 167

Cancer

vitamin C and E supplementation effects on, study findings, 263, 290, 293

See also Breast cancer;

Diseases and disorders

Carbohydrates, 5, 42

exercise and Gatorade use, findings, 378-379

metabolism of, acute-phase reaction effects on, 361

Cardiomyopathy. See Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM); Keshan disease (KD)

Carotenoids, 51-52

See also Nutrients;

Vitamins

Catabolism, 2, 3, 18, 20, 36, 49, 105, 361, 391

See also Metabolism

Catecholamines, 70

Norwegian Ranger Training Course, changes during, 189

See also Hormones;

Immune function;

Neuropeptide function

Cathepsin

definition, 528

CD4+ cells, 104, 208, 445, 468

definition, 528

See also Helper cells;

T-cells

CD8+ cells, 104, 445, 468

definition, 528

See also Suppressor cells;

T-cells

CDC. See Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Cell-mediated immunity (CMI), 3, 4, 108, 111, 113, 233, 291, 292, 337, 339, 516

allograft rejection and biologic rhythms in, 459-460

assessment methodologies, review of, 229-244

assessment methods, advantages/disadvantages of, 47-48

biologic rhythms in, 439, 459-460

B vitamins and, 54-55

definition, 4, 528

field assessment methods, 12-13

nutrients role in, 263

overview of, 517, 518, 519-520

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

See also Antigen-specific immunity;

Humoral immunity (HI);

Immune response (IR);

Immunity;

T-cells

Center for Environmental Health Research (CEHR), 143

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 44, 114, 146

Central America

Vitamin A deficiency epidemiology, 281

Central nervous system (CNS), 34, 42, 114

endocrine and immune systems and, bidirectional communication among, 409-411

endocrine and immune systems and, effects of cytokines biologic rhythms, 452-453

glutamine physiologic biochemistry and brain, 266

See also Neuroendocrine function

Chemotactic agents, 224, 225

See also Cytokines;

Interleukin-8 (IL-8);

Macrophages

Chemotaxis

definition, 529

See also Phagocytes

Children

asthmatic, circadian rhythms in, 462

dengue hemorrhagic fever in, studies review, 546-547

Menkes disease and copper deficiency in, 65, 339

Vitamin A deficiency and, 263, 280-281, 283-284

See also Demographics

China

field immunology studies data, 146

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in, 546

malaria in World War II troops, 23, 140

selenium deficiency and Keshan (KD) disease, 65-66, 127, 341, 548

See also Manchuria

Chronobiology

allergy, cutaneous, time-dependent changes in, 460-462

allograft rejection and, 459-460, 475

asthma, allergic, time-dependent changes in, 460-462

cell-mediated immunity, and, 439, 459-460

cytokines and their inhibitors and, rhythms in, 76-77, 362, 452-454

environmental stimuli response, effects of, 438

exercise, modification of immune system rhythms, 362, 438, 467-468

food uptake, time of, effects on immune system rhythms, 362, 468-469

genetically fixed biologic rhythms, 362, 437, 438, 440, 450

humoral immune response and, 77, 362, 439, 454-456

immune system and, 75-79, 362, 437-476

light-dark changes, effects on, 362, 438, 440, 459, 473

menstrual cycle, changes in immune system-related variables during, 465-466

neuroendocrine-immune system interactions, role of, 438, 440, 462, 470-475

seasonal changes in immune response, 362, 440, 466-467

shift workers, biologic rhythms and, 451, 455, 464-465, 469

sleep rhythms and immunity, 362, 451, 462-465, 474-475

temperature changes and immune response, 362, 440

vaccination, effects on, 362, 456-459

white blood cells number and function, rhythms in, 76, 362, 441-452

See also Chronopharmacology;

Chronotherapeutics;

Circadian

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

rhythms;

Circannual rhythms;

Circaseptan rhythms

Chronopharmacology

biologic rhythms in immune function, implications for, 78-79, 475-476

See also Chronobiology

Chronotherapeutics

biologic rhythms in immune function, implications for, 78-79, 462, 475-476

See also Chronobiology

Circadian rhythms, 75-79, 439, 441, 442, 443, 444, 453, 454-459, 460-465, 467-469, 470-476

rheumatoid arthritis, urinary neopterin excretion of, and, 447-448

See also Chronobiology;

Circaseptan rhythms

Circannual rhythms, 75-76, 77, 440-441, 451, 456, 466-467, 476

See also Chronobiology

Circaseptan rhythms, 75, 77, 440, 456, 459-460, 476

See also Chronobiology;

Circadian rhythms

Circumventricular organs (CVOs), 74

Civil War

Vitamin A deficiency in Union and Confederate Armies, 282

Civilian research, 14, 23, 27, 134

See also Research

CMNR. See Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR)

CNS. See Central nervous system (CNS)

Cobalamine. See Vitamin B12

Cognitive phase, 517-518, 521

definition, 529

See also Antigen-specific immunity;

Immune response (IR)

Colony stimulating factors

definition, 529

See also Cytokines;

Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF);

Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF);

Macrophage/monocyte colony stimulating factor (MCSF)

Columbia, Maryland, 308

Combat

environmental factors during, immune function effects of, 101

training, physiological and immunological impact of, research objectives, 164

See also Military operations;

Military personnel

Commerce

international, infectious disease introduction/dissemination factor, 545, 546

Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR), vii, 1, 2, 6, 14, 17, 20, 21, 30, 33, 62, 63, 81, 82, 99, 100, 104, 106, 117, 119, 120, 144, 146, 171, 362, 497-498, 499, 502, 503, 504, 506

conclusions, 6-8, 125-129

history of, summary, viii

recommendations, 8-13, 129-133

report organization, ix

research, future recommendations for, 13-14, 133-134

tasks and procedures review, viii-ix

See also Food and Nutrition Board (FNB);

Institute of Medicine (IOM);

National Academy of Sciences (NAS);

Not Eating Enough

Complement system, 516-517, 523, 539

definition, 529

vitamin C supplementation effects on marathon runners, study findings, 378

See also Anaphylatoxin (C3a);

Immunity;

Nonspecific immunity;

Proteins;

Ultramarathon

Concanavalin A (ConA), 464

definition, 529

Conclusions, 6-7, 18

amino acids supplements and immune function, military operations, 128

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

cytokines (recombinant) use by military, and immune function, 126

energy total intake and immune function, military operations, 126-127

field studies of immune function by military, 126

glutamine and immune function, military operations, 128-129

health (general) status and immune function, military implications, 126

iron excess and deficiency and immune status, military operations, 128

military personnel deployment and nutritional status, 127

nutritional supplements and immune function, military implications, 7-8, 128-129

nutritional supplements, excess use by military, safety problems, 128

nutrition and immune function, military implications, 7, 125-129

pharmacologic agents use by military, and immune function, 126

polyunsaturated fatty acids supplements and immune function, military operations, 128

stressors encountered by military and immune function, 126

vaccination (prophylactic) use by military, and immune function, 126

vitamins A, C, and E supplements and immune function, military operations, 128

Copper

doses and toxicity, 113

immune function role of, 3, 4, 7, 38, 41, 42, 64-65, 113, 115, 127, 339-340

military situations, special concerns in, 113

zinc interactions with, 340

See also Minerals;

Nutrients

Corticosterone (CORT), 414, 415, 418-419, 420, 421

See also Hormones

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 70-71, 72, 74, 75, 392, 394, 395, 396, 410-411, 412-414, 415, 421, 423

See also Hormones

Cortisol, 364-365, 456-457, 470

See also Glucocorticoids;

Hormones

Corynebacterium diphtheriae, 322

Coxsackievirus B (CVB), 341-351

C-reactive protein (CRP), 11-13, 47, 48, 104, 120, 132-133, 391, 537

definition, 529

See also Acute-phase proteins;

Proteins

CRH. See Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

CRP. See C-reactive protein (CRP)

CVB. See Coxsackievirus B (CVB)

Cytokines, 3, 4, 6, 8-9, 23, 25, 32, 35, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 74-75, 203, 409-410

action mode of, 222

action principles of, 222-223

biochemistry of, 222

biologic rhythms in cytokines and their inhibitors, 76-77, 362, 438, 452-454, 462, 475

circulating, assays of, overview and methodological issues, 540-542

classification of, 224-226

clinical use of, 227

definition, 221-222, 529

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, sample types and preparation for, 226

experimentation with, 223

field testing of appropriate markers in urine and blood, 13-14, 133-134

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, counter-regulation of, 362, 416-421

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, immune regulation by, 410-416

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

immune function index, use as, military nutrition research ideas, 119-120

inflammation, systemic, neuroendocrine consequences, 392, 393, 397

measurement of, 39-40, 226

military use of drugs and, 126, 129

nature of, 222

pleiotropic principle of, 222-223

recombinant, military administration of and immune function, conclusions, 126

redundancy of, 223

synergistic principle of, 223

See also B-cell growth factors;

Chemotactic agents;

Colony stimulating factors;

Cytotoxic/cytostatic inducers and effectors;

Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) ;

Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF);

Hematopoietic growth and differentiation factors;

Immune function;

Inflammatory cytokines;

Inhibitory/regulatory factors;

Interferon-α (INF-α);

Interferon-gamma (INF-γ);

Interferons;

Interleukin-1 (IL-1);

Interleukin-2 (IL-2);

Interleukin-3 (IL-3);

Interleukin-4 (IL-4);

Interleukin-5 (IL-5);

Interleukin-6 (IL-6);

Interleukin-7 (IL-7);

Interleukin-8 (IL-8);

Interleukin-9 (IL-9);

Interleukin-10 (IL-10);

Interleukin-11 (IL-11);

Interleukin-12 (IL-12);

Interleukin-13 (IL-13);

Interleukin-14 (IL-14);

Interleukin-15 (IL-15);

Interleukins;

Lymphokines;

Macrophage/monocyte colony stimulating factor (MCSF);

Monokines;

Nonspecific immunity;

Proinflammatory cytokines;

Proteins;

T-cell growth factors;

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF);

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α);

Tumor necrosis factor-β (TNF-β)

Cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor. See Interleukin-10 (IL-10)

Cytolytic/cytotoxic reactions, 524

See also Hypersensitivity reactions

Cytotoxic/cytostatic inducers and effectors, 224, 225, 522

See also Cytokines;

Interleukin-12 (IL-12);

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α);

Tumor necrosis factor-β (TNF-β)

Cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor. See Interleukin-12 (IL-12)

Cytotoxic reactions. See Cytolytic/cytotoxic reactions

D

Death. See Mortality

Defense and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, 143

Defense Department. See Department of Defense (DoD)

Defense Women's Health Research Program (DWHRP94), 150

Defensins

definition, 529

See also Neutrophils;

Proteins

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 141, 470, 471

Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), 148, 149, 177, 290, 291, 292, 307, 308, 309-310, 339, 524

antioxidant supplementation, response to tetanus toxoid, Special Forces Assessment and Selection study, 178, 179

cutaneous, use as nutritional status indicator, 209

definition, 529

skin testing, overview, 539

vitamin B and, 55

vitamin E and, 52, 53

See also Allergy;

Hypersensitivity reactions

Demographics

disease, infectious, introduction and dissemination factors, 544-545

See also Adults;

Age and aging;

Children;

Infants;

Mortality;

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

Population density;

Population migration;

Urban areas;

Women

De novo studies/samples, 222, 240, 242, 267

Dengue, 38, 546

See also Diseases and disorders;

Infectious diseases and disorders

Dengue hemorrhagic fever, 38

children with, nutrition role, 38, 546-547

Thailand studies of, 547

See also Diseases and disorders;

Emerging infections;

Infectious diseases and disorders

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 48, 61, 170, 254, 266, 269, 270, 293, 318, 319, 323, 324, 338-339, 340, 348, 350, 440, 441, 539

Department of Agriculture, U.S. See U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Department of Defense (DoD), viii, 6, 20

Department of Health and Human Services, 43-44, 102

See also Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)

Desert terrain

military training immunological/physiological effects of, 169, 170, 172, 173

See also Environment

Determinants. See Epitopes

Developing countries

Vitamin A deficiency in, 280-281

Dexamethasone, 418-419

DHA. See Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

DHEA. See Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

Diarrheal diseases, 23, 39, 140

See also Diseases and disorders;

Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases and disorders;

Infectious diseases and disorders;

Shigella

Dietary intervention. See Nutritional intervention

Dietary supplements. See Nutrients;Nutritional supplements

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 341

See also Diseases and disorders

Dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), 242

Diphtheria, 39

glutamine supplementation and delayed-type hypersensitivity response to, SFAS study, 177-178

Soviet Union, former, reemergence of, 545

See also Diseases and disorders;

Infectious diseases and disorders

Discrimination of self from nonself, 517

definition, 529

See also Antigen-specific immunity;

Immune response (IR)

Diseases and disorders

host defense (long-term) and, military nutrition research ideas, 120

immunology development of new concepts and assessment techniques, 36

Vitamin A deficiency relationship to, 281, 282

See also Acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV);

AIDS-related complex (ARC);

Allergy;

Anemia;

Asthma;

Autoimmune disease;

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE);

Breast cancer;

Β-thalassemia;

Burns;

Cancer;

Dengue;

Dengue hemorrhagic fever;

Diarrheal diseases;

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM);

Diphtheria;

Ebola;

Ebola-Reston;

Emerging infections;

Eye diseases and disorders;

Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases and disorders;

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS);

Hemolytic uremic syndrome;

High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE);

Immunity;

Immunodeficiency disorder;

Infectious diseases and disorders;

Inflammation;

Injuries;

Keshan dis-

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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ease (KD);

Malaria;

Measles;

Menkes syndrome;

Nonspecific immunity;

Nutritionally-acquired immune dysfunction syndromes (NAIDS);

Pneumonia;

Post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS);

Respiratory diseases and disorders;

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA);

Shigella;

Sick euthyroid syndrome;

Trauma;

Upper respiratory infections (URI);

Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI);

Urticaria

Diversity, 517

definition, 530

See also Antigen-specific immunity;

Immune response (IR);

Lymphocyte repertoire

DNA. See Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

DNFB. See Dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 60, 114, 118, 306, 308, 309, 311

See also Saturated fatty acids

Doubly labeled water (DLW) method, 24, 26, 166

Drugs, 6, 8

military personnel intervention to sustain immune function, risks and benefits, 105-106

military personnel use and immune function, conclusions, 126

military personnel use, recommendations, 129

See also Antibiotics

DTH. See Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH)

Dugway Proving Ground, Utah, 146

DWHRP94. See Defense Women's Health Research Program (DWHRP94)

E

''Eat to Win.'' See "Performance Nutrition"/"Eat to Win"

Ebola

Africa outbreak, 38, 543

See also Diseases and disorders;

Emerging infections;

Infectious diseases and disorders

Ebola-Reston

monkeys, outbreak in, 38, 543

See also Diseases and disorders;

Emerging infections;

Infectious diseases and disorders

E. coli. See Escherichia coli (E. coli)

Ecology

changes in, infectious disease introduction/dissemination factor, 544, 546

EFAs. See Essential fatty acids (EFAs)

"Effect of Prolonged Exhaustive Military Activities on Man," 145-146

Effector phase, 517, 519, 521

definition, 530

See also Antigen-specific immunity;

Immune response (IR)

Effector cells

in vitro assessment of response, methodology review, 243

See also T-cells

Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, 165

Egypt. See Cairo, Egypt

Eicosanoids, 4, 56

definition, 530

fat (dietary) and types/concentration of, immune response effects of, 311-312

See also Prostaglandins

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 60, 113, 114, 118, 305-306, 308, 309, 311

See also Saturated fatty acids

Elderly. See Age and aging

Electrolytes

exercise and Gatorade use, findings, 378-379

ELISA. See Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

Emerging infections

definition of, 544

immunity and, overview, 543-548

introduction and dissemination of, 544-548

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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military personnel exposure risk, 543, 544, 546, 548

nutritional status role in, 545-548

See also Acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS/HIV);

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE);

Dengue hemorrhagic fever;

Diseases and disorders;

Ebola;

Ebola-Reston;

Hantavirus;

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS);

Hemolytic uremic syndrome;

Infectious diseases and disorders

Emotional stress

immune function effects of, 80-81, 210-211

See also Bereavement;

Stress and stressors

Endemic cardiomyopathy. See Keshan disease (KD)

Endocrine system

central nervous and immune systems and, bidirectional communication among, 409-411

central nervous and immune systems and, effects of cytokines biologic rhythms, 452-453

See also Neuroendocrine function

Endogenous pyrogen. See Interleukin-1 (IL-1)

Endothelial cells, 361, 392, 422

Energy intake/expenditure

deficit in military personnel, stress indices and PHA-stimulated T-cell proliferation, relation, 28, 147

immune function and, military operations/training, 21, 24, 30, 33

immune function and total intakes, conclusions, 126-127

Ranger I and II studies, results from, 166, 167

Special Forces Assessment and Selection Course studies, 175

England

asthma and lung function, vitamin C and E supplementation study, 296

bovine spongiform encephalopathy in, 545

See also Sheffield, England

Environment

biologic rhythms, effects of, 362, 438, 449

biologic rhythms, effects on response to, 438

See also Desert terrain;

Environmental pollution;

Jungle terrain;

Land use;

Mountain terrain;

Swamp terrain

Environmental pollution

combat and exposure, immune function effects, 101

immune function effects of exposure to, 81

military operations/training exposure, immune function effects, 101

See also Environment;

Stress and stressors

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 12-13, 48, 539, 541

cytokines measurement with, 226

cytokines sample types and preparation, 226

definition, 530

Enzymes. See Cathepsin; Lysozyme

Eosinophil, 443

definition, 530

See also White blood cells (WBC)

Eosinophil-differentiating factor. See Interleukin-5 (IL-5)

EPA. See Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)

Epidemiology, 36

cancer effects of vitamin C and E supplementation, findings, 293

Thailand, dengue hemorrhagic fever studies, 547

vitamin A deficiency, review of, 280-281

Epitopes

definition, 530

See also Lymphocyte repertoire

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), 11-13, 47, 48, 104, 133

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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Escherichia coli (E. coli), 39, 61, 320, 321, 322, 327, 393, 423, 438, 439, 545

Essential fatty acids (EFAs), 306, 310

See also Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)

Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake (ESADDI), 108-114

Europe

glutamine supplementation effect on hospital stay, trial results, 269

northern arctic regions, extreme temperatures effects on immune function, 101

Vitamin A deficiency epidemiology, 281

Euthyroid, sick, syndrome. See Sick euthyroid syndrome

Exercise

acute, and immune response, 361, 364-367

age-related immunity and, study findings, 211-212, 376-377

AIDS/HIV and, 375-376

chronic, and immune response, 367-371

chronic, and natural killer cell activity, studies review, 367-368

chronic, and neutrophil function, studies review, 361, 368-369

chronic, and T-cell function, studies review, 361, 369-370

immune function combined effects of health, exercise, and stress, 6, 21

immune-related biologic rhythms, modification by, 362, 438, 467-468, 474-475

immune response to, mechanisms behind, 364-365

immune system effect of, 67, 68-69

immunity, infection, and, relationship, 363-364

infection effect on performance and recovery ability, 67-68, 69, 361, 373-374

infection, recommendations during, 374

military personnel physical fitness maintenance and, recommendations, 129

respiratory infection incidence, immune responses, and, relationship, 211, 212

upper respiratory tract infections risk and, 361, 371-373

upper respiratory tract infections risk and, J curve, 371-373

upper respiratory tract infections risk and, public health recommendations, 373

vitamin C and E supplementation effects during, 263, 290, 296-297

See also Physical activity;

Physical fitness;

Stress and stressors

Ex vivo studies/samples, 189, 190, 236, 239, 254, 541

definition of, 235

Eye diseases and disorders

Vitamin A deficiency (adult), clinical manifestations of, 279, 280, 282

See also Diseases and disorders

F

Fab. See Fragment-antibody (Fab)

Fat, dietary

eicosanoid types/concentration and immune response, effects of, 311-312

immune response effects of, mechanisms, 311-312

intake, American Heart Association recommendations, 264

intake, immune response and, 264

lipoproteins, serum, and immune response, effects of, 311

membrane fluidity and immune response, effects of, 312

oxidative stress and immune response, effects of, 312

See also Fatty acids

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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Fat-free mass (FFM), 28, 147

Fatty acids, 305-306

dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA), 306

free fatty acids (FFAs), 306

immune function role of, 3, 41, 42, 55-60, 118, 305-312

immune response effects of, mechanisms for mediating, 311-312

intake amount and immune response role, 57-59, 264, 306-307

See also α-linolenic acid (ALA);

Arachidonic acid (AA);

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA);

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA);

Fat, dietary;

Linoleic acid (n-6 PUFA);

Linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA);

Nutrients;

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs);

Saturated fatty acids;

Unsaturated fatty acids

Fc (crystalline fragment)

definition, 530

See also Antibodies

Field research, 2, 5, 6, 7, 11-12, 17, 20

blood lymphoid activity in vitro measurement, whole-blood cultures use, applications for, 249-259

cytokine markers testing, 13-14, 133-134

immune function and nutrition, conclusions, 126

immune function assessment, methodological issues, 44-46, 102-105, 132-133

immune function assessment, technical issues for, 102-103

immune function effects of multiple stressors, elite military troops, 21

military awareness of civilian research, recommendations, 133

See also Research

Field training exercises (FTX), 165, 166, 171

See also Military training

Finland

seasonal changes in biologic rhythms, summary, 467

First Special Warfare Training Group, 174

Fish oils

fatty acids and immune function and, 58-59, 60, 309-311

Flight. See Airplanes

Flow cytometry

in vitro assessment of cell types, methodology review, 243-244

Fluid Replacement in Heat Stress, 132

Folic acid

doses and toxicity of, 108

immune function role of, 3, 4, 7, 54-55, 108, 127

military situations, special concerns in, 108

See also Nutrients;

Vitamins

Food

deprivation of, military rations reduced consumption, immune function effects of, 100

survey of knowledge and attitudes, military operations, 24

uptake time, modification of immune-related biologic rhythms by, 362, 468-469

uptake time, shift workers biologic rhythms, 469

See also Beverages;

Fish oils;

Military food and rations;

Oils and oilseeds;

Operational rations;

Vegetable oils

Food and Nutrition Board (FNB), vii, viii, ix, 116

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) Subcommittee on Upper Safe Levels, 116

See also Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR);

Institute of Medicine (IOM);

National Academy of Sciences (NAS)

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

Foreign military personnel

Norwegian Ranger Training program, 31-35, 137, 145, 185-190

See also Military personnel

Fort Benning, Georgia, 164, 169, 172, 173

Ranger Training Brigade, 165

Fort Bliss, Texas, 165

Fort Bragg, North Carolina

Special Warfare Training Center, 164

Fort Detrick, Maryland, 143

Fragment-antibody (Fab)

definition, 530

See also Antibodies

G

Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases and disorders, 114

glutamine and, relationship to, 270-271

See also Diseases and disorders

Gatorade

exercise and, use by athletes, findings, 378-379

GCSF. See Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF)

Genetic diseases and disorders. See Menkes syndrome

Genetics

biologic rhythms, genetically fixed, 362, 437, 438, 440, 450

immediate early gene (c-fos), 412-413, 414

immune responses, factors affecting, 210-211

GH. See Growth hormone (GH)

GI. See Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases and disorders

Glucocorticoids, 70, 410-411, 412, 421

adrenalectomized animals treatment with, study findings, 418-419

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, abnormal, animals with, treatment with, 417

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and protective role of, 422-423

See also Adrenocorticosteroid (CS);

Cortisol;

Hormones

Glutamine, 265-266

bacterial translocation, 270

biochemistry, physiologic, of, 266-268

bone marrow transplant patients, supplementation effects on, 263, 269-270

burn patients, supplementation effects on, 263, 268-269

doses and toxicity of, 110-111

gastrointestinal tract and, animal and human studies, 270-271

hypersensitivity, delayed-type, response to tetanus toxoid using supplement, SFAS study, 177-178

immune function role of, 4, 7-8, 14, 38, 42, 49-51, 110-111, 117, 127, 128, 268-270

infection resistance, supplementation effects on, 263, 268-269

military situations, special concerns in, 110-111, 117

lymphocyte, peripheral, proliferation during supplementation, SFAS study, 174, 177

postoperative patients, supplementation effects on, 263, 269-270

supplementation and exercise, study findings, 378

See also Amino acids (AAs);

Nutrients

Glycoproteins. See α1-antitrypsin; C-reactive protein (CRP); Haptoglobin; Orosomucoid; Proteins

GnRH. See Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

Gonadal steroids, 147, 174, 465

See also Hormones

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), 73, 398

See also Hormones

Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF), 225

definition, 529

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

See also Colony stimulating factors;

Cytokines;

Granulocytes;

Hematopoietic growth and differentiation factors

Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF), 32, 187, 225

definition, 529

See also Colony stimulating factors;

Cytokines;

Granulocytes;

Hematopoietic growth and differentiation factors

Granulocyte nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye reduction, 324

Granulocytes

Norwegian Ranger Training Course, changes during, 187-188

See also Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF);

Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF);

Immune function;

Phagocytes

Growth hormone (GH), 73, 399, 468-469, 470, 471, 472-473

See also Hormones

H

Haiti

U.S. military personnel, infectious disease risk, 545

U.S. military personnel, stressors in deployment, 100, 142

Hantavirus, 546

See also Emerging infections;

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), 38, 544, 546

See also Diseases and disorders;

Emerging infections;

Infectious diseases and disorders;

Hantavirus

Haplotypes. See Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes

Haptoglobin

definition, 530

See also Acute-phase proteins;

Proteins

Health

general health status, conclusions, 126

general health status optimizing, recommendations, 8-9, 129-130

immune function, stress, and, summary, 500-503

stress and, 6, 67-81

See also Diseases and disorders;

Immune function;

Immune response;

Immunity;

Infectious diseases and disorders;

Metabolism;

Nutrition;

Physiology;

Public health

Helicobacter pylori, 320

Helper cells

definition, 530

See also CD4+ cells;

T-cells

Helsinki Declaration of 1975, Revised 1983, 250

Hemolytic uremic syndrome, 39, 545

See also Diseases and disorders;

Emerging infections;

Infectious diseases and disorders

Hemophilus influenzae, 320

Hematopoietic growth and differentiation factors, 224, 225

See also Cytokines;

Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF);

Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF);

Interleukin-3 (IL-3);

Interleukin-5 (IL-5);

Interleukin-11 (IL-11);

Macrophage/monocyte colony stimulating factor (MCSF)

Hepatic function. See Liver

HI. See Humoral immunity (HI)

High altitude. See Altitude, high

High-altitude-pulmonary edema (HAPE), 80

See also Altitude, high;

Diseases and disorders

High-molecular weight B-cell growth factor. See Interleukin-14 (IL-14)

Histamine, 460, 461

definition, 531

See also Allergy

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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HIV. See Acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV)

Hormones, 25, 26, 69-70

See also Adrenocorticosteroid (CS);

Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH);

Catecholamines;

Corticosterone (CORT);

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH);

Cortisol;

Glucocorticoids;

Gonadal steroids;

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH);

Growth hormone (GH);

Sex steroids;

Testosterone;

Thymosin;

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH);

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH);

Vasopressin (VP)

Hospitals and hospitalization

glutamine supplementation, effects on length of stay, 269

Host defense mechanisms. See Immune function; Immune response (IR); Immunity

3H-thymidine, 440, 441

lymphocyte proliferation in whole-blood cultures, duration of labeling by, 254, 255, 256

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). See Acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV)

Human Nutrition Research Center, 5

See also U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Humidity

extremes, military operational exposure to, immune function effects of, 101

See also Stress and stressors

Humoral immunity (HI), 12, 233, 263, 517, 518, 519, 521

assessment of, methodologies review, 229-244

assessment of, methods advantages/disadvantages of, 47

biologic rhythmicity of, 77, 362, 439, 454-456

definition, 4, 531

secondary response, assessment measures, 537-538

See also Antigen-specific immunity;

Cell-mediated immunity (CMI);

Immune response (IR);

Immunity

Hypersensitivity, delayed. See Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH)

Hypersensitivity, immediate

definition, 531

See also Allergy

Hypersensitivity reactions, 523-524

definition, 531

types of, 524

See also Allergy;

Antigen-specific immunity;

Arthus reactions;

Cytolytic/cytotoxic reactions;

Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH);

Immune complex reactions

Hypophysectomy (HYPOX)

interleukin-1 lethality and, 416-418, 419, 420-421

See also Surgical procedures

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), 417, 418, 420, 421, 458, 472

abnormal, animals with, conditions producing lethal effects in, 417

cytokine counter-regulation by, 362, 461-421

cytokine regulation of, 410-416

glucocorticoids protective role, 422-423

immune system activation of, effects of, 362, 416-421

inflammatory stress and immune system, 74, 75, 362-363, 409-425

interleukin-1 β role of, 411, 414, 416, 418-419, 420, 422

interleukin-1 central actions, and, 413-414

interleukin-1 effects elucidation using lipopolysaccharides, 415-416

interleukin-1 locus of origin role in, 414-415

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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interleukin-1 regulation of, 410, 411-416, 417, 418, 423, 424

interleukin-6 regulation of, 410, 411, 415

pituitary-adrenal axis without hypothalamic regulation, 420, 421

sympathoadrenal responses protective role in, 423-425

tumor necrosis factor-α regulation of, 410, 411

See also Adrenalectomy (ADX);

Hypophysectomy (HYPOX);

Neuroendocrine function

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system, 69, 398

inflammation, systemic, effects on, 70-71, 72, 392-396;

See also Adrenalectomy (ADX);

Hypophysectomy (HYPOX);

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA);

Neuroendocrine function

Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid system

inflammation, systemic, and regulation, 71, 72, 73, 397-398

inflammatory disease, regulation in, 71, 397-398

stress, hormonal responses, 69

See also Neuroendocrine function

Hypothalamus. See Hypophysectomy (HYPOX); Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA); Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system

HYPOX. See Hypophysectomy (HYPOX)

I

Immediate hypersensitivity. See Hypersensitivity, immediate

IMMUNAID®, 214

Immune assessment, 24, 25, 40, 43-46, 47-48

advanced tests of, 539-542

antibody response to immunization with novel antigen, overview, 538

basic tests of, 537-539

complement assays (CH50), 539

cytokines (circulating) and soluble receptors assays, 540-542

deficiency, focused tests of, 538

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, overview, 539, 541

ex vivo measures, 44, 45, 541

field assessment methods, 11-13, 17, 20, 102-105

field conditions, assessment of during, 6, 44-46

functional assays, 539

granulocyte nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction, overview, 539

hypersensitivity, delayed, skin testing for, overview of, 539

in vitro immune assessment, methodologies review, 240, 242-244

in vivo immune assessment, methodologies review, 240, 241-242

isohemagglutinins titer, overview, 539

lymphocyte proliferation/function assays, 43, 539

methodological issues in, 235-244

military field measures, recommendations, 132-133

military methods for evaluating immunological functions, summary, 500

military nutrition laboratory research, methods for, 102-105

natural killer cell activity assessment, overview of, 542

plasma and serum affect assays, overview, 540

radiolabeled chromium, in vivo release of, 542

rationale for, 233, 236-237

secondary humoral response assessment, overview, 537-538

serum assessment tests, overview, 537, 538-539

study design considerations, 44-46

test system selection and development, 239-244

white blood cell count, assessment use of, 540-541

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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whole-blood assessments of immune function, overview of, 538, 539-542

See also Immune function;

Immune response (IR);

Immunity

Immune complex reactions, 524

See also Hypersensitivity reactions;

Immune response (IR)

Immune function

alcohol use effects on, 66-67

altitude, high, effects on, 80

amino acids role in, 49-51

Army Ranger studies of, 18, 20, 21

Army training courses, nutrition and, 29-33

biologic rhythms in, and nutrition, 75-79

biologic rhythms in, overview, 437-476

biologic rhythms in, potential clinical relevance, 77-78

biologic rhythms in white blood cells, 76, 362, 441-452

biotechnology products use by military personnel and, risks/benefits of, 106

chronopharmacology and, 78-79, 470-475

chronotherapeutics and, 78-79, 470-475

circadian rhythms in, factors interacting with, 78

copper effects on, animal/human studies review, 339-340

cytokines as index of, military nutrition research ideas, 119-120

emotional stress effects on, 80-81

exercise effects on, 67, 68-69

fatty acids amount intake and, 57-59

fatty acids role in, 55-60, 305-312

glutamine and, 268-270

humidity extremes exposure in military operations, effects on, 101

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation by, 362, 411-416, 416-421

infections/injuries increases in military operations, effects on, 101

inflammatory stress and, 74-75, 362-363, 409-425

iron deficiency, effects on, 254, 323-325

iron excess, effects on, 264, 325-326

military nutrition laboratory research methods, 17, 20, 102-105

military operations and nutrients, special concerns for, 108-113

military operations, environmental factors during, effects on, 101

military operations, nutritional supplements for, safety/regulatory considerations for, 18, 20, 107-118

military operations, nutrition and, military operational missions applications of, 1, 2, 22-29

military operations, rations reduced consumption during, effects on, 100

military operations, stress factors and compromise of, 17, 18, 20, 21, 100-101

military operations, stress factors and, research, 22-29

military operations, stress factors and, study models, 144-146

military operations sustainment of, and nutrition, viii-ix, 100-121

military personnel biotechnology products use for, risks/benefits of, 106

military personnel, nutritional intervention for, risks/benefits of, 18, 20, 105

minerals, trace, effects on, 60-66, 264, 337-351

neuroendocrine system and, bidirectional communication of, 409-411

neuroendocrine system and, biologic rhythms effects on relationship, 438, 440, 462, 470-475

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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Norwegian Ranger Training Course, immune function during, studies, 31-32, 33-35, 185-190

nutrients role in, 49-55, 108-115

nutrition and, Army's interest, 22-29, 139-152

nutrition and, military evaluation methods, summary, 500

nutrition and, military implications, conclusions, 125-129, 362, 497-506

nutrition and, military implications, future research recommendations, 133-134, 503-506

nutrition and, military implications, recommendations, 129-133

nutrition role in, 2-6, 19-82, 46-67, 203

nutritional intervention for military personnel, risks/benefits of, 18, 20, 105

nutritional intervention/supplementation and, 7-8, 10-11, 148-150

nutritional supplements for military operations, safety/regulatory considerations for, 18, 20, 107-118

pathogen response factors, 44-45

pharmacological intervention for military personnel, risks/benefits of, 105-106

physical activity (prolonged moderate-to-heavy) in military operations, effects on, 100

proteins role in, 49-51

psychological stress during military operations, effect on, 101

selenium effects on, animal/human studies review, 340-351

sleep deprivation during military operations, effects on, 80, 101

smoking and environmental pollutants effects on, 81

stress factors, combined, effects on, 81

stress factors, effects on, 79-81

stress, health status, and, summary, 500-503

stressful conditions and sustainment of, military nutrition research, 119-121

study design considerations, 44-46

temperature extremes exposure in military operations, effects on, 79, 101

Vitamin A role in, 279-285

vitamins role in, 51-55

whole blood measures of, overview, 538, 539-542

women, military, and, research areas, 120-121

women, physically active, and immune function, civilian research, 14

zinc effects on, studies review, 338-339

See also Adrenoglucocorticoid regulation;

Autoimmune disease;

Catecholamines;

Cytokines;

Granulocytes;

Health;

Immune assessment;

Immune response (IR);

Immunity;

Immunoglobulin;

Immunosuppression;

Interleukins;

Lymphocytes;

Monocytes;

Neuropeptide function;

Phagocytes;

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)

Immune response (IR)

acute, exercise and, mechanisms behind, 364-365

aging, vitamins C and E supplementation effects, 263, 291-293

AIDS/HIV patients, vitamins C and E supplementation effects, 263, 290, 294-295

asthma and lung function, vitamins C and E supplementation effects, 263, 295-296

cancer, vitamins C and E supplementation effects, 263, 290, 293

circannual variations in, 362, 466-467

definition of, 531

effector cell response, in vitro assessment, 243

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

eicosanoid type/concentration and dietary fat, effects on, 311-312

exercise, acute, and, studies review, 361, 364-367

exercise, changes in biologic rhythms from, 362, 438, 467-468

exercise, respiratory infection incidence, and, relationship, 211, 212

exercise stress, vitamins C and E supplementation effects, 263, 290, 296-297

fat, dietary, mediating mechanisms for, 311-312

fat intake amount and, 264, 306-310

flow cytometry in vitro assessment of cell types, methodology, 243-244

food uptake, time of, modification of biologic rhythms by, 362, 468-469

in vitro assessment of, methodologies review, 233, 240, 242-244

in vivo assessment of, methodologies review, 233, 240, 241-242

linoleic acid (n-6 PUFA) intake, effects on, 307-308

linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA) intake, effects on, 308-310

lipoproteins, serum, and dietary fat, effects on, 311

malnutrition and, 207, 208

membrane fluidity and dietary fat, effects on, 312

menstrual cycle, changes in related variables during, 465-466

nonnutritional factors influencing, 37, 206, 210-212

nutrient excesses and, 206, 209-210

nutrients role in, 36, 37, 263

nutrition and, current knowledge on, 205-214

nutrition and, general concepts, 206

nutritional altered status and 206, 207-210

nutritional deficiencies and, 206, 207-209

nutritional status, immunological tests as indicators of, 209

oxidative stress and dietary fat, effects on, 312

proliferative response, in vitro assessment methodologies, 242-243

research methodology, 11-13

respiratory infection incidence, exercise and, 211, 212

seasonal changes in, 362, 440, 466-467

undernutrition and, 203

viral evolution, role of, 547

vitamin C, role in, 263, 289-290, 292-297

vitamin E, role in, 263, 289-292, 294-297

See also Activation phase;

Anergy;

Antigens;

Cell-mediated immunity (CMI);

Cognitive phase;

Discrimination of self from nonself;

Diversity;

Effector phase;

Health;

Humoral immunity (HI);

Immune assessment;

Immune complex reactions;

Immune function;

Immunity;

Memory;

Self-limitation;

Specificity

Immunity, 4, 42, 120

definition, 511, 531

exercise, chronic, and, studies review, 367-371

exercise, infection, and, relationship, introduction, 363-364

infections, emerging, and nutritional status and, 37-39, 543-548

nutrients, immunostimulant, 214

nutritional fixes and superimmunity, 148-150

nutritional supplements/intervention use to boost, 206, 213-214

overview of, 238-239, 511-524

sleep, biologic rhythms of, and, 462-465

See also Acute-phase reactions;

Antibodies;

Antigen-specific immunity;

Cell-mediated immunity (CMI);

Complement system;

Diseases and disorders;

Health;

Humoral immunity (HI);

Immune as-

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

sessment;

Immune function;

Immune response (IR);

Immunology;

Immunosuppression;

Inflammatory reactions;

Nonspecific immunity;

Surface immunity

Immunization.

See also Vaccines and vaccination

Immunodeficiency disorder

nutritionally acquired, vitamin A deficiency classification as, 263, 283-284

See also Diseases and disorders

Immunoglobulin, 32, 454-455, 456

definition, 531

Norwegian Ranger Training Course, plasma level changes, 187

See also Antibodies;

Immune function;

Immunoglobulin A (IgA);

Immunoglobulin D (IgD);

Immunoglobulin E (IgE);

Immunoglobulin G (IgG);

Immunoglobulin M (IgM);

Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA)

Immunoglobulin A (IgA), 455, 456, 537

definition, 531

See also Antibodies Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA)

Immunoglobulin D (IgD)

definition, 531

See also Antibodies

Immunoglobulin E (IgE), 294-295, 455-456, 461, 462

definition, 531

See also Antibodies

Immunoglobulin G (IgG), 455, 456, 537

definition, 531

See also Antibodies

Immunoglobulin M (IgM), 455, 456

definition, 532

See also Antibodies

Immunology, 222

Immunology

Army Special Operations Training impact, research objectives, 164-165

Army Special Operations Training impact, research results, 165-178

elderly persons and bereavement, responses to, 210, 211

elderly persons and exercise, responses to, 211

nutritional status indicators, use of immunological tests, 209

See also Immunity

Immunosuppression

military operational stressors, inflammatory responses to, 141-144

peripheral, induction by inflammatory/immune/infectious stress, 362, 421-425

temporary, nutritional intervention effects on, Army Special Operations Training, assessment model, 163-178

temporary, nutritional intervention effects on, Special Forces Assessment and Selection, assessment model, 174-178

temporary, Ranger training nutritional effects on, assessment model, 165-174

See also Immune response (IR)

IMPACT®, 214

Inborn immunity. See Nonspecific immunity

Indexes

cytokines as index of immune function, military nutrition research ideas, 119-120

Industry

advances in, infectious disease introduction/dissemination factor, 545

INF-α. See Interferon-α (INF-α)

INF-γ. See Interferon-γ (INF-γ)

Infants

iron status and infections susceptibility, clinical study findings, 326

respiratory morbidity and serum retinol concentration, relationship, 213-214

vaccination of, biologic rhythms effects on immunity gained, 457-458

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

Vitamin A deficiency and, 263, 280-281

See also Breastfeeding;

Demographics

Infections. See Infectious diseases and disorders

Infectious diseases and disorders, 2, 3, 5, 7-8, 26

dissemination factors, 39, 544-545

emerging infections, and nutritional status and immunity, 37-39

exercise during, recommendations, 374

exercise, immunity, and, relationship, introduction, 363-364

exercise performance during, effects of, 67-68, 69, 361, 373-374

glutamine supplementation effects on resistance, 263, 268-269

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation against, 362, 416-421

immune responses, factors affecting, 210-211

immunosuppression, peripheral, effects of stress, 362, 421-425

introduction factors, 39, 544-545

iron status influence on susceptibility to, 14, 134, 264, 317-318

military operations, increases in, immune function effects of, 101

military personnel resistance to, intervention benefits/risks, 18, 20, 23, 105

military personnel, risks of, 19, 140

Ranger studies, rates in, 149

selenium deficiency and susceptibility to, 340

selenium, effect on pathogen virulence, animal studies review, 264, 338, 341-351

susceptibility, increased, mechanisms of, Army-USDA cooperative research, 146-148

See also Acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV);

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE);

Dengue;

Dengue hemorrhagic fever;

Diarrheal diseases;

Diphtheria;

Diseases and disorders;

Ebola;

Ebola-Reston;

Emerging infections;

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS);

Hemolytic uremic syndrome;

Malaria;

Measles;

Pneumonia;

Respiratory diseases and disorders;

Upper respiratory infections (URI);

Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI);

Vaccines and vaccination

Inflammation

antidiuretic hormone inappropriate secretion, syndrome of, overview, 396-397

anti-inflammatory effects induced by immune/infectious/inflammatory stress, 362, 421-425

chronic, and neuroendocrine consequences, 391-392

diseases with, linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA) management of, clinical trials findings, 310-311

growth hormone, effects of, 73-74

growth hormone in sepsis, 399

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system activation, effects of, 70-71, 72, 362, 392-396, 416-421

military operational stressors, immune suppression and response to, 141-144

pituitary-gonadal system regulation, effects of, 73, 398-399

pituitary-thyroid system regulation in inflammatory disease, 71, 397-398

stress and the immune system, 74-75, 362-363, 409-425

systemic, neuroendocrine consequences of, 70-74, 361, 391-399

See also Diseases and disorders;

Inflammatory reactions

Inflammatory cytokines, 224, 361, 392

See also Cytokines;

Interferon-γ (INF-γ);

Interleukin-1 (IL-1);

In-

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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terleukin-8 (IL-8);

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)

Inflammatory reactions, 515

antibodies participation in, 522-523

See also Immunity;

Inflammation;

Nonspecific immunity

Influenza virus

infant vaccination, biological rhythms effects on immunity gained, 457-458

sleep deprivation effects on response to, animal study, 465

Inhibitory/regulatory factors, 224, 225

See also Cytokines;

Interferon-α (INF-α);

Interferon-γ (INF-γ);

Interleukin-10 (IL-10);

Interleukin-13 (IL-13);

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)

Injuries, 26

military operations increases in, immune function effects of, 101

See also Burns;

Diseases and disorders

Innate immunity. See Nonspecific immunity

Institute of Medicine (IOM), vii, x, 1

See also Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR);

Food and Nutrition Board (FNB);

National Academy of Sciences (NAS)

Interactions of Nutrition and Infection, 36

Interferon-α (INF-α), 463, 475

See also Cytokines;

Inhibitory/regulatory factors;

Interferons

Interferon-β2. See Interleukin-6 (IL-6)

Interferon-γ (INF-γ), 392, 394, 449, 451, 453, 513

production of, in vitro measurement use of whole-blood cultures, experiments methods/results, 257-259

See also Cytokines;

Inflammatory cytokines;

Inhibitory/regulatory factors;

Proinflammatory cytokines

Interferons

definition, 532

See also Cytokines;

Proinflammatory cytokines

Interleukin-1 (IL-1), 74, 75, 224, 392, 394, 397, 398, 452, 453, 454, 463, 464, 466, 513

central actions of, 413-414

definition, 532

endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide use to elucidate effects of, 415-416

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation by 410, 411-416, 417, 418, 423, 424

interleukin-1α (IL-1α), 224

interleukin-1β (IL-1β), biologic rhythms and, 453, 454

interleukin-1β (IL-1β), role in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, 411, 414, 416, 418-419, 420, 422

interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), 392

lethality of, and adrenalectomy/hypophysectomy, 416-418, 419, 420-421

locus of origin, role of, 414-415

See also Cytokines;

Inflammatory cytokines;

Interleukins;

Proinflammatory cytokines

Interleukin-2 (IL-2), 25, 48, 209, 224, 225, 392, 394, 453, 454, 463, 464

definition, 532

See also Cytokines;

Interleukins;

Lymphokines;

Soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R);

T-cell growth factors

Interleukin-3 (IL-3), 225

definition, 532

See also Cytokines;

Hematopoietic growth and differentiation factors;

Interleukins

Interleukin-4 (IL-4)

definition, 532

See also B-cell growth factors;

Cytokines;

Interleukins;

Lymphokines;

T-cell growth factors

Interleukin-5 (IL-5), 225

definition, 532

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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See also Cytokines;

Hematopoietic growth and differentiation factors;

Interleukins;

Lymphokines

Interleukin-6 (IL-6), 13, 25, 28, 74, 133, 147, 392, 394, 397, 398, 410, 411, 415, 452, 453-454, 513

definition, 532

See also B-cell growth factors;

Cytokines;

Interleukins;

Lymphokines;

Proinflammatory cytokines

Interleukin-7 (IL-7)

definition, 532

See also Cytokines;

Interleukins;

T-cell growth factors

Interleukin-8 (IL-8), 513

definition, 533

See also Chemotactic agents;

Cytokines;

Inflammatory cytokines;

Interleukins;

Proinflammatory cytokines

Interleukin-9 (IL-9)

definition, 533

See also Cytokines;

Interleukins;

Lymphokines;

T-cell growth factors

Interleukin-10 (IL-10), 453-454

definition, 533

production of, in vitro measurement use of whole-blood cultures, experiments methods/results, 257-259

See also Cytokines;

Inhibitory/regulatory factors;

Interleukins

Interleukin-11 (IL-11), 225

definition, 533

See also Cytokines;

Hematopoietic growth and differentiation factors;

Interleukins

Interleukin-12 (IL-12)

definition, 533

See also Cytokines;

Cytotoxic/ cytostatic inducers and effectors;

Interleukins

Interleukin-13 (IL-13)

definition, 533

See also Cytokines;

Inhibitory/regulatory factors;

Interleukins;

Lymphokines

Interleukin-14 (IL-14)

definition, 533

See also B-cell growth factors;

Cytokines;

Interleukins

Interleukin-15 (IL-15)

definition, 533

See also Cytokines;

Interleukins;

Lymphokines;

T-cell growth factors

Interleukins

definition, 532-533

Norwegian Ranger Training Course, changes during, 187

See also Cytokines;

Immune function;

Interleukin-1 (IL-1);

Interleukin-2 (IL-2);

Interleukin-3 (IL-3);

Interleukin-4 (IL-4);

Interleukin-5 (IL-5);

Interleukin-6 (IL-6);

Interleukin-7 (IL-7);

Interleukin-8 (IL-8);

Interleukin-9 (IL-9);

Interleukin-10 (IL-10);

Interleukin-11 (IL-11);

Interleukin-12 (IL-12);

Interleukin-13 (IL-13);

Interleukin-14 (IL-14);

Interleukin-15 (IL-15);

Lymphokines

In vitro studies/samples, 143, 144, 148, 149, 170, 178, 188, 189, 190, 235, 236, 237, 239, 240, 268, 269, 270, 292, 293, 306, 308, 309, 310, 311, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 338, 378, 412, 420, 437, 445-446, 454, 464, 472, 473, 539

blood lymphoid cells functional activity measurement, whole-blood cultures use, 233, 249-259

cytokine production in whole-blood cultures, experiments methods/results, 257-259

effector cell response development, immune response assessment methodologies, 243

flow cytometry assessment of cell types, methodology, 243-244

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

immune response assessment, methodologies review, 233, 242-244

lymphocyte proliferation in whole-blood cultures, experiments methods/results, 251-257

proliferative response, immune response assessment methodologies, 242-243

soluble interleukin receptors release in whole-blood cultures, experiments methods/results, 258-259

whole-blood cultures use to measure blood lymphoid cells functional activity, 233, 249-259

In vivo studies/samples, 44, 45, 147, 223, 233, 236, 237, 239, 291, 292, 293, 310, 311, 321, 322, 324, 364, 412, 420, 437, 454, 464, 541, 542, 547

immune response assessment, methodologies review, 233, 241-242, 243

Iron, dietary, 10

anemia in military personnel, recommendations, 130

bacterial virulence factors regulated by iron, listing, 322

deficiency and immune function, 8, 61, 128, 264, 323-325

deficiency/excess, clinical data, 326-328

deficiency, military implications of, 328-329

doses and toxicity, 112

excess and immune function, 8, 61-62, 128, 264, 325-326

host defenses and, 317-329

immune function role of, 3, 4, 7, 38, 41, 42, 60-63, 112, 115, 127

infection susceptibility, influence of, 14, 134, 264, 317-318

iron-responsive element (IRE), 319

metabolism of, 318-319

microbes acquisition of, summary of, 320-323

military female recruits, deficiency prevalence in, 150

military personnel and iron status, 62-63

military situations, special concerns in, 112

See also Anemia;

Minerals;

Nutrients

J

Japan

biologic rhythms, seasonal changes in, 467

elderly persons and exercise, immunity effects, 370, 377

petrochemical firm impure 1-tryptophan, 28-29

pulmonary edema (high-altitude), 80

Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture-Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging Metabolic Research Unit, 291

Johns Hopkins University

Institutional Review Board, 250

Journal of the American Medical Association, 363

Jungle terrain

military training, immunological/physiological effects of, 169, 172, 173

See also Environment

K

Kampala, Uganda

prisoners with night blindness and Vitamin A deficiency, 282

Keshan disease (KD), 65-66, 127, 341, 342

See also Diseases and disorders

Korea

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in, 544, 546

Korean hemorrhagic fever. See Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)

Korean War

UN troops and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, 544

Kramer, Tim R., 146

Kuby, Janis, 222

Kwashiorkor. See Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

L

Laboratories

interleukin-6 and acute stress response, laboratory-based studies, future research recommendations, 133

military nutrition laboratory research methods, 17, 20, 102-105

See also Research

Lactation. See Breastfeeding

Lactobacillus spp., 320

Lagos, Nigeria

infectious disease risk in, 545

Land use

changes in, infectious disease introduction/dissemination factor, 544

See also Environment

Lean body mass, 2, 9, 18, 20

cytokines (proinflammatory) effects on, 105

military personnel loss and deployment, recommendations, 130

Legionella pneumophila, 320

Lethality. See Mortality

Leukocytes. See White blood cells (WBC)

Leukocytic endogenous mediator. See Interleukin-1 (IL-1)

Leukotrines. See Eicosanoids

Light-dark changes

biologic rhythms and, 362, 438, 440, 459, 473

Linoleic acid (n-6 PUFA), 305-306

immune function and, 55, 118

intake amount and immune function, 57-58

intake amount and immune response, 307-308

See also Fatty acids;

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)

Linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA), 305-306

autoimmune/inflammatory diseases management with, clinical trials findings, 310-311

immune function and, 55, 118

intake amount and immune function, 58-59

intake amount and immune response, 308-310

See also Fatty acids;

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)

Lipocortins, 422

See also Proteins

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), 392, 399, 413, 417-418, 421, 422-423, 424

hypophysectomized rats, effects on survival of, 419, 420

interleukin-1 effects elucidation, use of, 415-416

Lipoproteins. See Serum lipoproteins

Listeria, 327

Listeria monocytogenes, 104, 214

Liver

function and systemic inflammation, 361, 391-392, 398

See also Acute-phase response

Long-Life Ration Packet (LLRP), 5, 30, 171

See also Military food and rations;

Operational rations

Louisiana State University, 5, 20

LPS. See Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)

Lung function

vitamin C and E supplementation effects on asthma and lung function, 295-296

Lymphocyte activating substance. See Interleukin-1 (IL-1)

Lymphocyte repertoire

definition, 533

See also Diversity;

Epitopes

Lymphocytes, 209, 361, 392

antigens and mitogens response, nutritional status indicator, 209

biologic rhythms and, 438, 443, 444-446, 447, 448, 449, 450, 465, 466, 467

blood volume and proliferation in whole-blood cultures, methods, 251, 253

glutamine and, 263, 268, 269

3H-thymidine labeling duration, for proliferation in whole-blood cul-

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

tures, experiment methods/results, 254, 255, 256

mitogenic response changes during Norwegian Ranger Training Course, 187

peripheral, antioxidant supplementation effects, Special Forces Assessment and Selection study, 178, 179

peripheral, biologic rhythms and, 446, 449, 452

peripheral, glutamine supplementation effects, Special Forces Assessment and Selection study, 177

peripheral, proliferation during Special Forces Assessment and Selection studies, 176

peripheral, Ranger I and II studies, changes in proliferation during, 170

proliferation in response to PHA, measurement use of whole-blood cultures, methods/results, 251-257

proliferation studies, 25, 43, 376, 539

shipping/holding effects on proliferation in whole-blood cultures, 256-257

whole-blood cultures, proliferation in, in vitro measurement use, experiment methods/results , 249-251-257

zinc intake dose/response curve, and stimulation response of, 210

See also B-cells;

Immune function;

Lymphocyte repertoire;

Lymphokines;

Memory cells;

Mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs);

Null cells;

T-cells

Lymphokines

definition, 533

See also Cytokines;

Interleukin-2 (IL-2);

Interleukin-4 (IL-4);

Interleukin-5 (IL-5);

Interleukin-9 (IL-9);

Interleukin-13 (IL-13);

Interleukin-14 (IL-14);

Interleukin-15 (IL-15);

Interleukins;

Lymphocytes

Lymphopoietin I. See Interleukin-7 (IL-7)

Lymphotoxin. See Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)

Lysozyme

definition, 533

M

Macrophage/monocyte colony stimulating factor (MCSF), 225

definition, 529

See also Colony stimulating factors;

Cytokines;

Hematopoietic growth and differentiation factors;

Monocytes

Macrophages, 41, 361, 392, 422

biologic rhythms and, 438, 459, 466

definition, 533

viral infections resistance, and, 547

See also Chemotactic agents;

Monocytes;

Phagocytes

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes, 238, 519, 520, 521

Class I molecules, 520, 534

Class II molecules, 520, 534

definition, 533-534

See also Proteins

Malaria

China-Burma, incidence in World War II troops, 23, 140

parasitemia, iron supplementation and increases in, 327-328

splenomegaly prevalence as indicator of clinical malaria frequency, 327

See also Diseases and disorders;

Infectious diseases and disorders

Malnutrition, 2, 3, 18, 20, 40, 43, 105

cytokine-induced, 140

immune responses to, 207

T-cells in malnourished v. well-nourished subjects, 208

See also Nutrition;

Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)

Malondialdehyde (MDA), 294, 296, 297

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

Manchuria

Hantavirus illness in, 37

See also China

Marasmus. See Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)

Martek Biosciences Corporation (ARASCO Oil), 308

Mason, John, 144

Mast-cell growth-enhancing factor. See Interleukin-9 (IL-9)

Maternity

Vitamin A deficiency risks for pregnant women, 263, 280-281, 282

See also Women

Meal, Ready-to-Eat (MRE), 5, 29, 30, 163, 166, 171, 174

See also Military food and rations;

Operational rations

Measles

Africa outbreak, unusual manifestations, 547

See also Diseases and disorders;

Infectious diseases and disorders

Medical procedures. See Surgical procedures

Medicine. See Antibiotics; Drugs; Vaccines and vaccination

Membrane fluidity

fat, dietary, and, immune response effects of, 312

Memory, 517

definition, 534

See also Antigen-specific immunity;

Immune response (IR)

Memory cells

definition, 534

See also Lymphocytes

Menkes syndrome, 65, 339

See also Diseases and disorders

Menstrual cycle

immune system variables, changes during, 465-466

See also Women

Merieux multitine tests, 148

Merrill's Marauders

World War II troops infectious disease exposure, 23, 140

Metabolism, 2, 18, 20

acute-phase reaction effects on, 361, 391-392

cytokines (proinflammatory) effects on, 105

iron metabolism, overview, 318-319

See also Catabolism;

Health;

Nutrition

Methodology, 2, 11-13

cytokine, circulating, assays, issues concerning, 540

cytokine production in vitro, use of whole-blood cultures, experiment methods, 257-259

effector cell response development, in vitro assessment, 243

field measures, 11-13, 102-105, 132-133

flow cytometry in vitro assessment of cell types, 243-244

immune function and nutrition, future research recommendations, 133-134

immune function assessment, issues in, 102-105, 132-133

immune response assessment, methodologies review, 233, 242-244

in vitro assessment of immune response, 240, 242-244

in vivo assessment of immune response, 241-242

lymphocyte proliferation in vitro measurement, whole-blood cultures use, experiment methods, 251-257

military awareness of civilian research, recommendations, 133

military nutrition laboratory research methods, 102-105

proliferative response, in vitro assessment, 242-243

research protocols design, recommendations, 133

soluble interleukin receptors release in vitro, measurement use of whole-blood cultures, experiment methods, 258-259

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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whole-blood cultures use for blood lymphoid cell activity in vitro measurement, experiment methods, 250-259

Mexico City, Mexico

infectious disease risk in, 545

MHC haplotypes. See Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes

Microbes

adaptation/change of, infectious disease introduction/dissemination factor, 545

antibiotics resistance of, disease introduction/dissemination factor, 545

iron acquisition by, 320-323

See also Viral evolution

Microbial virulence

bacterial virulence factors regulated by iron, listing, 322

iron acquisition by microbes, overview, 264, 320-323

minerals, trace, and pathogen virulence, 264

selenium effect on pathogen, animal studies review, 264, 338, 341-351

See also Viral evolution

Microorganisms. See Microbes; Viral evolution

Migration. See Population migration

Military bases and camps. See Camp Merrill, Georgia; Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah; Eglin Air Force Base, Florida; Fort Benning, Georgia; Fort Bliss, Texas; Fort Bragg, North Carolina; Fort Detrick, Maryland

Military deployment. See Military operations

Military food and rations, 29-30, 337

See also Long-Life Ration Packet (LLRP);

Meal, Ready-to-Eat (MRE);

Operational rations;

Military personnel;

Military Recommended Dietary Allowance (MRDA)

Military Nutrition and Biochemical Division (MND), vii, 1, 17, 20

See also U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM)

Military Nutrition Division (MND), vii, 1, 14, 20, 134

See also U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM)

Military research

cytokines as immune function index, research ideas, 119-120

disease conditions and long-term host defense, research ideas, 120

immune function assessment, appropriate methods, 102-105

immune function assessment, methodological issues, 102-105

immune function assessment, technical issues for, 102-103

immune function sustainment under stressful conditions, research ideas, 119-121

nutrition laboratory research methods, 17, 20, 102-105

nutritional supplement use by military personnel, research ideas, 119

operational rations supplementation, research on justification for, 119-120

stress factors and sustainment of immune function, research ideas, 119-120

stress factors, operational, military study models, 144-146

women, military, and immune function, research areas, 120-121

See also Military personnel;

Research

Military operations

cytokines (recombinant) administration during, conclusions, 126

deployed personnel, immune function and nutrition of, Army interest, 139-152

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

deployment and anemic personnel, recommendations, 130

deployment and immune function field assessment, recommendations, 132-133

deployment and lean body mass losses, recommendations, 130

deployment and nutritional status optimization, conclusions, 127

deployment of physically active women, and immune function, civilian research use, 134

energy intake (total) and immune function, conclusions, 126-127

environmental factors during, immune function effects of, 101

glutamine use and immune function during, conclusions, 128-129

health (general) status and immune function during, conclusions, 126

health (general) status optimization for, recommendations, 129-130

high-risk military groups, nutrition education program, recommendations, 130-131

humidity extremes exposure during, immune function effects, 101

immune function and nutrition during, conclusions, 125-129

immune function and nutrition during, future research recommendations, 133-134

immune function and nutrition during, recommendations, 129-133

immune function and nutrition during, research methodology, 132-133

immune function assessment field measures, conclusions and recommendations, 126, 132-133

infection/injury increases during, immune function effects, 101

iron excess/deficiency and immune function during, conclusions, 128

medicines and procedures use during, conclusions and recommendations, 126, 129

nutrients and immune function effects of, conclusions, 127

nutrition and immune function sustainment during, 1, 100-121

nutritional status and immune function during, conclusions, 126-128

nutritional status optimization during, recommendations for, 130-131

nutritional supplements and immune function during, conclusions, 128-129

nutritional supplements and Military Recommended Dietary Allowance for, recommendations, 131

nutritional supplements in rations for, recommendations, 131

nutritional supplements use during, conclusions and recommendations, 128, 131-132

nutritional supplements use during, safety/regulatory considerations, 18, 20, 108-113

physical activity (prolonged moderate-to-heavy) during, immune function effects of, 100

physical fitness maintenance of personnel for, recommendations, 129

psychological stress during, immune function effects of, 101

psychological stress during, minimization methods, recommendations for, 130

rations reduced consumption during, immune function effects of, 100

sleep deprivation during, immune function effects of, 101

stressors during, and immune suppression and inflammatory responses, 141-144

stressors during, effects on immune function, 17, 20, 100-101, 126

stressors during, study models for, 144-146

temperature extremes exposure during, immune function effects of, 101

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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vaccination (militarily relevant) creation and evaluation, recommendations for, 129

vaccination use for, conclusions, 126

See also Combat;

Operational rations

Military personnel, 2, 7, 8-9

biotechnology products administration to sustain immune function, risks and benefits, 106

civilian research applicability to, 23, 27

deployment of anemic personnel, recommendations, 10, 130

deployment, lean body mass loss and, recommendations, 130

deployment, nutritional status optimization, 7, 127

high-risk personnel, nutrition education programs recommendations, 130-131

immune function and hazards or operational settings, 17, 18, 20, 21

immune function assessment field measures, recommendations, 132-133

infections, emerging, exposure risk, 543, 544, 546, 548

infectious disease threats facing, 19, 140

iron deficiency, implications for, 328-329

iron status of, 62-63

nutritional immunology, militarily useful evaluation methods, summary, 500

nutritional immunology, militarily useful issues, 362, 497-506

nutritional intervention to sustain immune function, benefits and risks, 18, 20, 105-106

nutritional supplements use and abuse by, 10-11, 131-132, 150-152

nutritional supplements use under field conditions, safety/regulatory considerations, 18, 20, 107-118

pharmacological interventions to sustain immune function, risks and benefits, 105-106

physical fitness maintenance, recommendations, 129

psychological stress, minimizing, recommendations, 9, 130

recruits, exercise and infection resistance, practical guidelines, 377-379

recruits, iron-deficiency anemia screening and iron supplementation, recommendation, 328-329

stress, health status, and immune function, issues for, summary, 500-503

vaccination of, 6, 9, 129

See also Combat;

Foreign military personnel;

Military food and rations;

Military operations;

Military Recommended Dietary Allowance (MRDA);

Military research;

Military training;

Operational rations;

U.S. Army;

U.S. Army Ranger Training Courses;

U.S. Army Special Forces;

U.S.Navy;

U.S. Navy Seals;

Women in military

Military rations. See Long-Life Ration Packet (LLRP); Meal, Ready-to-Eat (MRE); Military food and rations; Operational rations

Military Recommended Dietary Allowance (MRDA), 7, 10, 105, 107, 108-114, 116, 117, 127, 128, 130, 131

See also Military food and rations;

Military personnel;

Operational rations;

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

Military training

Army training courses, nutrition and immune function, 29-33

environmental factors during, immune function effects, 5, 22, 29, 101

immune system effect of for elite troops, 21, 22-29

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

immunological status during, 31-32

Norwegian Ranger Training program, 31-32, 33-35

nutrition education program for high-risk personnel, recommendations for, 130-131

sleep deprivation during, biologic rhythms and immune response, 362, 474-475

See also Field training exercises (FTX);

Military personnel;

Special Forces Assessment and Selection (SFAS);

U.S. Army Basic Combat Training (BCT);

U.S. Army Ranger Training Courses;

U.S. Army Special Operations Training Program

Minerals, 23, 60-66, 264

See also Copper;

Iron, dietary;

Nutrients;

Selenium;

Zinc

Mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs), 446

See also Lymphocytes

Models and modeling

Army Special Operations Training nutritional intervention effects assessment, 163-178

military, immune function effects of operational stressors, 144-146

Ranger training studies of nutritional intervention, 165-174

Special Forces Assessment and Selection Training studies of nutritional intervention, 174-178

Monocyte colony stimulating factor (MCSF). See Macrophage/monocyte colony stimulating factor (MCSF)

Monocytes, 41, 361, 392, 422

biologic rhythms and, 443, 450, 456, 466

Norwegian Ranger Training Course, changes during, 188

See also Immune function;

Macrophage/monocyte colony stimulating factor (MCSF);

Macrophages;

Phagocytes;

White blood cells (WBC)

Monokines

definition, 534

See also Cytokines

Mortality

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, abnormal, conditions lethal to animals, 417

interleukin-1 lethality, and adrenalectomy/hypophysectomy, 416-418, 420-421

See also Bereavement;

Demographics

Mountain terrain

military training immunological/physiological effects of, 169, 170, 172, 173

See also Environment

MRDA. See Military Recommended Dietary Allowance (MRDA)

MRE. See Meal, Ready-to-Eat (MRE)

Mucor, 327

Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 295

Multicolony stimulating factor. See Interleukin-3 (IL-3)

Multiple nutrients for cellular synthesis (MN-CS), 38, 41, 42

See also Nutrients

Multiple nutrients for protein synthesis (MN-PS), 38, 41, 42

See also Nutrients

Multi-Test CMI, 177

See also Skin tests

Munck hypothesis, 396, 411

Musculoskeletal system

glutamine physiologic biochemistry, 266-267

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 241

N

n-3 PUFA. See Linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA)

n-6 PUFA. See Linoleic acid (n-6 PUFA)

NAD. See Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)

NAIDS. See Nutritionally-acquired immune dysfunction syndromes (NAIDS)

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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National Academy of Sciences (NAS), vii, viii

See also Board on Military Supplies;

Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR);

Food and Nutrition Board (FNB);

Institute of Medicine (IOM)

National Cancer Institute

Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, 224

National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey I (NHANES I), 296

NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Natural killer (NK) cells, 38, 48, 53, 337, 339, 519

biologic rhythms and, 438, 449, 451, 459, 464, 466, 467, 468

elderly persons and exercise, and activity of, 377

exercise, chronic, and activity of, studies review, 361, 367-368

exercise, chronic, and, cross-sectional studies, 367-368

exercise, chronic, and, prospective studies, 368

immune function assessment use, overview, 238-239, 542

lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK cells), 268

Navy. See U.S. Navy

NBT test. See Granulocyte nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye reduction

Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae), 320, 321, 322

Neisseria meningiditis (N. meningiditis), 320, 321

Neopterin

definition, 534

rheumatoid arthritis subjects, urinary excretion of, circadian rhythms in, 447-448

See also Proteins

Nepal

pregnant women with night blindness, 282

Neuroendocrine function and endocrine and central nervous systems

biologic rhythms role in neuroendocrine-immune system relationship, 438, 440, 462, 470-475

immune system, bidirectional communication with, overview, 409-411

inflammation, systemic, consequences of, 70-74, 361, 391-399

See also Central nervous system (CNS);

Endocrine system;

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA);

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system;

Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid system;

Pituitary-gonadal system

Neuropeptide function

Norwegian Ranger Training Course, effect during, 188-189

See also Catecholamines;

Immune function;

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)

Neutrophils, 42, 319, 324, 325, 450, 464, 467

biologic rhythms and, 443, 450

definition, 534-535

exercise, chronic, and function of, studies review, 361, 368-369

See also Defensins;

White blood cells (WBC)

Neutrophil-activating peptide. See Interleukin-8 (IL-8)

Neutrophil chemoattractant factor. See Interleukin-8 (IL-8)

Neutrophil chemotactic factor. See Interleukin-8 (IL-8)

New Zealand

neonatal iron deficiency and supplementation, and E. coli infection, 327

N. gonorrhoeae. See Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae)

NHANES I. See National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey I (NHANES I)

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), 268

Nigeria. See Lagos, Nigeria

Nitric oxide, 422-423

definition, 535

Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test. See Granulocyte nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye reduction

NK cells. See Natural killer (NK) cells

NK-cell stimulating factor. See Interleukin-12 (IL-12)

N. meningiditis. See Neisseria meningiditis (N. meningiditis)

Nonspecific immunity, 238, 511, 512-517

definition, 535

See also Active nonspecific defense mechanisms;

Acute-phase reactions;

Complement system;

Cytokines;

Diseases and disorders;

Immunity;

Inflammatory reactions;

Passive defense mechanisms

North Africa

World War II troops exposure to infectious disease, 23, 140

North America, 55

arctic regions, extreme temperature effects on immune function, 101

Hantavirus in, 546

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

''Effect of Prolonged Exhaustive Military Activities on Man'' workshop, 145-146

North Carolina. See Fort Bragg, North Carolina

Norwegian Defense Research Establishment, 143

Norwegian Military Academy, 33, 137, 185, 186

Norwegian Ranger Training Course

adrenoglucocorticoid regulation of phagocyte function, animal studies, 189-190

calorie deficiency, effect of reducing, 188

catecholamines effects during, 189

granulocyte functions during, 187-188

immune function and nutrition and, studies, 31-32, 33-35, 101, 185-190

immune function parameter changes, 186-187

immunoglobulin plasma levels during, 187

interleukins during, 187

leukocyte number changes during, 186-187

lymphocyte mitogenic response during, 187

monocytes pattern during, 188

neuropeptide effect during, 188-189

nutritional intervention studies, 137

operational stress, military models of, 145

phagocyte function changes during, 187-188

phagocyte function regulation by adrenoglucocorticoid, animal studies, 189-190

vasoactive intestinal peptide changes during, 188-189

Not Eating Enough, 30

Nucleotides

coxsackievirus evolution and selenium deficiency, changes in, animal studies review, 349

Null cells

definition, 535

See also Lymphocytes

Nurses' Health Study, 295

Nutrients, 2, 3, 4, 10-11, 41, 42

deficiencies in, immune response and, 206

dose-response curve for optimal intake, 206

doses to sustain immune function, 108-115

excesses in, immune responses to, 8, 206, 209-210

immune function role, 7, 14, 46-67, 108-115, 127

immune response and, 36, 37, 263

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

immunostimulant nutrients, 214

military conditions, special concerns, 108-115

military rations supplementation, recommendations, 131

supplementation and immune function under field conditions, safety/regulatory considerations, 18, 20, 107-118

toxicity concerns of, 108-115

See also Amino acids (AAs);

Arginine;

Carotenoids;

Copper;

Fatty acids;

Folic acid;

Glutamine;

Iron, dietary;

Minerals;

Multiple nutrients for cellular synthesis (MNCS);

Multiple nutrients for protein synthesis (MN-PS);

Nutrition;

Nutritional intervention;

Nutritional supplements;

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs);

Proteins;

Retinol;

Selenium;

Vitamin A;

Vitamin B1;

Vitamin B2;

Vitamin B6;

Vitamin B12;

Vitamin C;

Vitamin D;

Vitamin E;

Vitamins;

Zinc

Nutrition

altered status, immune response in, 206, 207-210

Army training courses, immune function and, 29-33

cytokines and, possible correlations and investigations, 221-227

cytokines potential for assessing effects on immune function, 203

deficiencies in, immune responses to, 206, 207-209

dengue hemorrhagic fever role of, studies review, 547

immune function and, Army's interest, 22-29, 139-152

immune function and, assessment rationale, 237

immune function and, general concepts, 206, 498-500

immune function and, military evaluation methods, summary, 500

immune function and, military field operations, viii-ix, 1, 22-29, 100-121

immune function and, military implications, conclusions, 125-129, 362, 497-500

immune function and, military implications, future research recommendations, 133-134, 503-506

immune function and, military implications, recommendations, 129-133

immune function role of, 10-82, 46-67, 205-214

immune response and, interaction, current knowledge, 36-37

immune system biologic rhythms and, 75-79

immunological tests as indicators of, 209

infections, emerging, role of, 37-39, 545-548

iron status and infection susceptibility, overview, 264, 317-318

military personnel (deployed), status of, 7, 9

See also Health;

Malnutrition;

Metabolism;

Nutrients;

Nutritional intervention;

Nutritionally acquired immune dysfunction syndromes (NAIDS);

Nutritional supplements;

Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)

Nutritional intervention, 2, 18, 20

Army Special Operations Training physiological/immunological impact, assessment model, 163-178

immune sustainment and potential superimmunity, and, 148-150

immunity, boosting by, 206, 213-214

immunosuppression, temporary, effects of, 163-178

military field conditions use of, safety/regulatory considerations, 18, 20

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

military personnel's immune function and, risks/benefits, 18, 20, 105

Ranger training, immunological effects of, 165-174

Special Forces Assessment and Selection, immunological effects of, model, 174-178

See also Nutrients;

Nutrition;

Nutritional supplements

Nutritionally acquired immune dysfunction syndromes (NAIDS), 110, 114, 498, 506

See also Diseases and disorders;

Nutrition

Nutritional supplements, 2, 6

aging effects of, vitamin C and E, 263, 291-293

AIDS/HIV effects of, vitamin C and E, 263, 290, 294-295

Army researchers responsibility to publicize findings on, 150-152

Army training programs, immune function and, 30-32

asthma and lung function effects of, vitamin C and E, 263, 295-296

cancer effects of, vitamin C and E, 263, 290, 293

excess consumption, risks of, 8, 128

exercise stress effects of, vitamin C and E, 263, 290, 296-297

immune function of military personnel in field, safety/regulatory considerations, 18, 20, 107-118

immune function role of, 7-8, 10-11, 108-115, 128-129

immune response effects of, vitamin C, 263, 290, 292-297

immune response effects of, vitamin E, 263, 290, 291-297

immunity, boosting by use, 206, 213-214

military operational rations and, research on justification, 110-120

military personnel use and abuse of, 10-11, 28-29, 119, 131-132

military rations supplementation, recommendations, 131

military situations, special concerns for, 108-115

See also Nutrients;

Nutrition;

Nutritional intervention

O

Oils. See Fish oils; Vegetable oils

Oils and oilseeds

fatty acids and immune function and, 55, 58, 308-309

Operational missions, military. See Military operations

Operational rations, 2, 5, 6, 10-11, 18, 20

Army Special Operations Training, nutritional intervention and immunosuppression, 163-178

modification of, cautionary note, 118

reduced consumption of, immune function effects, 100

supplementation and immune function, research on justification for, 119-120

supplementation of, recommendations, 131

See also Long-Life Ration Packet (LLRP);

Meal, Ready-to-Eat (MRE);

Military food and rations;

Military personnel;

Military Recommended Dietary Allowance (MRDA)

Operation Everest II, 144

Operations. See Surgical procedures

Oppenheim, Joost, 224

Opsinization

definition, 535

Opsonins

definition, 535

See also Opsinization;

Serum

Organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis (OVLT), 413-414, 416

Orosomucoid

definition, 535

See also Acute-phase proteins;

Proteins

Oxidative burst

definition, 535

See also Respiratory burst

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

Oxidative stress

exercise and, vitamin C and E supplementation effects on, 296-297

fat, dietary, and, immune response effects of, 312

selenium deficiency and, animal studies review, 340, 345

See also Stress and stressors

P

P40. See Interleukin-9 (IL-9)

P600. See Interleukin-13 (IL-13)

Panama

military personnel, prophylaxis use against infectious disease, 100, 145

U.S. military personnel, infectious disease risk, 545

Papua New Guinea

malaria parasitemia increases, iron supplementation and, 327-328

Parainfluenza 3 virus, 340

Paraventicular nuclear (PVN), 412-413, 414, 415, 416

Passive defense mechanisms, 512

See also Nonspecific immunity

Pasturella multocida, 340

Pathogens. See Microbes; Microbial virulence; Viral evolution

PBMCs. See Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)

PCR. See Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

PEM. See Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 5, 20, 148, 152

"Performance Nutrition"/"Eat to Win", 152

Performance, physical, 7

exercise performance during infection, studies review, 361, 373-374

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), 45, 58, 250, 253, 254, 255, 291, 292, 306, 307, 308, 310, 473

See also Blood

Peromyscus meniculatas, 546

Persian Gulf

military personnel, psychological stress effects on, 100, 142

Phagocytes

adrenoglucocorticoid regulation of in animal studies, 189-190

definition, 535

Norwegian Ranger Training Course, changes during, 187-188

See also Blood;

Chemotaxis;

Granulocytes;

Immune function;

Macrophages;

Monocytes

Phagocytosis

definition, 535

Pharmacokinetics, 475

Pharmacologic agents. See Antibiotics; Drugs; Vaccines and vaccination

Physical activity

immune response, factors influencing, 210-211

moderate-to-heavy and prolonged during military operations, immune function effects, 100, 142-143

women, physically active, and immune function, civilian research and military use, 14, 134

See also Exercise;

Stress and stressors

Physical fitness, 9

military personnel maintenance, recommendations, 129

See also Exercise;

Physical activity

Physiology

Army Special Operations Training impact on, 163-178

Ranger training impact on, studies results, 165-174

Special Forces Assessment and Selection impact on, studies results, 174-178

See also Health

Phytohemagglutinin (PHA), 170, 209, 210, 292, 308, 323, 376, 451, 464, 473

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

cytokine production in response to, whole-blood cultures experiments, 257-259

definition, 535

energy deficit and, military operations studies, 28, 147

lymphocyte proliferation in response to, whole-blood cultures experiments, 251-257

soluble interleukin receptors release in response to, whole-blood cultures experiments, 258-259

Pituitary gland. See Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA); Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system; Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroidsystem; Pituitary stalk section (PSS)

Pituitary-gonadal system

inflammation, systemic, and regulation, 73, 398-399

See also Neuroendocrine function

Pituitary stalk section (PSS), 420, 421

Plasma cells, 540

definition, 535

See also Blood

Plasmodia, 328

Plasmodium berghei, 328

Platelets, 443, 450

See also Blood

Pleiotropy

definition, 535

Pneumonia, 5

lobar, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and, 396-397

See also Diseases and disorders;

Infectious diseases and disorders

Pollution. See Environmental pollution

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 347

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes. See Neutrophils

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). See Neutrophils

Polypeptide molecules. See Inflammatory cytokines

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), 4, 7, 38, 41, 42, 305-306

doses and toxicity of, 110, 111

immune function role of, 55-56, 105, 110, 111, 118, 127

intake amount and immune function, 57-59

military situations, special concerns in, 110, 111

military supplementation, conclusions, 128

See also Essential fatty acids (EFAs);

Fatty acids;

Linoleic acid (n-6 PUFA);

Linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA);

Nutrients

Population. See Age and aging; Adults; Children; Demographics; Infants; Population density; Population migration; Women

Population density

high-density locations, infectious disease introduction/dissemination factor, 545

See also Demographics

Population migration

rural to urban, infectious disease introduction/dissemination factor, 544-545

See also Demographics

Post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS), 373-374

See also Diseases and disorders

Pre-B-Cell growth factor. See Interleukin-7 (IL-7)

Pregnancy. See Maternity

Proinflammatory cytokines, 2, 18, 20, 41

definition, 536

disease (infectious) resistance, effects of, 105

lean body mass effects of, 105

metabolic activity and, effects of, 105

thermoregulatory mechanisms, effects of, 105

See also Cytokines;

Interferon-gamma (INF-γ);

Interferons;

Interleukin-1 (IL-1);

Interleukin-6

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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(IL-6);

Interleukin-8 (IL-8);

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)

Properdin

definition, 536

Prostaglandins

vitamin E and, 53

See also Eicosanoids

Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), 3, 46, 55, 110, 112, 205, 283

children and, 36

kwashiorkor, 205

marasmus, 205

zinc and immune function and, 64

See also Malnutrition

Proteins

apo proteins B and E (apo B and E), 311

doses and toxicity of, 110

immune function role of, 3, 4, 7, 23, 49-51, 110, 127

metabolism of, acute-phase reaction effects on, 361

metabolism of and growth hormone, 399

military situations, special concerns in, 110

See also α1-antitrypsin;

Acute-phase proteins;

Amino acids (AAs);

Complement system;

C-reactive protein (CRP);

Cytokines;

Defensins;

Haptoglobin;

Lipoproteins;

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes;

Neopterin;

Nutrients;

Orosomucoid;

Serum lipocortins;

Siderophores;

Soluble receptors

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 321-322

Psychological stress, 9, 21

Bosnia, military personnel effects on, 142

military minimizing methods, recommendations, 130

military operations and, immune function effects of, 101, 141-142

See also Stress and stressors

Public health

upper respiratory tract infections risk and exercise, recommendations, 373

See also Health

Purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test, 241, 453, 459

See also Skin tests

Pyridoxine. See Vitamin B6

R

RA. See Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

Ranger Training Courses. See U.S. Army Ranger Training Courses

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, 142

See also Sleep

RDA. See Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

Recommendations, 8-13, 18

anemia, nutritional, treatment prior to military deployment, 130

health and nutritional status optimization, military operations, 8-10, 129-131

immune function future research recommendations for military, 13-14, 133-134

immune responses, nutritionally induced, field measures military research, 132-133

lean body mass significant losses and military deployment, 130

military increased use of civilian research on immune function and nutrition, 133

nutrition education programs development for high-risk military personnel, 130-131

nutritional supplement and Military Recommended Dietary Allowance, 131

nutritional supplement provision through military rations, 131

nutritional supplements use and abuse by military personnel, military concerns, 131-132

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

nutritional supplements use, military operations, 10-11, 131-132

physical fitness maintenance by military personnel, 129

prophylatic medications and procedures use by military, 129

psychological stress of military personnel, minimizing methods, 130

research methodology for military, 11-13, 132-133

research protocols careful design, 133

vaccines, oral, for military, research efforts to create and evaluate, 129

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), 27, 52, 107, 108-114, 116, 164

Dietary Reference Intakes, 164

vitamin A recommendations, 281

vitamin C recommendations, 290

vitamin E recommendations, 290

See also Military Recommended Dietary Allowance (MRDA)

REM. See Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep

Reproductive system. See Menstrual cycle

Research

Army Special Operations Training physiological and immunological impact, objectives, 163-165

Army Special Operations Training physiological and immunological impact, results, 165-178

civilian research use by military, recommendations, 133, 134

immune function future research recommendations for military, 13-14, 18, 133-134

infection increased susceptibility, mechanisms of, Army-USDA cooperative research data, 146-148

iron status influence on infection risk, future recommendations, 134

military use of civilian research, recommendations, 133, 134

nutrients influence on immune status, future recommendations, 134

nutrition and immune function, military implications, new directions for, 503-506

nutritional intervention effects on immunosuppression, assessment model, 163-178

nutritional supplements, publicized findings of Army research, 150-152

protocols design, recommendations, 13, 133

Ranger training physiological/immunological impact, studies results, 165-174

Special Forces Assessment and Selection physiological/immunological impact, studies results, 174-178

women (physically active) and immune function, future recommendations, 134

See also Civilian research;

Field research;

Laboratories

Respiratory burst

definition, 536

See also Diseases and disorders;

Oxidative burst

Respiratory diseases and disorders

infant morbidity from, serum concentration relationship, 213-214

infection incidence, exercise, and immune responses, relationship, 211, 212

See also Asthma;

Diseases and disorders;

Infectious diseases and disorders;

Upper respiratory infections (URI);

Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI)

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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Reston, Virginia

Ebola-Reston outbreak in monkeys, 38, 543

Retinol

infant respiratory morbidity and serum concentration of, 213-214

See also Nutrients

Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), 347, 348

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 396, 454, 456, 472, 475

circadian rhythms in urinary neopterin excretion of patients with, 447-448

See also Diseases and disorders

Rhizopus, 327

Ribonucleic acid (RNA), 319, 338-339, 341, 345, 347, 350, 396, 412, 413, 416, 422

"Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance," 117

Ross Products Division, Abbott Laboratories (ROSS), 165, 174

RT-PCR. See Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)

Russia

infection, emerging, in, 37

S

SAA. See Serum amyloid antecedent (SAA)

Saccharomyces cervisiae, 320

Safety and regulatory considerations

nutrients or dietary supplements use to sustain immune function under field conditions, 107-118

Salmonella, 328

Salmonella typhimurium, 328

Scandinavia

infection, emerging, in, 37

Seasons

immune response to biologic rhythms, and, 362, 466-467

Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), 36, 206, 215, 455, 370, 521, 522

definition, 532

See also Antibodies;

Immunoglobulin;

Immunoglobulin A (IgA)

Selenium

China, endemic juvenile cardiomyopathy (Keshan disease) and deficiency, 65-66, 548

deficiency, role in viral evolution, 547-548

doses and toxicity, 113-114

immune function role of, 3, 4, 7, 38, 42, 65-66, 113-114, 115, 127, 340-351

military situations, special concerns in, 113-114

pathogen virulence, effect on, animal studies review, 264, 338, 341-351

See also Minerals;

Nutrients

Self-limitation, 517

definition, 536

See also Antigen-specific immunity;

Immune response (IR)

Serratia marcescens, 322

Serum

cytokines, circulating, assays, review of, 540

immune status assessment tests, overview of, 537, 538-539

See also Blood;

Opsonins

Serum amyloid antecedent (SAA), 391

Serum lipoproteins

high-density (HDL), 311

low-density (LDL), 311, 312

serum, and dietary fat, immune response effects of, 311

See also Proteins

Serum opsonized zymosan (SOZ), 187-188, 189

Serum thymulin activity

nutritional status, use as indicator of, 208, 209

Sex steroids

inflammation, systemic, neuroendocrine effects of, 398, 399

See also Hormones;

Testosterone

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

Sexual orientation

homosexual/bisexual men (HIV positive), vitamins C and E supplementation effects, 294-295

Sheffield, England

vitamin A deprivation experiment during WWII, 282

See also England

Shigella, 140, 321

See also Diarrheal diseases;

Diseases and disorders

Shigella dysenteriae type, 322

Shipping

blood, whole, cultures use, holding and shipping effects on lymphocyte proliferation, experiment results, 256-257

Sick euthyroid syndrome, 397-398

See also Diseases and disorders

Siderophores

definition, 536

See also Proteins

Skin diseases and disorders. See Arthus reactions; Urticaria

Skin tests, 241, 242, 460-461, 539

See also Multi-test CMI;

Purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test

Sleep

biologic rhythms of, and immunity, 462-465

deprivation, effects on biologic rhythms, 464-465, 474-475

deprivation, effects on response to influenza virus, animal study, 465

deprivation, immune function and, military operations/training, 30, 32, 101, 142

deprivation, immune function effects of, 80

deprivation in military training, biologic rhythms and immune response, 362, 474-475

wakefulness and, patterns in, biologic rhythms in, 451, 464-465

See also Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep;

Stress and stressors

Smoking. See Tobacco use

Social activity

biologic rhythms and routine of, 362, 438

Soldier System Command (SSCOM), 22, 165

Soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R)

release of, in vitro measurement use of whole-blood cultures, experiments methods/results, 258-259

See also Interleukin-2 (IL-2);

Soluble receptors

Soluble receptors, 392, 411-412, 438, 453, 454, 540-542

See also Proteins;

Soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R)

Somalia

U.S. military personnel, infectious disease risk, 545

U.S. military personnel, stress factors for, 100, 142

Somatomedin C

growth hormone and, response, 399

South America

Vitamin A deficiency epidemiology, 281

South Pacific

Vitamin A deficiency epidemiology, 281

Soviet Union

former, diphtheria reemergence in, 545

Special Forces Assessment and Selection (SFAS), 21, 22, 23, 24-26, 28, 29, 30, 31-32, 147, 148, 149

body fat (percent) change during, studies, 176

body weight loss during, studies, 175

energy deficit relation to stress indices and T-lymphocyte proliferation, 147

energy expenditure and intake during, studies, 175

nutritional intervention effects on temporary immunosuppression, studies results, 174-178

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

 

peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation during glutamine supplementation study, 177

peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation during, studies, 176

physiological and immunological impact of, studies results, 174-178

Special Forces Assessment Schools, 137

See also Military training;

U.S. Army Special Forces

Special Operations Training Program. See U.S. Army Special Operations Training Program

Specificity, 517

definition, 536

See also Antigen-specific immunity;

Immune response (IR)

Sports. See Athletes and athletics

Staphylococcus aureus, 55, 268

Streptococcal pneumonia, 166

Streptococcus, 177

Streptococcus mutans, 320

Streptomyces cerevisiae, 320

Stress and stressors

cytokines potential for assessing effects on immune function, 203

health and, 67-81

hormonal responses to, 69-70

immune function effects of combined stressors, 6, 81

immune function, health status, and, summary, 500-503

immune function sustainment under, military nutrition research areas, 119-121

military high-risk personnel, nutrition education programs for, recommendations, 130-131

military operational settings and immune function, 100-101

military operational stressors, immune suppression and inflammatory responses, 141-144

military operational stressors, models for studying, 144-146

military personnel and immune function, conclusions, 126

military personnel energy deficit relation to stress indices and T-lymphocyte proliferation, 147

See also Altitude, high;

Emotional stress;

Environmental pollution;

Exercise;

Humidity;

Oxidative stress;

Physical activity;

Psychological stress;

Sleep;

Temperature;

Tobacco use

Substance abuse. See Alcohol use and abuse

Suppressor cells

definition, 536

See also CD8+ cells;

T-cells

Surface immunity, 518

definition, 4

See also Immunity

Surgical procedures

allograft rejection, biologic rhythms in, 459-460

postoperative patients, glutamine supplementation effects on, 263, 269-270

transplants, kidney, biologic rhythms and, 460, 475

See also Adrenalectomy (ADX);

Hypophysectomy (HYPOX)

Swamp terrain

military training immunological/physiological effects of, 170

See also Environment

Sympathoadrenal responses

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, protective role in, 423-425

Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)

inflammation, systemic, and, 396-397

See also Vasopressin (VP)

T

T3. See Triiodothyronine (T3)

T4. See Thyroxine (T4)

T-cell growth factors, 224-225

See also Cytokines;

Interleukin-1α (IL-1α);

Interleukin-1β (IL-1β);

Interleukin-2 (IL-2);

Interleukin-4 (IL-4);

Interleukin-7 (IL-7);

Inter-

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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leukin-9 (IL-9);

Interleukin-15 (IL-15)

T-cells, 422, 520-521

biologic rhythms and, 446, 447, 450-451, 453, 454, 456, 459, 466, 467, 468, 470

definition, 536

exercise, chronic, and function of, studies review, 361, 369-370

malnourished v. well-nourished subjects, proportion in, 208

proliferation, 170-171

proliferation and energy deficit, military personnel, 28, 147

See also Antigen-specific immunity;

CD4+ cells;

CD8+ cells;

Cell-mediated immunity (CMI);

Effector cells;

Helper cells;

Lymphocytes;

Suppressor cells;

T-cell growth factors

Technology

advances in, infectious disease introduction/dissemination factor, 545

immune function assessment methods, technical issues, 102-103

See also Biotechnology

Temperature

blood, whole, cultures use, holding/shipping effects on lymphocyte proliferation, 256-257

extremes, military operations exposure to, immune function effects of, 79, 101

immune responses, factors influencing, 210-211

immune responses to, biologic rhythms and, 362, 440

See also Stress and stressors

Testosterone, 28, 147

Ranger I serum concentration changes during study, 169

Ranger II serum concentration changes during study, 172

See also Hormones;

Sex steroids

Tetanus toxoid

antioxidant supplementation and delayed-type hypersensitivity response to, SFAS study, 178, 179

glutamine supplementation and delayed-type hypersensitivity response to, SFAS study, 177-178

TGF-β. See Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)

Thailand

dengue hemorrhagic fever studies, summary, 547

field immunology studies data, 146

women with zinc deficiency, 45

See also Bangkok, Thailand

Thermoregulatory mechanisms, 2, 18, 20, 105

Thiamine. See Vitamin B1

Thromboxanes. See Eicosanoids

Thymosin

definition, 536

See also Hormones

Thyroid. See Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid system; Sick euthyroid syndrome

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), 71, 397, 469, 470, 474

See also Hormones

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), 71, 397, 398, 470, 474

See also Hormones

Thyroxine (T4)

effects of systemic inflammation, 71

inflammatory disease and, 397, 398

Time zones

flight over several time zones, biologic rhythms effects of, 451, 464-465

T-lymphocytes. See T-cells

Tobacco use

immune function effects of, 81

See also Stress and stressors

Tocopherol equivalents (TE), 114

See also Vitamin E

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), 113, 114, 266-267, 269

See also Nutrition

Trace minerals. See Copper; Iron, dietary; Minerals; Selenium; Zinc

Training. See Military training; Special Forces Assessment and Selection (SFAS); U.S. Army Basic Combat Training (BCT); U.S. Army Ranger Training Courses; U.S. Army Special Operations Training Program

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), 225, 392

See also Inhibitory/regulatory factors

Transplants. See Surgical procedures

Transportation. See Airplanes; Shipping

Trauma

physical, and immune responses, 210-211

thermal, and immune responses, 210-211

See also Diseases and disorders

Travel

international, infectious disease introduction/dissemination factor, 545, 546

TRH. See Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

Triiodothyronine (T3)

inflammatory disease and, 397, 398

Ranger I serum concentration changes during study, 169

Ranger II serum concentration changes during study, 173

TSH. See Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), 39, 74, 306-307, 308, 309, 392, 453, 454, 463, 513

definition, 536

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation by, 410, 411, 415, 417

See also Cytokines;

Proinflammatory cytokines

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), 392, 394, 397, 398, 410, 411

production of, in vitro measurement use of whole-blood cultures, experiments methods/results, 257-259

See also Cytokines;

Cytotoxic/cytostatic inducers and effectors;

Inflammatory cytokines

Tumor necrosis factor-β (TNF-β), 225

See also Cytokines;

Cytotoxic/cytostatic inducers and effectors

U

Uganda. See Kampala, Uganda

United Nations, 545

Korean War, troops in, and Korean hemorrhagic fever, 544

United States

Southwest, Four Corners Region, Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in, 546

Vitamin A deficiency epidemiology, 281, 282

Unsaturated fatty acids, 305-306

See also Fatty acids

Upper respiratory infections (URI), 5, 37, 68

See also Diseases and disorders;

Infectious diseases and disorders;

Respiratory diseases and disorders;

Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI)

exercise and risk of, J curve review, 371-373

exercise and risk of, public health recommendations, 373

exercise, heavy and moderate, and risk of, review of studies, 361, 371-373

military recruits and athletes risk of, practical guidelines, 377

See also Diseases and disorders;

Infectious diseases and disorders;

Respiratory diseases and disorders;

Urban areas

high population density, infectious disease introduction/dissemination factor, 545

See also Demographics

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
×

Urine

cytokines and markers in, development and field testing, future research, 133-134

Urticaria

definitions, 536

See also Diseases and disorders

U.S. Air Force (USAF), 152

Academy, 367

U.S. Armed Forces, 175

U.S. Army, ix, 17, 20, 21, 29-33, 82, 99, 130, 137, 141, 497

Army Operational Medicine Program, 3, 22, 24-26, 139, 141

Assistant Surgeon General, viii

female recruits, iron deficiency and anemia prevalence in, 150

Human Dimensions Teams (HDT), 142

infection increased susceptibility mechansisms, USDA cooperative research data, 146-148

Natick Research Laboratory, 30

nutrition and immune function, interest in 22-29, 139-152

nutrition and sustainment of immune function in field, answers to questions, 100-121

nutrition supplements research, responsibility to publicize findings, 150-152

U.S. Army Basic Combat Training (BCT), 20, 21, 24-26, 28, 31-32, 62, 116, 148

energy deficit relation to stress indices and T-lymphocyte proliferation, 147

See also Military training;

U.S. Army

U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command (USAMRMC), viii, 1, 14, 22, 62, 134, 166

Commander, vii

See also U.S. Army

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), 23, 140, 499, 502

See also U.S. Army

U.S. Army Ranger Training Brigade (RTB), 29, 146, 164, 165, 166, 171, 173, 174

See also U.S. Army;

U.S. Army Ranger Training School

U.S. Army Ranger Training Courses, 9, 18, 22, 34, 80, 81, 119, 130, 137, 144-145, 146, 163

body fat percent change during studies, 168, 172

body weight percent change during studies, 168

caloric intake during studies, 167

energy balance during studies, 167

energy deficit relation to stress indices and T-lymphocyte proliferation, 147

energy expenditure during studies, 166

infection rates in, 149

Norwegian Ranger training program studies comparison, 34

nutritional intervention effects on temporary immunosuppression, studies results, 165-174

peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation change during studies, 170

physiological and immunological impact of, studies results, 165-174

Ranger I Course (RGR-I), 5-6, 21, 22, 24-26, 27, 28, 29-30, 31-32, 33, 110, 120, 147, 148, 149

Ranger II Course (RGR-II), 5-6, 20, 21, 22-23, 24-26, 27, 28, 30, 31-32, 33, 100, 147, 148, 149

testosterone changes during study, 169, 172

triiodothyronine changes during study, 169, 173

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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U.S. Army Ranger Training School, 5, 140

See also U.S. Army;

U.S. Army Ranger Training Brigade (RTB);

U.S. Army Ranger Training Courses

U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), vii, viii, ix, 1, 2, 5, 14, 20, 30, 62, 99, 134, 146, 165, 166, 171, 173, 174

See also Military Nutrition and Biochemical Division (MNBD);

Military Nutrition Division (MND);

U.S. Army

U.S. Army Special Forces, 2, 10

immune status, and nutritional impact on, ix, 17, 18, 20, 99, 125, 237

nutrition education programs, recommendations, 130-131

Vietnam War study, 144

See also Military personnel;

Special Forces Assessment and Selection (SFAS);

U.S. Army

U.S. Army Special Operations Training Program, 3, 18, 22, 81, 177

nutritional intervention effects on temporary immunosuppression, assessment model, 163-178

physiological and immunological impact of, research objectives, 164-165

physiological and immunological impact of, research results, 165-178

See also Military training;

Special Forces Assessment and Selection (SFAS);

U.S. Army;

U.S. Army Ranger Training Courses;

U.S. Army Special Forces

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 22, 151, 165

Human Studies Review Committee, 250

infection increased susceptibility mechanisms, Army cooperative research data, 146-148

See also Human Nutrition Research Center

U.S. Navy, 144

See also Military personnel

U.S. Navy Seals, 145

See also Military personnel

Utah. See Dugway Proving Ground, Utah

V

Vaccines and vaccination

antigen, novel, antibody response to, assessment methods, 538

biologic rhythms in response to, 362, 454, 456-459

hepatitis B antigen and, biologic rhythms and, 456

infants, biologic rhythms, effects on immunity gained, 457-458

influenza vaccination trials, and biologic rhythms, 457

military personnel intervention to sustain immune function, risks and benefits, 105-106

military use of, 6, 9, 126, 129

Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) vaccine and biologic rhythms, 457

See also Bacillus Calmette-Guirin (BCG) vaccination;

Infectious diseases and disorders

Vasoactive intestinal peptides (VIP), 34

Norwegian Ranger Training Course, changes during, 188-189

See also Immune function;

Neuropeptide function

Vasopressin (VP)

neuroendocrine effects of systemic inflammation, 70-71, 72, 392, 394, 395, 396, 397

See also Arginine vasopressin (AVP);

Hormones;

Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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Vegetable oils

fatty acids and immune function and, 55, 57

Vibrio anguillarum, 322

Vibrio cholerae, 321-322

Vibrios, 320

Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus), 321-322, 327

Vietnam War, 144

Viral evolution

immune system role in, 547

infectious disease introduction/dissemination factor, 545

selenium and, animal studies review, 264, 338, 341-351, 547-548

See also Microbes;

Microbial virulence

Virginia. See Reston, Virginia

Virulence. See Microbial virulence

Virus. See Microbes; Microbial virulence; Viral evolution

Vitamin A, 263

adults, considerations for, 284-285

deficiency, adult, clinical manifestations, 280

deficiency, adult, epidemiology, 280-281

deficiency, adult, review of, 281-282

deficiency in children/infants, 263, 280-281, 283-284

doses and toxicity of, 109-110, 284-285

eye disorders in adults, clinical manifestations of deficiency, 280

immune function role of, 3, 4, 7, 8, 38, 41, 42, 51-52, 105, 107, 109-110, 114, 117, 127, 134, 279-285

immunodeficiency disorder (nutritionally acquired), characterization as, 263, 283-284

infants, deficiency risks for, summary, 263, 280-281

lactating women, deficiency risks for, 263, 280-281, 282

military situations, special concerns in, 109-110

military supplementation, conclusions, 128

pregnancy, deficiency risks for, 263, 280-281, 282

Recommended Dietary Allowance of, 281

women of childbearing age, risks to, 285

See also Nutrients;

Vitamins

Vitamin B1

doses and toxicity of, 108

immune function role of, 4, 38, 55, 108

military situations, special concerns in, 108

See also Nutrients;

Vitamins

Vitamin B2

immune function role of, 38

See also Nutrients;

Vitamins

Vitamin B6,

doses and toxicity of, 108

immune function role of, 3, 4, 7, 38, 42, 54-55, 108, 127

military situations, special concerns in, 108

See also Nutrients;

Vitamins

Vitamin B12

doses and toxicity of, 108

immune function role of, 7, 42, 54-55, 108, 127

military situations, special concerns in, 108

See also Nutrients;

Vitamins

Vitamin C

aging effects of supplementation, clinical trials, 263, 292-293

AIDS/HIV effects of supplementation, animal and human study findings, 263, 290, 294-295

asthma and lung function effects of supplementation, 263, 295-296

cancer effects of supplementation, experimental/epidemiological study findings, 263, 290, 293

doses and toxicity of, 108-109

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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exercise stress effects of supplementation, study findings, 263, 290, 296-297

immune function role of, 4, 7, 8, 14, 41, 42, 53-54, 105, 108-109, 117, 127, 134, 289-290

marathon runners, supplementation of, study findings, 378

military situations, special concerns in, 108-109

military supplementation, conclusions, 128

Recommended Dietary Allowance of, 290

See also Antioxidants;

Nutrients;

Vitamins

Vitamin D

doses and toxicity of, 110

immune function role of, 107, 110, 114

military situations, special concerns in, 110

See also Nutrients;

Vitamins

Vitamin E

aging effects of supplementation, clinical trials, 263, 291-292

AIDS/HIV effects of supplementation, animal and human study findings, 263, 290, 294-295

asthma and lung function effects of supplementation, 263, 295-296

cancer effects of supplementation, experimental/epidemiological study findings, 263, 290, 293

deficiency in, role in viral evolution, 547-548

doses and toxicity of, 110

exercise stress effects of supplementation, study findings, 263, 290, 296-297

fatty acids and, 57

immune function role of, 4, 7, 8, 14, 52-53, 105, 110, 114, 117, 118, 127, 289-290

military situations, special concerns in, 110

military supplementation, 128

Recommended Dietary Allowance of, 290

See also Antioxidants;

Nutrients;

Tocopherol equivalents (TE);

Vitamins

Vitamins, 23, 51-55

See also Carotenoids;

Folate;

Nutrients;

Vitamin A;

Vitamin B1;

Vitamin B2;

Vitamin B6;

Vitamin B12;

Vitamin C;

Vitamin D;

Vitamin E

V. vulnificus. See Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus)

W

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), 5, 166

Department of Medical Neurosciences, 141

Department of Respiratory Research, 144

Wasting syndrome

AIDS-related, exercise effects on, 375

Weather. See Humidity; Temperature

White blood cells (WBC), 25, 31, 108, 114, 225

biologic rhythms in number and function of, 76, 362, 441-452, 465

immune function assessment tests using, overview, 538, 540, 541

white cell counts, 11, 13

See also Basophil;

Blood;

Eosinophil;

Monocytes;

Neutrophils

WHO. See World Health Organization (WHO)

Whole-blood cultures

cytokine production assays, 43, 45, 257-259

immune function assessment tests using, overview, 538, 539-542

incubation duration of, measurement of lymphocyte proliferation in, methods, 253-254

lymphocyte proliferation in, experiments methods and results, 251-257

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6450.
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lymphoid, blood, cells functional activity in vitro measurement, and field study applications, 233, 249-259

lymphoid, blood, cells functional activity in vitro measurement, methods/results, 250-259

shipping/holding of, effects on lymphocyte proliferation, experiment methods/results, 256-257

soluble interleukin receptors release in, experiments methods/results, 258-259

See also Blood

Women

asthma effects of vitamin C and E supplementation, study findings, 295

breast cancer surgery survival rates, effects of menstrual cycle on, 466

physical fitness/activity and immune function, civilian research, 14, 134

Vitamin A risks to women, 285

See also Breastfeeding;

Demographics;

Maternity;

Menstrual cycle

Women in military, 8, 10

Army recruits, iron deficiency and anemia prevalence in, 150

civilian research on immune function of physically fit/active women, military awareness of, 14, 134

immune function in, research areas, 120-121

iron deficiency implications for, 328

iron status of, 62-63

nutrition education programs, recommendations, 130-131

See also Military personnel;

Women

Work

schedule of, biologic rhythms effects of, 362, 438

shift workers, biologic rhythms and, 451, 455, 464-465, 469

Workshops, vii, viii, ix, 2, 18, 20, 21, 117, 137, 145-146, 362, 497

See also ''Effect of Prolonged Exhaustive Military Activities on Man"

World Health Organization (WHO), 36, 107

Expert Consultation, 116

World War II, 23, 140

Medical Research Council, 281

Vitamin A deprivation experiment during, 281-282

WRAIR. See Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR)

Y

Yersinia, 320, 322, 327

Yersinia enterocolitica, 62, 326-327

Yersinia pestis, 321-322

Z

Zinc

copper interactions with, summary, 340

dose-response curve to assess recommended intake, 209, 210

doses and toxicity of, 112-113

immune function role of, 3, 4, 7, 38, 41, 63-64, 112-113, 115, 127, 337-339

military situations, special concerns in, 112-113

See also Minerals;

Nutrients

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Every aspect of immune function and host defense is dependent upon a proper supply and balance of nutrients. Severe malnutrition can cause significant alteration in immune response, but even subclinical deficits may be associated with an impaired immune response, and an increased risk of infection. Infectious diseases have accounted for more off-duty days during major wars than combat wounds or nonbattle injuries. Combined stressors may reduce the normal ability of soldiers to resist pathogens, increase their susceptibility to biological warfare agents, and reduce the effectiveness of vaccines intended to protect them. There is also a concern with the inappropriate use of dietary supplements.

This book, one of a series, examines the impact of various types of stressors and the role of specific dietary nutrients in maintaining immune function of military personnel in the field. It reviews the impact of compromised nutrition status on immune function; the interaction of health, exercise, and stress (both physical and psychological) in immune function; and the role of nutritional supplements and newer biotechnology methods reported to enhance immune function.

The first part of the book contains the committee's workshop summary and evaluation of ongoing research by Army scientists on immune status in special forces troops, responses to the Army's questions, conclusions, and recommendations. The rest of the book contains papers contributed by workshop speakers, grouped under such broad topics as an introduction to what is known about immune function, the assessment of immune function, the effect of nutrition, and the relation between the many and varied stresses encountered by military personnel and their effect on health.

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