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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Appendix C
Focus-Group Sessions

The Committee on Prospering in the Global Economy of the 21st Century convened focus groups on Saturday, August 6, 2005, from 9 am to 4 pm. The purpose of the focus groups was to gather experts in five broad subjects—K–12 education, higher education, science and engineering research, innovation and workforce, and national and homeland security—to provide input to the committee on how the United States can successfully compete, prosper, and be secure in the global community.

Each focus-group participant was provided background on the committee members and on other focus-group members, 13 issue papers (see Appendix D) that summarized past reports on the various topics that were discussed, and a list of recommendations gleaned from past reports and interviews with committee and focus-group members.

The charge to focus-group participants is listed in full on page 252. Essentially, each group was asked to define and set priorities for the top three actions for its subject that federal policy-makers could take to ramp up the innovative capacity of the United States. Each focus group was chaired by a member of the committee, who presented the group’s priorities to the full committee during an open discussion session. The content of those presentations is listed starting on page 254. Focus-group biographies are listed starting on page 264.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Prospering in the Global Economy of the 21st Century: An Agenda for American Science and Technology


Agenda


Focus-Group Meeting


August 6, 2005


Keck Center of the National Academies

500 5th Street, NW

Washington, DC

9:00

Continental Breakfast Available (Room 100)

9:30

Study Overview and Charge to Focus Groups Norman Augustine, Chair, Committee on Prospering in the Global Economy of the 21st Century

10:00

Focus Groups Meet

 

 

 

K–12 Education

Room 110

Roy Vagelos, Chair

 

Higher Education

Room 101

Chuck Vest, Chair

 

Research

Room 201

Dan Mote, Chair

 

Innovation

Room 204

Gail Cassell, Chair

 

Security

Room 105

Anita Jones, Chair

12:00

Lunch (Available in meeting rooms)

2:45

Break (Move to Room 100)

3:00

Focus Groups Report on Results of their Deliberations (Room 100)

4:00

Adjourn

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Focus Group Charge

The Committee on Prospering in the Global Economy of the 21st Century would like to thank you for helping it in its important task to address the following questions:


What are the top 10 actions, in priority order, that federal policy-makers could take to enhance the science and technology enterprise so that the United States can successfully compete, prosper, and be secure in the global community of the 21st century? What implementation strategy, with several concrete steps, could be used to implement each of those actions?


Your role, as a focus-group participant, is to help the committee, in your area of expertise:

  • Identify existing ideas the federal government (President, Congress, or federal agencies) could take. The ideas should not be too general—they need to be sufficiently actionable that they could be turned into congressional language.

  • Brainstorm new ideas.

  • Evaluate all ideas.

  • Prioritize all ideas to propose to the committee the top 3 actions the federal government could take so that the United States can successfully compete, prosper, and be secure in the global community of the 21st century.

Since there are five focus groups, we expect a total of 15 prioritized recommendations to result from the focus-group session, which will be presented and discussed at a plenary session at the end of the day. These 15 recommendations would then be used by the committee as input to its decision-making process as it comes up with a “top 10” list on Sunday.

Each focus group is chaired by a committee member and has a staff member with expertise in the issue and a science and technology (S&T) policy fellow (graduate student) to assist them. The staff is available to put together any action list that is produced (no summary of the discussion is planned).

In evaluating each proposal, here are some evaluation criteria to keep in mind:

Minimum Selection Criteria

  • Can the actions be taken by those who requested the study? The President, Congress, or the federal agencies?

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×
Evaluation Criteria
  • Cost—What is a rough estimate of how much the action will cost? Is the cost reasonable relative to the financial resources likely to be available? Can resources for this action be diverted from an existing activity as opposed to “new money”?

  • Impact—Which degree of impact is the action likely to have on the problem of concern?

  • Cost-effectiveness—Which actions provide the most “bang for the buck”?

  • Timeframe—What is the desired timeframe for the action to have an impact? Is the action likely to have impact in the short- or long-term or both?

  • Distributional Effects—Who are the winners and the losers? Is this the best action for the nation as a whole?

  • Ease of Implementation—To what degree is the challenge easy, medium, or hard to implement?

  • History—Has the action been suggested by another committee or policy-maker before? If so, why has it not been implemented? Can the challenges be overcome this time?

  • Is the Moment Right for This Action? Are they likely to be viable in the near-term political and policy context?

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

K–12 Education Focus Group Top Recommendation Summary Roy Vagelos, Chair

National Objectives
  • Lay a foundation for a workforce that is capable in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)—including those who can create, support, and sustain innovation.

  • Develop a society that embraces STEM literacy.

  • Develop and sustain K–12 teacher corps capable of and motivated to teach science and mathematics.

  • Establish meaningful measures.

Top Recommendations
  1. The federal government should provide peer-reviewed long-term support for programs to develop and support a K–12 teacher core that is well-prepared to teach STEM subjects.

    1. Programs for in-service teacher development that provide in-depth content and pedagogical knowledge; some examples include summer programs, master’s programs, and mentor teachers.

    2. Provide scholarship funds to in-service teachers to participate in summer institutes and content-intensive degree programs.

    3. Provide seed grants to universities and colleges to provide summer institute and content-intensive degree programs for in-service teachers.

  1. Establish a program to encourage undergraduate students to major in STEM and teach in K–12 for at least 5 years. The program should include support mechanisms and incentives to enable teacher retention.

    1. Provide a scholarship for joint STEM bachelor’s degree and teacher certification program. Mandate a service requirement and pay a federal signing bonus.

    2. Encourage collaboration between STEM departments and education departments to train STEM K–12 teachers.

  1. Provide incentives to encourage students, especially minorities and women, to complete STEM K–12 coursework, including

    1. Monetary incentives to complete advanced coursework.

    2. Tutoring and after-school programs.

    3. Summer engineering and science academies, internships, and research opportunities.

    4. Support school and curriculum organization models (statewide specialty schools, magnet schools, dual-enrollment models, and the like).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×
  1. Support the design of state public school assessments that measure necessary workplace skills to meet innovation goals and ensure No Child Left Behind assessments include these goals.

  2. Provide support to research, develop, and implement a new generation of instructional materials (including textbooks, modules, computer programs) based on research evidence on student learning outcomes, with vertical alignment and coherence across assessments and frameworks. Link teacher development and curricular development.

K–12 Focus Group Participants

Roy Vagelos, Chair

Carolyn R. Bacon, Executive Director, O’Donnell Foundation

Susan Berardi, Consultant

Rolf K. Blank, Director of Education Indicators, Council of Chief State School Officers

Rodger W. Bybee, Executive Director, Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

Hai-Lung Dai, Hirschmann-Makineni Chair Professor of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania

Joan Ferrini-Mundy, Associate Dean for Science and Mathematics Education and Outreach, College of Natural Science, Michigan State University

Bruce Fuchs, Director, Office of Science Education, National Institutes of Health

Ronald Marx, Professor of Educational Psychology and Dean of Education, University of Arizona

David H. Monk, Professor of Educational Administration and Dean of College of Education, Pennsylvania State University

Carlo Parravano, Executive Director, Merck Institute for Science Education

Anne C. Petersen, Senior Vice President for Programs, W. K. Kellogg Foundation

Helen R. Quinn, Physicist, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University

Deborah M. Roudebush, Physics Teacher, Fairfax County Public Schools

Daniel K. Rubenstein, Mathematics Teacher, New York City Collegiate School

J. Stephen Simon, Senior Vice President, Exxon Mobil Corporation

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Higher Education Focus Group Top Recommendation Summary Charles Vest, Chair

National Objective

The United States should lead in the discovery of new scientific and technological knowledge and its efficient translation into new products and services in order to sustain its preeminence in technology-based industry and job creation.

Our higher education system has a critical role in meeting this objective.

Recommendation

We recommend that Congress enact the Innovation Development Education and Acceleration Act (IDEA Act). Its purpose is to increase the number of US students, consistent with our demography, who will become innovation leaders; professional scientists and engineers; and science, mathematics, and engineering educators at all levels.

  1. Undergraduate Education: Increase the number and proportion of citizens who hold STEM degrees to meet international benchmarks, i.e., migrate, over 5 years, from 5 to 10% of earned first (bachelor’s-level) degrees.

    1. Provide competitive multiagency (nonthematic) scholarships for undergraduates in science, engineering, mathematics, technology, and other critical areas. The scholarships would carry with them supplemental support for pedagogical innovation for the departments, programs, or institutions in which the students study. This program should support students at 2-year and 4-year colleges and research universities.

  1. Graduate Education: Increase the number of US graduate students in science, engineering, and mathematics programs in areas of strategic national needs.

    1. Create a new multiagency support program for graduate students in STEM areas related to strategic national needs. This support should include an appropriate mix of competitive portable fellowships and competitive training grants.

  1. Faculty Preparation and Support: Support the propagation of effective and creative programs that develop scientific and technological leaders who understand the innovation process.

    1. Support workshops, preparation of educational materials, and experience-based programs.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×
  1. Create global scientific and technological leaders.

    1. Provide a globally-oriented education and opportunity for US students, and maintain the US as the most desirable place to pursue graduate education and/or scientific and technological careers.

    2. Define the policies that will maintain our long-term security and vitality through the openness of American education and research and the free flow of talent and ideas.

Higher Education Focus Group

Chuck Vest, Chair

M. R. C. Greenwood, Provost and Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs, University of California

Daniel Hastings, Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics and Engineering Systems, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Randy H. Katz, United Microelectronics Corporation Distinguished Professor in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Berkeley

George M. Langford, E. E. Just Professor of Natural Sciences and Professor of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College

Joan F. Lorden, Provost and Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs, University of North Carolina-Charlotte

Claudia Mitchell-Kernan, Vice Chancellor for Graduate Studies and Dean of Graduate Division, University of California, Los Angeles

Stephanie Pfirman, Chair, Department of Environmental Science, Barnard College

Paul Romer, STANCO 25 Professor of Economics, Graduate School of Business, Stanford University

James M. Rosser, President and Professor of Health Care Management, California State University, Los Angeles

Tim Stearns, Associate Professor of Biological Sciences and Genetics, Stanford University

Debra Stewart, President, Council of Graduate Schools

Orlando L. Taylor, Vice Provost for Research, Dean of Graduate School, and Professor of Communications, Howard University

Isiah M. Warner, Vice Chancellor for Strategic Initiatives, Louisiana State University

Dean Zollman, University Distinguished Professor, Distinguished University Teaching Scholar, and Head of Department of Physics, Kansas State University

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Research Focus Group Top Recommendation Summary Dan Mote, Chair

National Objective

America’s leadership in S&T has created our prosperity, security, and health. That leadership is now threatened. Our leadership resulted from a long-term investment in basic research. In order to keep our leadership position we must revitalize our investments, particularly in the physical and mathematical sciences and engineering.

Recommendations
  1. Set the federal research budget to 1% of gross domestic product (GDP) within the next 5 years to sustain US leadership in innovation for prosperity, security, and quality of life.

    1. Address 21st-century global economy grand challenges in energy, security, health, and environment through interagency initiatives.

    2. Bring physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, and information science up to the levels of health sciences.

    3. All agencies would expand their basic research programs.

    4. Replace decaying infrastructure in universities, national labs, and other research organizations.

    5. Longer-term, stable funding.

  1. To foster breakthroughs in science and technology, allocate at least 5% of federal agency research portfolios to high-risk basic research.

    1. Allow for discretionary distribution for basic research with program oversight.

    2. Provide at least 5 years of adequate support for early-career researchers.

    3. Provide technical program managers in federal agencies with discretionary funding.

  1. Make S&T an attractive career to the best and the brightest.

    1. Create an undergraduate loan forgiveness program for students who complete a PhD in S&T and work as STEM researchers (e.g., $25,000 per year).

    2. Create training grants for graduate and postgraduate education across federal research budgets.

    3. Provide 5 years of transition funding for early career research.

    4. Cultivate K–12 students to careers in science and technology.

    5. Actively recruit and support the world’s best students and researchers and make it attractive for them to stay: address problems with visas, deemed exports, and other barriers.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Research Focus Group

Dan Mote, Chair

Paul Avery, Professor of Physics, University of Florida

Gary Bachula, Vice President for External Relations, Internet2

Angela Belcher, John Chipman Associate Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Elsa M. Garmire, Sydney E. Jenkins Professor of Engineering, Dartmouth College

Heidi E. Hamm, Earl W. Sutherland, Jr., Professor and Chair of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University

Mark S. Humayun, Professor of Ophthalmology, Biomedical Engineering, and Cell and Neurobiology, University of Southern California

Madeleine Jacobs, Executive Director and Chief Executive Officer, American Chemical Society

Cato T. Laurencin, Lillian T. Pratt Distinguished Professor and Chair of Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Virginia

David LaVan, Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Yale University

Philip LeDuc, Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University

Deirdre R. Meldrum, Professor and Director of Genomation Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Innovation and Workforce Focus Group Top Recommendation Summary Gail Cassells, Chair

National Objective

Accelerate the process of innovation to:

  • Solve national problems

  • Create and retain well-paying jobs

  • Ensure prosperity

Recommendations

  1. Tax Policy: Make the R&D tax credit permanent, and extend coverage to research conducted in university-industry consortia.

  2. National Energy Initiative.

    1. Sharp increase in agency R&D related to energy prosperity.

    2. National Energy Prosperity fellowships.

    3. Cabinet-level National Council on Energy Prosperity.

  1. National Agency for Innovation.

    1. New independent, project-based agency, reports to president.

    2. University–industry projects on specific goals.

    3. Broad, nonmilitary, national interest.

    4. $3-$5 billion per year.

    5. Outputs: functional prototypes and processes, training, monitoring of US innovation and competitiveness.

    6. Issues to resolve: metrics, intellectual property (IP), governance.

  1. Stimulate interest of young people in S&T.

    1. National scholarships program for first-generation college students who major in S&E.

    2. Scholarship recipients available for national S&E role models program to explain to elementary and secondary students what they do and how success in school prepared them.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Innovation and Workforce Focus Group

Gail Cassell, Chair

Miller Adams, Vice President, Boeing Technology Ventures

Robert J. Aiken, Director of Engineering, International Academic Research and Technology Initiatives, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Ron Blackwell, Chief Economist, American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Unions (AFL-CIO)

Craig Blue, Distinguished Research Engineer and Group Leader, Materials Processing Group, Metals and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Susan Butts, Director, External Technology, Dow Chemical Company

Paul Citron, Vice President (retired), Technology Policy and Academic Relations, Medtronic, Inc.

Chad Evans, Vice President, National Innovation Initiative, Council on Competitiveness

Kent H. Hughes, Director, Program on Science, Technology, America and the Global Economy, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

Marvin Kosters, Resident Scholar, American Enterprise Institute

Mark B. Myers, Visiting Executive Professor of Management, Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania

Juliana C. Shei, Global Technology Manager, General Electric

Nancy Vorona, Vice President, Research Investment, Virginia’s Center for Innovative Technology

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

National and Homeland Security Focus Group Top Recommendation Summary Anita Jones, Chair

Globalization Is a Fact of Life
  • S&T provides our qualitative national security advantage.

  • S&T enables our prosperity, which in turn finances strong security.

  • S&T increasingly originates abroad.

  • Isolation damages our security and our economy.

  • Need to engage with and ensure access to innovators and innovation abroad.

National Objectives
  • Stimulate innovation and its adoption to serve security.

  • Rebalance security S&T research funding invested in basic research.

  • Accelerate creation of knowledge in the United States and acquisition of knowledge from abroad.

  • Attract and retain global best and brightest.

Only the federal government can provide the framework/strategy for balancing contending national interests.

Recommendations
  1. To stimulate innovation and its adoption to serve security, create new mechanisms to discover, develop, and exploit new ideas.

    1. Legal reform—extend liability protection for homeland security providers.

    2. Create new prototypes for university-industry-national lab partnerships.

      1. Experiment with mix of funding mechanisms, e.g., SEMATECH, InQTel, for security.

      2. Streamlined, standardized IP provisions based on best practices for universities and national labs.

  1. To rebalance security S&T research funding invested in basic research, dedicate 3% of national defense/homeland security budget to S&T and 20% of S&T budget to long-term research.

    1. Cost: Δ of $ in research spending.

    2. Caveats/concerns: Need institutional champion in each agency?

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×
  1. Create a single national strategy to attract and retain the global best and brightest to US S&T enterprise.

    1. Increase support for the National Defense Education Act (NDEA-21).

      1. Double the number of US students going into science and engineering and related security fields.

      2. Provide a national service educational benefit incentive.

    1. Redesign visa, deemed-export, and immigration policies to attract and retain foreign talent.

National and Homeland Security Focus Group

Anita Jones, Chair

Ronald M. Atlas, Graduate Dean, Professor of Biology, and Codirector, Center for the Deterrence of Biowarfare and Bioterrorism, University of Louisville

Pierre Chao, Senior Fellow and Director of Defense Industrial Initiatives, Center for Strategic and International Studies

Richard T. Cupitt, Senior Consultant, MKT, and Scholar-In-Residence, School of International Service, American University

Kenneth Flamm, Dean Rusk Professor of International Affairs, Lyndon B. Johnson School, University of Texas at Austin

Alice P. Gast, Robert T. Haslam Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, and Vice President for Research and Associate Provost, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

William Happer, Professor, Department of Physics, Princeton University

Robert Hermann, Senior Partner, Global Technology Partners, LLC (via videoconference)

Richard Johnson, Senior Partner, Arnold and Porter, LLP

James A. Lewis, Senior Fellow and Director of Technology Public Policy, Center for Strategic and International Studies

Daniel B. Poneman, Principal, The Scowcroft Group

Sheila R. Ronis, President, The University Group, Inc.

General Larry Welch (retired), Senior Associate, Institute for Defense Analyses (via videoconference)

Rear Admiral Robert H. Wertheim (retired), Consultant

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Focus Group Participant Biographies

MILLER ADAMS is vice president of Boeing Technology Ventures, a unit of Boeing Phantom Works, the research and development organization of the Boeing Company. He leads a team responsible for the overall Enterprise Technology Planning Process for Boeing. He also is responsible for some aspects of external-technology acquisition strategies for Boeing, including the Evaluation of External Technology Solutions, International Industrial Technology Programs, Strategic Technology Alliances, Global University Research Collaborations, and Boeing’s overall Global R&D Strategy. Mr. Adams is responsible for Boeing’s internal incubator program known as the Chairman’s Innovation Initiative and for value-creating strategies around spin-in business opportunities built on Boeing technologies. He received a BA from Seattle University and a law degree from the University of Puget Sound (now Seattle University School of Law). At Boeing, he serves as the executive focal between Boeing and Tuskegee University. In 2003, Mr. Adams received the Chairman’s Award at the annual Black Engineer of the Year Awards Conference. He is involved in a broad array of professional and community organizations.


ROBERT J. AIKEN is the director of engineering for Cisco’s International Academic Research and Technology Initiatives (ARTI). He manages a team of Internet and network technology experts who help to identify, define, and develop Cisco’s next-generation Internet strategy and technologies via Cisco’s university research and advanced network research infrastructure programs. He helped to design and deploy the Department of Energy’s (DOE) international multi-protocol Energy Sciences Network and was the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) manager for and coauthor of NSF’s very high performance Backbone Network Service and Network Access Points architecture, which commercialized the Internet in the early 1990s. He was a major contributor at both DOE and NSF to the development and implementation of the federal government’s High Performance Computing and Communications Council and Next Generation Internet programs, specifically with respect to network research and distributed systems. With Javad Boroumand, he is responsible for Cisco’s leadership role in the National Lambda Rail. He has also been an assistant professor of computer science and a college information technology director, and he serves on the National Research Council’s Transportation Research Board Subcommittee on Telecommuting and Internet2’s Industry Advisory Council.


RONALD M. ATLAS is the graduate dean, professor of biology, and codirector of the Center for the Deterrence of Biowarfare and Bioterrorism at the University of Louisville. He has his BS from the State University of

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

New York at Stony Brook and his MS and PhD from Rutgers University. He was a postdoctoral fellow at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where he worked on Mars life detection. He is a member of the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Planetary Protection Board, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Scientific Working Group on Microbial Genetics and Forensics. He previously served as president of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), cochaired the ASM Task Force on Biological Weapons, and was a member of the National Institutes of Health Recombinant DNA Advisory committee. His early research focused on oil spills, and he discovered bioremediation as part of his doctoral studies. Later, he turned to the molecular detection of pathogens in the environment, which forms the basis for biosensors to detect biothreat agents. He is the author of nearly 300 manuscripts and 20 books. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology and has received the ASM Award for Applied and Environmental Microbiology, the ASM Founders Award, and the Edmund Youde Lectureship Award in Hong Kong. He regularly advises the US government on policy issues related to the deterrence of bioterrorism.


PAUL AVERY is professor of physics at the University of Florida. He received his PhD in high-energy physics from the University of Illinois in 1980. His research is in experimental high-energy physics, and he participates in the CLEO experiment at Cornell University and the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at CERN, Geneva. Avery is the director of two NSF-funded Grid projects, Grid Physics Networks and the International Virtual Data Grid Laboratory. Both are collaborations of computer scientists, physicists, and astronomers conducting grid research applied to several frontier experiments in physics and astronomy with massive computational and data needs. He is co-principal investigator of the NSF-funded projects, Center for High Energy Physics Research and Education Outreach and UltraLight, and is one of the principals seeking to establish the Open Science Grid.


GARY BACHULA is the vice president for external relations for Internet2. He has substantial government and not-for-profit experience and an extensive history of leadership in technology development. Most recently, Dr. Bachula served as acting under secretary of commerce for technology at the US Department of Commerce, where he led the formation of government– industry partnerships around such programs as GPS and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles. As vice president for the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) from 1991 to 1993, he managed strategic planning and program development for the

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

organization designated to build a distributed information network as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Mission to Planet Earth. From 1986 to 1990, he chaired the Michigan governor’s Cabinet Council, and from 1974 to 1986, he served as chief of staff to US Representative Bob Traxler of Michigan and advised on appropriations for NASA, the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Science Foundation, and other federal R&D agencies. Dr. Bachula holds undergraduate and law (JD) degrees from Harvard University. He served at the Pentagon in the US Army during the Vietnam War.


CAROLYN R. BACON is executive director of the O’Donnell Foundation in Dallas. The purpose of the foundation is to support quality education, especially in science and engineering. She previously served as administrative assistant to former Senator John Tower of Texas. In 1989, she was appointed to the White House Education Policy and Advisory Council. President George H. W. Bush also appointed her to the Board of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, where she served as chairman of the Education Committee. Texas Governor Clements appointed her to a 6-year term on the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board and former Governor George W. Bush named her the first chairman of the Telecommunications Infrastructure Fund Board of Texas. In 2003-2004 she served as the governor’s public member on the Texas Joint Select Committee on Public School Finance. Her board memberships include the National Center for Educational Accountability, the College of Computing at the Georgia Institute of Technology, Advanced Placement Strategies, Inc., of Dallas, and the Foundation for the Education of Young Women. She is a member of the Junior League of Dallas and Charter 100 of Dallas. She holds a BA in political science from the College of William and Mary.


ANGELA BELCHER is the John Chipman Associate Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Biological Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She is a materials chemist with expertise in biomaterials, biomolecular materials, organic-inorganic interfaces, and solid-state chemistry. She received her BS in creative studies with an emphasis in biochemistry and molecular biology and a PhD in inorganic chemistry from the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB). After a year of postdoctoral research in electrical engineering at UCSB, Dr. Belcher joined the faculty at the University of Texas at Austin in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry in 1999. Her interest focuses on interfaces, including the interfaces of scientific disciplines and the interfaces of materials. Dr. Belcher and her students have pioneered a novel, noncovalent self-organizational approach that uses evolutionarily selected and engineered peptides to recognize and bind electronic and magnetic building blocks. She was recently

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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awarded an annual MacArthur Foundation Fellowship. Her recent awards include the 2004 Four Star General Recognition Award (US Army), 2003 Top 10 Innovators Under 40 (Fortune magazine), the 2002 World Technology Award (Materials magazine), 2002 Popular Science Brilliant Ten, and 2002 Technology Review Top 100 Inventors. In 2002, she was named as 1 of 12 women expected to make the biggest impact in chemistry in the next century by Chemical and Engineering News and was runner-up for Innovator of the Year and runner-up for Researcher of the Year by Small Times Magazine, and finalist for Scientist of the Year by Wired magazine. She is a 2001 Packard Fellow, 2001 Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow, and has received the 2000 Presidential Early Career Award for Science and Engineering, 2000 Beckman Young Investigator Award, 1999 DuPont Young Investigator Award, and a 1999 Army Research Office Young Investigators Award.


SUSAN BERARDI worked in management and employee development for nearly 10 years before leaving corporate America to become a full-time mother of three young boys. At such companies as FMC Defense Systems, Motorola, and IDX Systems Corporation, she worked with managers and technical teams to improve the intangible assets that drove performance and bottom-line results. In addition to one-on-one executive coaching, she facilitated and trained numerous technical teams to resolve customer-service and team-performance issues that were hindering company profitability. She also designed selection and retention programs to attract and keep best-in-class technical and managerial talent. As an independent consultant, Ms. Berardi provided leadership training and facilitation for several start-up technology companies in Massachusetts and California. She has been a guest speaker for the Society of Concurrent Engineering and the International Council on Systems Engineering. Most recently, Ms. Berardi has been working pro bono for the Reading and North Andover School Districts in Massachusetts, facilitating administrative retreats and bringing teachers and parents together to improve student reading, mathematics, and arts capabilities. She worked with school administrators to create a tool to measure and improve the return on investment of a school district. She has also written several articles on behalf of these schools in an effort to educate taxpayers on budget and curriculum issues, special-education costs and legal requirements, and the importance of foreign languages and the arts in early education. Ms. Berardi has an MA degree in labor relations and a BA from the University of Illinois.


RON BLACKWELL is chief economist of the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Unions (AFL-CIO), where he coordinates the economic agenda of the federation and represents AFL-CIO on corpo-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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rate and economic issues affecting American workers and union strategies. From 1996 to 2004, he was the director of the AFL-CIO Corporate Affairs Department. Before coming to the AFL-CIO, Mr. Blackwell was assistant to the president of the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union and chief economist of UNITE. Before joining the labor movement, he was an academic dean in the Seminar College of the New School for Social Research in New York, where he taught economics, politics, and philosophy. Mr. Blackwell represents the American labor movement on the Economic Policy Working Group of the Trade Union Advisory Committee to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and participated in formulation of the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance and the recent review of the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. He serves on the Board of Directors of the Industrial Relations Research Association; the Research Advisory Council of the Economic Policy Institute; the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design of the National Academies; the advisory boards of the Jackson Hole Center for Global Affairs and the International Center for Corporate Governance and Accountability at the George Washington University Law School; and the editorial boards of Perspectives on Work and the New Labor Forum. He recently received the Nat Weinberg Award from the Walter P. Reuther Library for service to the labor movement and social justice. He is author of “Corporate Accountability or Business as Usual,” in New Labor Forum (summer 2003) and “Globalization and the American Labor Movement” in the book edited by Steve Fraser and Joshua Freeman, Audacious Democracy: Labor, Intellectuals and the Social Reconstruction of America. He is also coeditor of Worldly Philosophy: Essays in Political and Historical Economics, a festschrift for Robert Heilbroner.


ROLF K. BLANK is director of education indicators at the Council of Chief State School Officers where he has been a senior staff member for 17 years. He is responsible for developing, managing, and reporting a system of state-by-state and national indicators of the condition and quality of education in public schools. Dr. Blank is directing the council’s work with the US Department of Education on state education indicators and accountability systems, which provides annual trends for each state on student outcomes, school programs, and staff and school demographics. In addition, he is directing a 3-year experimental design study on improving effectiveness of instruction in mathematics and science with data on enacted curriculum, supported by the National Science Foundation. He coordinates two state collaborative projects—one on accountability systems and one on surveys of enacted curriculum—that provide technical assistance and professional development to state education leaders and staff. In his council leadership role, Blank collaborates with state education leaders, researchers, and professional organi-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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zations in directing program-evaluation studies and technical-assistance projects aimed at improving the quality of K–12 public education. He holds a PhD from Florida State University and an MA from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.


CRAIG BLUE [NAE] is a Distinguished Research Engineer and the group leader of the Materials Processing Group of the Metals and Ceramics Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). He received his PhD in materials science from the University of Cincinnati and finished his studies while under a NASA Fellowship at NASA Lewis Research Center. He came to ORNL in March 1995, where he initiated and developed the Infrared Processing Center in the Materials Processing Group. The center has projects with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the US Army, the Department of Energy, NASA, and industry. The center has two of the most powerful plasma arc lamps in the world and has enabling technology of functionalization of nanomaterials with collaborations across the laboratory and across the United States. Dr. Blue has been instrumental in the revitalization and evolution of the Materials Processing Group, became group leader in January 2004, and is developing a new Advanced Materials Processing Laboratory and associated programs. He has over 60 open-literature publications, 5 patents, and 60 technical presentations. He has received numerous honors, including an R&D 100 Award on the development of advanced infrared heating, and UT/Battelle Distinguished Engineer of the Year. He was selected to attend the National Academy of Engineering’s Ninth Annual Symposium on Frontiers of Engineering in 2003, and the International Symposium on Frontiers of Engineering in Japan in 2004. He serves on the steering committee for the National Space and Missile Materials Symposium and on a technical board for the Next Generation Manufacturing Initiative. He is working with colleagues in the evolution of an enabling pulse thermal processing technique for flexible electronics, titanium processing, and bulk amorphous materials.


SUSAN BUTTS is the director of external technology at the Dow Chemical Company. She is responsible for Dow’s sponsored research programs at over 150 universities, institutes, and national laboratories worldwide and for Dow’s contract research activities with US and European government agencies. She also holds the position of global staffing leader for R&D with responsibility for recruiting and hiring programs. Before joining the external-technology group, Dr. Butts held several other positions at Dow, including senior resource leader for atomic spectroscopy and inorganic analysis in the Analytical Sciences Laboratory, manager of PhD hiring and placement, safety and regulatory affairs manager for Central Research, and

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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principal investigator on various catalysis research projects in Central Research.


RODGER W. BYBEE is executive director of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), a nonprofit organization that develops curriculum materials, provides professional development, and conducts research and evaluation for the science education community. Before joining BSCS, he was executive director of the National Research Council’s Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education. Between 1986 and 1995, he was associate director of BSCS. Dr. Bybee participated in the development of the National Science Education Standards, and in 1993-1995 he chaired its content working group. At BSCS, he was principal investigator for four new NSF programs: the elementary school program, Science for Life and Living: Integrating Science, Technology, and Health; the middle school program, Middle School Science and Technology; the high school biology program, Biological Science: A Human Approach; and the college program, Biological Perspectives. His work at BSCS also included serving as principal investigator for programs to develop curriculum frameworks for teaching about the history and nature of science and technology in high schools, community colleges, and 4-year colleges and curriculum reform based on national standards. From 1990 to 1992, Dr. Bybee chaired the curriculum and instruction study panel for the National Center for Improving Science Education (NCISE). From 1972 to 1985, he was professor of education at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. He has taught science in the elementary school, junior and senior high school, and college. Dr. Bybee has written widely in education and psychology. He is coauthor of the leading textbook, Teaching Secondary School Science: Strategies for Developing Scientific Literacy. His most recent book is Achieving Scientific Literacy: From Purposes to Practices, published in l997. He has received several awards, including Leader of American Education and Outstanding Educator in America; in 1979 he was Outstanding Science Educator of the Year, and in 1998 the National Science Teachers Association presented him its Distinguished Service to Science Education Award.


PIERRE CHAO is a senior fellow and director of defense industrial initiatives at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). Before joining CSIS, Mr. Chao was a managing director and senior aerospace-defense analyst at Credit Suisse First Boston (CSFB) in 1999-2003, where he was responsible for following the US and global aerospace-defense industry. He remains a CSFB senior adviser. Before joining CFSB, he was the senior aerospace-defense analyst at Morgan Stanley Dean Witter in 1995-1999. He served as the senior industry analyst at Smith Barney during 1994 and as a director at JSA International, a Boston and Paris-based

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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management-consulting firm that focused on the aerospace-defense industry (1986-1988 and 1990-1993). Mr. Chao was also a cofounder of JSA Research, an equity research boutique specializing in the aerospace-defense industry. Before signing on with JSA, he worked in the New York and London offices of Prudential-Bache Capital Funding as a mergers and acquisitions banker focusing on aerospace and defense (1988-1990). Mr. Chao garnered numerous awards while working on Wall Street. Institutional Investor ranked his team the number 1 global aerospace-defense group in 2000-2002, and he was on the Institutional Investor All-America Research Team every year he was eligible in 1996-2002. He was ranked the number 1 aerospace-defense analyst by corporations in the 1998-2000 Reuters Polls and the number 1 aerospace-defense analyst in the 1995-1999 Greenwich Associates polls, and appeared on the Wall Street Journal All-Star list in 4 of 7 eligible years. In 2000, Mr. Chao was appointed to the Presidential Commission on Offsets in International Trade. He is also a guest lecturer at the National Defense University and the Defense Acquisition University. He has been sought out as an expert analyst of the defense and aerospace industry by the Senate Committee on Armed Services, the House Committee on Science, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, Department of Defense (DOD) Defense Science Board, the Army Science Board, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the French General Delegation for Armament, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the Aerospace Industries Association Board of Governors. Mr. Chao earned dual BS degrees in political science and management science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.


PAUL CITRON [NAE] retired as vice president of Technology Policy and Academic Relations at Medtronic, Inc., in 2003 after 32 years with the company. His previous position was vice president of science and technology; he had responsibility for corporationwide assessment and coordination of technology initiatives and for priority-setting in corporate research. Citron was awarded a BS in electrical engineering from Drexel University in 1969 and an MS in electrical engineering from the University of Minnesota in 1972. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2003 for “innovations in technologies for monitoring cardiac rhythm and for patient-initiated cardiac pacing, and for outstanding contributions to industry-academia interactions.” Mr. Citron was elected founding fellow of the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering in January 1993, has twice won the American College of Cardiology Governor’s Award for Excellence, and in 1980 was inducted as a fellow of the Medtronic Bakken Society, the company’s highest technical recognition. He has written numerous publications and holds eight US medical-device patents. In 1980, he was given Medtronic’s Invention of Distinction award for his role as coinventor of the

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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tined pacing lead. He has been a visiting professor at Georgia Institute of Technology and the University of California, San Diego where he taught corporate entrepreneurship.


RICHARD T. CUPITT is a senior consultant to MKT and a scholar-in-residence in the School of International Service of American University. He served as the special adviser to the under secretary of commerce for industry and security. Before joining the Department of Commerce in January 2002, Dr. Cupitt worked as the associate director and Washington liaison for the Center for International Trade and Security of the University of Georgia, and as a visiting scholar at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, DC. Dr. Cupitt received his PhD from the University of Georgia in 1985 and taught at Emory University and the University of North Texas before returning to the University of Georgia. In addition to his most recent book, Reluctant Champions: U.S. Presidential Policy and Strategic Export Controls—Truman, Eisenhower, Bush and Clinton (Routledge, 2000), Cupitt has coedited two books on export controls and is a coauthor of a forthcoming book. His articles on export controls have appeared in many scholarly journals. He has contributed to the work of several national study commissions, served on US delegations to international export control conferences, and regularly testified before Congress on export controls. Dr. Cupitt has conducted fieldwork on export controls in more than a dozen countries and has served as a consultant to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Dr. Cupitt is a former governor’s fellow with the Georgia World Congress Institute and a National Merit Scholar.


HAI-LUNG DAI is the Hirschmann-Makineni Chair Professor of Chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania. He came to the University of California, Berkeley, for graduate study in 1976 after graduating from the National Taiwan University and military service. Dai did postdoctoral research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He joined the University of Pennsylvania faculty as assistant professor in 1984, and was promoted to full professor in 1992. He served as chairman of the Chemistry Department from 1996-2002. In addition to his academic appointment, Dr. Dai currently holds a gubernatorial appointment in the Pennsylvania State Board on Drugs, Devices and Cosmetics. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and is chair-elect of its Chemical Physics Division. Dr. Dai has published more than 140 papers in molecular and surface sciences. His major research accomplishments include the discovery of the dominating contribution of long-range interactions in collision energy transfer, the development of Fourier transform spectroscopy with fast time resolution and

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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multiple-resonance spectroscopy for detecting unstable molecules and transient radicals, and the development of nonlinear optical techniques for probing molecule-surface interactions. He has received many honors, including the Coblentz Prize in Molecular Spectroscopy, the Morino Lectureship of Japan, the American Chemical Society Philadelphia Section Award, and a Guggenheim Fellowship. In 2000, Dr. Dai established a pioneering master’s degree program at the University of Pennsylvania for inservice high school chemistry teachers to receive content-intensive training. In 2004, the program became the Penn Science Teacher Institute with Dr. Dai as director, and the Institute enlarged to include middle school teachers.


CHAD EVANS is vice president of the Council on Competitiveness National Innovation Initiative (NII), a private-sector effort aimed at developing and implementing a national innovation agenda for the United States. Cochaired by IBM Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Samuel J. Palmisano and Georgia Institute of Technology President G. Wayne Clough, the NII involves the active participation of nearly 400 innovation thought-leaders and stakeholders across the country. Mr. Evans also spearheads the council’s benchmarking efforts, including its flagship publication, The Competitiveness Index, chaired by Michael Porter, of the Harvard Business School. Mr. Evans’ work at the council has focused on understanding the globalization of R&D investments, assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the US innovation platform, and benchmarking national innovative capacities in developed and emerging economies. He was a senior associate with the Council during the 1990s and returned to the Council and Washington, DC, after a stint in Deloitte & Touche’s National Research and Analysis Office, where he provided the firm’s senior leadership with daily competitive-intelligence briefings. He holds a MS in foreign service from the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service, with an honors concentration in international business diplomacy from Georgetown’s Landegger Program, and a BA from Emory University.


JOAN FERRINI-MUNDY is associate dean for science and mathematics education and outreach in the College of Natural Science at Michigan State University (MSU). Her faculty appointments are in mathematics and teacher education. She holds a PhD in mathematics education from the University of New Hampshire and was a faculty member in mathematics there in 1983-1995. Dr. Ferrini-Mundy taught mathematics at Mount Holyoke College from 1982-1983, where she cofounded the Summer Math for Teachers program. She served as a visiting scientist at the National Science Foundation in 1989-1991. She has chaired the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Research Advisory Committee and the American Educational Research Association in Special Interest Group for Re-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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search in Mathematics Education, and she was a member of the NCTM Board of Directors. Dr. Ferrini-Mundy came to MSU in 1999 from the National Research Council’s Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education, where she served as director of the Mathematical Sciences Education Board. Her research interests are in calculus learning and K–14 mathematics education reform. She chairs the writing group for Standards 2000, the revision of the NCTM standards.


KENNETH FLAMM is the Dean Rusk Professor of International Affairs at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin. Earlier, he worked at the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC, where he served for 11 years as a senior fellow in the Foreign Policy Studies Program. He is a 1973 honors graduate of Stanford University and received a PhD in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1979. From 1993 to 1995, Dr. Flamm served as principal deputy assistant secretary of defense for economic security and special assistant to the deputy secretary of defense for dual use technology policy. He was awarded the department’s Distinguished Public Service Medal by Defense Secretary William J. Perry in 1995. Dr. Flamm has been a professor of economics at the Instituto Tecnológico de México in Mexico City, the University of Massachusetts, and George Washington University. He has also been an adviser to the director general of income policy in the Mexican Ministry of Finance and a consultant to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Bank, the National Academy of Sciences, the Latin American Economic System, the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Justice, the US Agency for International Development, and the Office of Technology Assessment of the US Congress. He has played an active role in the National Research Council’s committee on Government-Industry Partnerships and played a key role in that committee’s review of the Small Business Innovation Research Program at the Department of Defense. Dr. Flamm has made major contributions to our understanding of the growth of the electronics industry, with a particular focus on the development of the computer and the US semiconductor industry. He is working on an analytic study of the post-Cold War defense industrial base and has expert knowledge of international trade and high-technology industry issues.


BRUCE FUCHS, an immunologist who did research on the interaction between the brain and the immune system, is the director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Science Education. Dr. Fuchs directs the creation of a series of K–12 science education curriculum supplements that highlight the medical research findings of NIH. The supplements are designed to meet teacher educational goals as outlined in the National

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Science Education Standards and are available free to teachers across the nation. The office is also creating innovative science and career education Web resources that will be accessible to teachers and students with a variety of disabilities. Before coming to NIH, Dr. Fuchs was a researcher and teacher at the Medical College of Virginia with grant support from the National Institute of Mental Health and the National Institute on Drug Abuse. He has a BS in biology from the University of Illinois and a PhD in immunology from Indiana State University. Dr. Fuchs has organized and participated in numerous science education outreach efforts directed at students, teachers, and the public. Dr. Fuchs has organized more than a dozen “Mini-Med School” and “Science in the Cinema” programs for the public and Congress since his arrival at NIH.


ELSA M. GARMIRE [NAE] is Sydney E. Jenkins Professor of Engineering at Dartmouth College. She received her AB at Harvard and her PhD at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, both in physics. After postdoctoral work at the California Institute of Technology, she spent 20 years at the University of Southern California, where she was eventually named William Hogue Professor of Electrical Engineering and director of the Center for Laser Studies. She came to Dartmouth in 1995 and served 2 years as dean of Thayer School. Author of over 250 journal papers and holder of 9 patents, she has been on the editorial boards of five technical journals. Dr. Garmire is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, the American Physical Society, and the Optical Society of America, of which she was president; she has served on the boards of three other professional societies. In 1994, she received the Society of Women Engineers Achievement Award. She has been a Fulbright senior lecturer and a visiting faculty member in Japan, Australia, Germany, and China. She has been chair of the NSF Advisory Committee on Engineering Technology and served on the NSF Advisory Committee on Engineering and the Air Force Science Advisory Board.


ALICE P. GAST is the Robert T. Haslam Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering and the vice president for research and associate provost of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Until 2001, she was a professor of chemical engineering at Stanford University, and professor of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and professor, by courtesy, of chemistry at Stanford. Dr. Gast earned her BS in chemical engineering at the University of Southern California in 1980 and her PhD in chemical engineering from Princeton University in 1984. She spent a postdoctoral year on a North Atlantic Treaty Organization fellowship at the École Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles in Paris. She was on the

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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faculty at Stanford from 1985 to 2001 and returned to Paris for a sabbatical as a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellow in 1991 and to Munich, Germany, as a Humboldt Fellow in 1999. In Dr. Gast’s research, the aim is to understand the behavior of complex fluids through a combination of colloid science, polymer physics, and statistical mechanics. In 1992, she received the National Academy of Sciences Award for Initiative in Research and the Colburn Award of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. She was the 1995 Langmuir Lecturer for the American Chemical Society. Dr. Gast is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She served as a member and then cochair of the National Research Council’s Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology and now serves on the Division on Earth and Life Studies Committee. She also serves on the Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee.


M. R. C. GREENWOOD [IOM] is provost and senior vice president for academic affairs for the 10-campus University of California (UC) system. She previously served as chancellor of UC, Santa Cruz (UCSC), a position she held from July 1996 to March 2004. In addition to her administrative responsibilities, Dr. Greenwood holds a UCSC appointment as professor of biology. Before her UCSC appointments, Dr. Greenwood served as dean of graduate studies, vice provost for academic outreach, and professor of biology and internal medicine at UC, Davis. Previously, she taught at Vassar College, where she was the John Guy Vassar Professor of Natural Sciences and chair of the Biology Department. Dr. Greenwood is a member of the Institute of Medicine, a fellow of the California Academy of Sciences, and a member of the board of directors of the California Healthcare Institute. She is a fellow and past president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a member of the Board of Directors of the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges. Among her numerous distinctions, she was a member of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Science Advisory Board and of the Task Force on the Future of Science Programs at the US Department of Energy. She is a former member of the National Science Board and the Laboratory Operations Board of the US Department of Energy. She was chairman of the National Research Council’s Office of Science and Engineering Policy Advisory Board and now serves as chair of its Policy and Global Affairs Division. She is a member of the National Commission on Writing for America’s Families, Schools, and Colleges, appointed by the College Board. From November 1993 to May 1995, Dr. Greenwood was associate director for science at the Office of Science and Technology Policy. In that position, she supervised the Science Division, directing budget development for the multi-billion dollar fundamental-science national effort and development of sci-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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ence-policy documents, including Science in the National Interest. She was also responsible for interagency coordination, cochaired two National Science and Technology Council committees, and provided advice on a $17 billion budget for fundamental science. Dr. Greenwood graduated summa cum laude from Vassar College and received her PhD from the Rockefeller University. Her research interests are in developmental cell biology, genetics, physiology, nutrition, and science and higher education policy.


HEIDI E. HAMM is the Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. Professor and chair of pharmacology at Vanderbilt University. Hamm obtained her PhD in zoology in 1980 from the University of Texas at Austin and performed her postdoctoral training at the University of Wisconsin-Madison from 1980 to 1983. Her initial research centered around circadian clocks and melatonin synthesis in the avian retina; her postdoctoral work investigated the role of transducin in visual transduction using blocking monoclonal antibodies. She held faculty appointments at the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Medicine and Northwestern University before moving to Vanderbilt in 2000 to chair the Department of Pharmacology. Hamm studies a specific mechanism of neuronal communication known as G-protein signaling. G-protein-mediated signaling is a critical part of biologic function in the brain and other body systems. Because many pharmaceuticals are targeted to G-protein signaling cascades, gaining a better understanding of their function is crucial to developing more efficient treatments and designing better drugs. Her research focuses on the structure and function of guanine triphosphate binding proteins and the molecular mechanisms of signal transduction. Dr. Hamm has received numerous awards, including the Glaxo Cardiovascular Discovery Award, two Distinguished Investigator Awards from the National Alliance for Research in Schizophrenia and Depression, the Faculty of the Year award from the University of Illinois College of Medicine, and the Stanley Cohen Award “For Research Bringing Diverse Disciplines, such as Chemistry or Physics, to Solving Biology’s Most Important Fundamental Problems” from Vanderbilt University in 2003. She gave the Fritz Lipmann Lecture at the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) in 2001. She is president-elect of the ASBMB; she previously served as the organization’s secretary (1995-1998) and program chair (1998). She has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Biological Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. She is a member of the editorial boards of Molecular Pharmacology and the American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. She was a member of the scientific advisory board of Medichem Life Sciences in 2000-2002. She is a founder and member of the scientific advisory board of Cue BIOtech.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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WILLIAM HAPPER [NAS] is a professor in the Department of Physics at Princeton University. He is a specialist in modern optics, optical and radiofrequency spectroscopy of atoms and molecules, and spin-polarized atoms and nuclei. He received a BS in physics from the University of North Carolina in 1960 and a PhD in physics from Princeton University in 1964. Dr. Happer began his academic career in 1964 at Columbia University as a member of the research and teaching staff of the Physics Department. While serving as a professor of physics, he also served as codirector of the Columbia Radiation Laboratory from 1971 to 1976 and director from 1976 to 1979. In 1980, he joined the faculty at Princeton University. He was named the Class of 1909 Professor of Physics in 1988. In 1991, he was appointed director of energy research in DOE by President Bush. While serving in that capacity under Secretary of Energy James Watkins, he oversaw a basic research budget of some $3 billion, which included much of the federal funding for high-energy and nuclear physics, materials science, magnetic confinement fusion, environmental science, biology, the Human Genome Project, and other work. He remained at DOE until 1993 to help during the transition to the Clinton administration. He was reappointed professor of physics at Princeton University in 1993 and named Eugene Higgens Professor of Physics and chair of the University Research Board in 1995. Dr. Happer has maintained an interest in applied, as well as basic, science and has served as a consultant to numerous firms, charitable foundations, and government agencies. From 1987 to 1990, he served as chairman of the Steering Committee of JASON, a group of scientists and engineers who advise agencies of the federal government on defense, intelligence, energy policy, and other technical matters. He is a trustee of the MITRE Corporation and the Richard Lounsbery Foundation and a cofounder in 1994 of Magnetic Imaging Technologies Incorporated (MITI), a small company specializing in the use of laser polarized noble gases for magnetic resonance imaging. MITI was purchased by Nycomed Amersham in 1999. Dr. Happer is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. He was awarded an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship in 1966, an Alexander von Humboldt Award in 1976, the 1997 Broida Prize, the 1999 Davisson-Germer Prize of the American Physical Society, and the Thomas Alva Edison Patent Award in 2000.


DANIEL HASTINGS is professor of aeronautics and astronautics and engineering systems at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He joined the MIT faculty as an assistant professor in 1985, advancing to associate professor in 1988 and full professor in 1993. He earned a PhD and an SM from MIT in aeronautics and astronautics in 1980 and 1978, respectively, and received a BA in mathematics from Oxford University,

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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England, in 1976. Dr. Hastings served as chief scientist to the US Air Force from 1997 to 1999. In that role, he served as chief scientific adviser to the chief of staff and the secretary and provided assessments on a wide array of scientific and technical issues affecting the Air Force mission. He led several influential studies on where the Air Force should invest in space, global energy projection, and options for a science and technology workforce for the 21st century. Dr. Hastings’ recent research has concentrated on space systems and space policy and on issues related to spacecraft-environment interactions, space propulsion, space-systems engineering, and space policy; and he has published many papers and a book on those subjects. He has led several national studies on government investment in space technology. Dr. Hastings is a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and a member of the International Academy of Astronautics. He is a member of the National Science Board and of the Applied Physics Laboratory Science and Technology Advisory Panel, and the chair of Air Force Scientific Advisory Board. He is a member of the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Advisory Committee and is on the Board of Trustees of the Aerospace Corporation. He has served on several national committees on issues in national security space.


ROBERT HERMANN is a senior partner of Global Technology Partners, LLC, which specializes in investments in technology, defense, aerospace, and related businesses worldwide. In 1998, Hermann retired from United Technologies Corporation (UTC), where he held the position of senior vice president for science and technology. In that role, he was responsible for ensuring the development of the company’s technical resources and the full exploitation of science and technology by the corporation. He was also responsible for the United Technologies Research Center. Hermann joined the company in 1982 as vice president for systems technology in the electronics sector and later served in a series of assignments in the defense and space systems groups before being named vice president for science and technology. Before joining UTC, he served for 20 years with the National Security Agency with assignments in research and development, operations, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. In 1977, he was appointed principal deputy assistant secretary of defense for communications, command, control, and intelligence. In 1979, he was named assistant secretary of the Air Force for research, development, and logistics and in parallel was director of the National Reconnaissance Office. He received his BS, MS, and PhD in electrical engineering from Iowa State University.


KENT H. HUGHES is the director of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholar’s Program on Science, Technology, America, and the Global Economy. He served as US associate deputy secretary of commerce

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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from 1993 to 1999. He was also president of the Council on Competitiveness, senior economist of the Congressional Joint Economic Committee, and chief economist to Senate Majority Leader Robert C. Byrd. He is the author of Building the Next American Century: The Past and Future of American Economic Competitiveness. He holds a PhD in economics from Washington University in St. Louis, an LLB from Harvard Law School, and a BA from Yale University.


MARK S. HUMAYUN is professor of ophthalmology, biomedical engineering, and cell and neurobiology at the University of Southern California (USC). He received his BS from Georgetown University in 1984, his MD from Duke University in 1989, and his PhD from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1994. He finished his training by completing an ophthalmology residency at Duke and a fellowship in vitreoretinal diseases at Johns Hopkins Hospital. He stayed on as a faculty member at Johns Hopkins and rose to the rank of associate professor before moving to USC in 2001. Humayun is the director of USC’s National Science Foundation Biomimetic MicroElectronics Systems Engineering Research Center. He is also the codeveloper of a retinal implant that has received wide attention for its potential to restore sight and is the director of the DOE Artificial Retina Project that is a consortium of five DOE laboratories, four universities, and industry. Dr. Humayun’s research projects focus on the most challenging eye diseases: retinal degeneration, including macular degeneration, and retinitis pigmentosa. He is a member of 11 academic organizations, including Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers-Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, the Biomedical Engineering Society, the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, the American Society of Retinal Specialists, the Retina Society, the American Ophthalmological Society, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology. In the last 5 years, as a principal investigator, he has held multiple research grants from the National Science Foundation, DOE, and Second Sight, and oversight on three grants totalling $20 million in funding. He also holds three patents in the retinal prosthesis artificial-vision field. Humayun has written more than 70 peer-reviewed papers and more than 19 chapters. He has been a guest speaker in 90 lectures around the world.


MADELEINE JACOBS has been executive director and chief executive officer of the American Chemical Society (ACS) since January 2004. Before then, she served for 8 1/2 years as editor-in-chief of Chemical & Engineering News magazine, the weekly news magazine of the chemical world published by ACS, and 2 years as managing editor. She has held other senior management positions in a wide variety of scientific and educational organizations, including the National Institutes of Health, the National Institute

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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of Standards and Technology, and the Smithsonian Institution, where she served as the director of public affairs. Her professional interests include trends in the chemical industry, the public image of chemistry, employment trends, minority-group representation, and equality of the sexes in science.


RICHARD JOHNSON is a senior partner in the Washington, DC, office of Arnold & Porter, LLP. He specializes in legal, regulatory, and public-policy issues related to fundamental research, technology, innovation, and innovative strategic relationships, especially with respect to biotechnology and life sciences, nanotechnology, and other emerging technologies; intellectual property, trade, and innovation matters; and research-university and independent-research institute legal and policy issues. He formerly served as general counsel for international trade at the US Department of Commerce, where he was responsible for both trade-policy and international-technology issues. Dr. Johnson has served as a US delegate to numerous international trade, health-innovation, and international-technology meetings, and he has testified before the US Congress and international organizations. In addition to receiving his JD from the Yale Law School, where he was editor of the Yale Law Journal, he received his MS from MIT where he was a National Science Foundation national fellow. He is a member of the MIT Corporation’s Visiting Committee and several other university and think-tank advisory boards. Dr. Johnson serves as chairman of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation Development/Business and Industry Advisory Committee Biotechnology Committee, vice chairman of the OECD Technology and Innovation Committee, and cochair of its health innovation and nanotechnology task forces, and he participates on a wide range of advisory committees and task forces related to health innovation, intellectual-property and innovation policy, science and security, and the globalization of research.


RANDY H. KATZ [NAE] is the United Microelectronics Corporation Distinguished Professor in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of California, Berkeley (UCB). He received his undergraduate degree from Cornell University and his MS and PhD from UCB. He joined the faculty at UCB in 1983. He is a fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), and a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has published over 230 refereed technical papers, book chapters, and books. His hardware-design textbook, Contemporary Logic Design, has sold over 85,000 copies worldwide and has been in use at over 200 colleges and universities. A second edition, cowritten with Gaetano Borriello, published in 2005. He has supervised 41 MS theses and 27 PhD dissertations, and he leads a research team of over a dozen graduate students, technical staff, and industrial and academic visi-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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tors. He has won numerous awards, including 12 best paper awards, one “test of time” paper award, one paper selected for a 50-year retrospective on IEEE communications publications, three best-presentation awards, the Outstanding Alumni Award of the Berkeley Computer Science Division, the Computing Research Association Outstanding Service Award, the Berkeley Distinguished Teaching Award, the Air Force Exceptional Civilian Service Decoration, the IEEE Reynolds Johnson Information Storage Award, the American Society for Engineering Education Frederic E. Terman Award, and the ACM Karl V. Karlstrom Outstanding Educator Award. With colleagues at Berkeley, he developed Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID), which is now a $25-billion-per-year industry sector. While on leave for government service in 1993-1994, he established whitehouse.gov and connected the White House to the Internet. His current research interests are in reliable, adaptive distributed systems supported by new services deployed on network appliances (also known as programmable network elements). Prior research interests have included database management, VLSI Computer Aided Design, high-performance multiprocessor and storage architectures, transport and mobility protocols spanning heterogeneous wireless networks, and Internet service architectures for converged data and telephony.


MARVIN KOSTERS is a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and editor of the AEI Evaluative Studies series. He served as a senior economist on the President’s Council of Economic Advisers and at the White House Office of the Assistant to the President for Economic Affairs. Mr. Kosters held a senior policy position at the US Cost of Living Council and a research position at the RAND Corporation. He is the author of Wage Levels and Inequality (1998). He edited The Effects of the Minimum Wage on Employment (1996), Personal Saving, Consumption, and Tax Policy (1992), and Workers and Their Wages (1991). He was also the coeditor of Trade and Wages: Leveling Wages Down? (1994) and of Reforming Regulation (1980). Mr. Kosters has contributed to the American Economic Review and Public Interest. He is coauthor of Closing the Education Achievement Gap: Is Title I Working?, published by AEI Press (2003).


GEORGE M. LANGFORD is the E. E. Just Professor of Natural Sciences and professor of biological sciences at Dartmouth College. He is also an adjunct professor of physiology at the Dartmouth Medical School. Dr. Langford received his PhD from the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago and completed postdoctoral training at the University of Pennsylvania. He was professor of physiology in the School of Medicine of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill before joining the faculty at Dartmouth College. Dr. Langford is a cell biologist and neuroscientist who

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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studies cellular mechanisms of learning and memory. His research program will help to understand how the brain remembers and what makes it forget when neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, take hold. He served on the National Science Board (NSB), the governing board of the National Science Foundation from 1998 to 2004, was chair of the NSB Education and Human Resources Committee from 2002 to 2004, and was vice-chair of the NSB National Workforce Taskforce Subcommittee from 1999 to 2004. He serves on the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, the Burroughs Wellcome Fund Career Awards in the Biomedical Sciences Advisory Committee, the National Institutes of Health Synapses, Cytoskeleton and Trafficking Study Section, the National Research Council Associateships Program Committee, and the Sherman Fairchild Foundation Scientific Advisory Board.


CATO T. LAURENCIN [IOM] is the Lillian T. Pratt Distinguished Professor and chair of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Virginia. He is also a university professor at the University of Virginia, and holds professorships in biomedical engineering and chemical engineering. Dr. Laurencin earned his BSE in chemical engineering from Princeton University and his MD from Harvard Medical School, where he earned the Robinson Award for Excellence in Surgery. Simultaneously, he earned a PhD in biochemical engineering/biotechnology from MIT, where he was a Hugh Hampton Young Scholar. After completing his doctoral programs, Dr. Laurencin continued clinical training at the Harvard University Orthopaedic Surgery Program and ultimately became chief resident in orthopaedic surgery at the Beth Israel Hospital, Harvard Medical School. Simultaneously, he was an instructor in the Harvard–MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, where he directed a biomaterials laboratory at MIT. Dr. Laurencin later completed a clinical fellowship in sports medicine and shoulder surgery at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York, working with the team physicians for the New York Mets, and at St. John’s University in New York. Board-certified in orthopaedic surgery, Laurencin is a fellow of the American College of Surgeons, a fellow of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering, and an International Fellow in Biomaterials Science and Engineering. Dr. Laurencin’s research interests are in biomaterials, tissue engineering, drug delivery, and nanotechnology. He received the Presidential Faculty Fellowship Award from President Clinton in recognition of his research involving biodegradable polymers. He most recently received the William Grimes Award for Excellence in Chemical Engineering from the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and the Leadership in Technology Award from the New Millennium Foundation. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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DAVID LaVAN is assistant professor of mechanical engineering at Yale University, where he teaches machine design at the freshman and senior levels. His approach is derived from a background in materials science and mechanical engineering and experience as a consulting engineer. He incorporates failure analysis, product liability, codes and standards, and forensic engineering in his design classes. He also introduces students to the latest generation of analysis and simulation software. His research focuses on materials and devices at the nano, micro, and macro scales. Of particular interest is the development of biologic applications of microsystems. His laboratory is working on the development of in vivo sensors and novel materials and devices for microelectromechnical systems. Some projects are long-term implantable sensors for cancer detection and monitoring, injectable sensors, and the micromachining of biopolymers for applications in tissue engineering and neuroscience. In addition to new devices, his laboratory is developing novel methods to characterize materials and devices at the microscale.


PHILIP LeDUC is a McGowan faculty member and an assistant professor in mechanical engineering at Carnegie Mellon University. Dr. LeDuc earned his BS from Vanderbilt University in 1993 and his MS from North Carolina State in 1995. He obtained his PhD at Johns Hopkins University and was a postdoctoral fellow at Children’s Hospital/Harvard Medical School in 1999. Using computational biology through collaboration with colleagues at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Dr. LeDuc anticipates “developing a computational framework to look at how cells and molecules interact, for the purpose of improving drugs for disease treatment.” His research focuses on linking mechanics to biochemistry by exploring the science of molecular to cellular biomechanics through nanotechnology and microtechnology, control theory, and computational biology. The link between mechanics and biochemistry has been implicated in myriad scientific and medical problems, from orthopaedics and cardiovascular medicine to cell motility and division to signal transduction and gene expression. Most of the studies have focused on organ-level issues, but cellular and molecular research has become essential over the last decade in this field because of the revolutionary developments in genetics, molecular biology, microelectronics, and biotechnology.


JAMES A. LEWIS is a senior fellow and director of the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) Technology and Public Policy Program. Before joining CSIS, he was a career diplomat who worked on a variety of national security issues during his federal service. Dr. Lewis’s extensive diplomatic and regulatory experience includes negotiations on military basing in Southeast Asia, the Cambodia peace process, the five power talks on

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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arms transfer restraint, the Wassenaar Arrangement, and several bilateral agreements on security and technology. Dr. Lewis was the head of the delegation of the Wassenaar Experts Group for advanced civil and military technologies and a political adviser to the US Southern Command (for Just Cause), to US Central Command (for Desert Shield), and to the US Central America Task Force. He was responsible for the 1993 redrafting of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations, the 1997 regulations implementing the Wassenaar Agreement, numerous regulations on high-performance computing and satellites, and the 1999 and 2000 regulations liberalizing US controls on encryption products. Since going to CSIS, he has written numerous publications, including China as a Military Space Competitor (2004), Globalization and National Security (2004), Spectrum Management for the 21st Century (2003), Perils and Prospects for Internet Self-Regulation (2002), Assessing the Risk of Cyber Terrorism, Cyber War, and Other Cyber Threats (2002), Strengthening Law Enforcement Capabilities for Counterterrorism (2001), and Preserving America’s Strength in Satellite Technology (2001). His current research involves digital identity, innovation, military space, and China’s information-technology industry. In 2004, Dr. Lewis was elected the first chairman of the Electronic Authentication Partnership, an association of companies, nonprofits, and government organizations that develops rules for federated authentication. He received his PhD from the University of Chicago in 1984.


JOAN F. LORDEN joined the University of North Carolina (UNC)-Charlotte as provost and vice chancellor for academic affairs in August 2003. She received a BA and a PhD in psychology from Yale University. Before coming to UNC-Charlotte, she served as associate provost for research and dean of the Graduate School at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), where she was professor of psychology. She has published extensively on brain-behavior relationships and specialized in the study of animal models of human neurologic disease. In 1991, she was awarded the Ireland Prize for Scholarly Distinction. She has served on peer-review panels and scientific advisory boards at NIH, NSF, and private agencies. At UAB, she organized the doctoral program in behavioral neuroscience and directed the universitywide interdisciplinary Graduate Training Program in Neuroscience. In addition to her work in research and graduate education at UAB, Dr. Lorden founded an Office of Postdoctoral Education, programs for professional development of graduate students, an undergraduate honors program, and several programs designed to improve the recruitment of women and minority-group members into doctoral programs in science and engineering. Dr. Lorden was elected chair of the Board of Directors of the Council of Graduate Schools (2003) and during 2002-2003 was the dean in residence in the Division of Graduate Education at

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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NSF. She has chaired the Board of Directors of Oak Ridge Associated Universities, was a trustee of the Southeastern Universities Research Association, and chaired the executive committee of the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges Council on Research Policy and Graduate Education. Dr. Lorden is a member of the National Research Council’s Committee on the Methodology for the Study of the Research Doctorate. She is a member of the Society for Neuroscience, the American Psychological Association, and the American Psychological Society.


RONALD MARX is professor of educational psychology and dean of education at the University of Arizona. His previous appointments were at Simon Fraser University and the University of Michigan, where he served as the chair of the Educational Studies Program and later as the codirector of the Center for Highly Interactive Computing in Education and the Center for Learning Technologies in Urban Schools. His research focuses on how classrooms can be sites for learning that is highly motivated and cognitively engaging. Since 1994, Dr. Marx has been engaged in large-scale urban school reform in Detroit and Chicago. With his appointment as dean in 2003, he has been working to link the college’s research, teaching, and outreach activities closely to K–12 schools and school districts. Dr. Marx received his PhD from Stanford University.


DEIRDRE R. MELDRUM is professor and director of the Genomation Laboratory in the Department of Electrical Engineering and adjunct professor of bioengineering and mechanical engineering at the University of Washington. She received a BS in civil engineering from the University of Washington in 1983, an MS in electrical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1985, and a PhD in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 1993. As an engineering cooperative student at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center in 1980 and 1981, she was an instructor for the astronauts on the shuttle-mission simulator. From 1985 to 1987, she was a member of the technical staff at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and performed theoretical and experimental work in identification and control of large flexible space structures and robotics. Her research interests include genome automation, microscale systems for biologic applications, robotics, and control systems. Dr. Meldrum is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the American Chemical Society, the Association for Women in Science, the Human Genome Organization, Sigma Xi, and the Society of Women Engineers. She was awarded an NIH Special Emphasis Research Career Award in 1993 to train in biology and genetics, bring her engineering expertise to the genome project, and develop automated laboratory instrumentation. In December 1996, she was the recipient of a Presidential Early Career Award

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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for Scientists and Engineers for recognition of innovative research using a broad set of interdisciplinary approaches to advance DNA-sequencing technology. Since August 2001, she has directed an NIH center of excellence in genomic sciences, the Microscale Life Sciences Center (MLSC). The MLSC includes 10 investigators from the University of Washington and one from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. In 2003, Meldrum became a fellow of the AAAS; and in 2004, a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.


CLAUDIA MITCHELL-KERNAN has been vice chancellor for graduate studies and dean of the Graduate Division at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), since 1989. As chief academic and administrative officer of the Graduate Division, she has responsibility for graduate admissions, campuswide student support and fellowship programs, and graduate academic affairs and works to ensure that standards of excellence, fairness, and equity are maintained across all graduate programs. She is concurrently a professor in the Departments of Anthropology and Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences. She received her PhD from the University of California, Berkeley, and her BA and MA from Indiana University and was a member of the faculty at Harvard University before coming to UCLA in 1973. Much of Dr. Mitchell-Kernan’s early work was in linguistic anthropology, and her classic sociolinguistic studies of black communities continue to be widely cited. Her most recent book, The Decline in Marriage Among African Americans, coedited with M. Belinda Tucker, was published in 1995 by Russell Sage. Other books on children’s discourse, television and the socialization of ethnic-minority children, and linguistic patterns of black children reflect the breadth of her scholarly interests. She conducts research on marriage and family-formation patterns in the United States among Americans and West Indian immigrants. Throughout her career, she has maintained an active record of service to federal agencies that sponsor research. President Clinton appointed her to the NSB for a 6-year term in 1994. At the national level, she is serving as the dean in residence for the Council of Graduate Schools (CGS), is on the Board of Higher Education and Workforce of the National Research Council, and is on the board of directors of the Consortium of Social Science Associations. She has recently served on the board of directors of the CGS and chaired its Advisory Committee on Minorities in Graduate Education, as chair of the board of directors of the Graduate Record Examination, on the advisory board of the National Security Education Program, and on the Board of Deans of the African American Institute. She has been a member of the Board of Directors of the Los Angeles-based Golden State Minority Foundation and the board of directors of the Venice Family Clinic.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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DAVID H. MONK is professor of educational administration and dean of the College of Education at the Pennsylvania State University (PSU). He earned his AB in 1972 at Dartmouth College and his PhD in 1979 at the University of Chicago, and he was a member of the Cornell University faculty for 20 years before becoming dean at PSU in 1999. He has also been a third-grade teacher and has taught in a visiting capacity at the University of Rochester and the University of Burgundy in Dijon, France. Dr. Monk is the author of Educational Finance: An Economic Approach (1990), Raising Money for Education: A Guide to the Property Tax (1997) (with Brian O. Brent), and Cost Adjustments in Education (2001) (with William J. Fowler, Jr.), in addition to numerous articles in scholarly journals. He is a coeditor of Education Finance and Policy, the journal of the American Education Finance Association, and Leadership and Policy in Schools. He also serves on the editorial boards of Economics of Education Review, the Journal of Education Finance, Educational Policy, and the Journal of Research in Rural Education. He consults widely on matters related to educational productivity and the organizational structuring of schools and school districts and is a past president of the American Education Finance Association.


MARK B. MYERS is visiting executive professor in the Management Department at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. His research interests include identifying emerging markets and technologies to enable growth in new and existing companies with emphases on technology identification and selection, product development and technology competences. Dr. Myers serves on the Science, Technology and Economic Policy Board of the National Research Council and cochairs, with Yale President Richard Levin, the National Research Council’s study of Intellectual Property in the Knowledge-Based Economy. Dr. Myers retired from the Xerox Corporation at the beginning of 2000, after a 36-year career in its R&D organizations. He was the senior vice president in charge of corporate research, advanced development, systems architecture, and corporate engineering from 1992 to 2000. During this period he was a member of the senior management committee in charge of the strategic direction setting of the company. His responsibilities included the corporate research centers: PARC in Palo Alto, California; the Webster Center for Research and Technology near Rochester, New York; the Xerox Research Centre of Canada, Mississauga, Ontario; and the Xerox Research Centre of Europe in Cambridge, England, and Grenoble, France. Dr. Myers is chairman of the Board of Trustees of Earlham College and has held visiting faculty positions at the University of Rochester and at Stanford University. He holds a bachelor’s degree from Earlham College and a doctorate from Pennsylvania State University.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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CARLO PARRAVANO has served as executive director of the Merck Institute for Science Education since 1992. He is responsible for the planning, development, and implementation of numerous initiatives to improve science education. Before assuming that position, Dr. Parravano was professor of chemistry and chair of the Division of Natural Sciences at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Purchase. While at SUNY/Purchase, he taught courses in general, physical, analytic, and environmental chemistry. In addition to his academic and administrative appointments, he served as director of the Center for Mathematics and Science Education of the SUNY/Purchase-Westchester School Partnership. Dr. Parravano is a recipient of the SUNY Chancellor’s Award for Excellence in Teaching. In 1999, he was elected an AAAS fellow; and in 2003, he received the National Science Teachers Association’s (NSTA’s) Distinguished Service to Science Education Award. In 2004, he was designated a national associate of the National Academy of Sciences and appointed to the Steering Committee for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress in Science. Dr. Parravano earned a BA in chemistry at Oberlin College and a PhD in physical chemistry in 1974 at the University of California, Santa Cruz. His research has been in molecular-beam studies of excited atoms and molecules and the application of physical-chemical techniques to the solution of biochemical and environmental problems. Dr. Parravano is a member of a number of professional organizations, including AAAS (chair, Education Section, 2003), the American Chemical Society, and NSTA. He served as founding vice chair of the New Jersey Professional Teaching Standards Board (1999-2003) and as cochair of the New Jersey Science Curriculum Standards Group. He is a member of the National Research Council’s Board on Science Education (Executive Committee) and is on the advisory boards of the National Science Resources Center, Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (chair), and the New Jersey Business Coalition for Educational Excellence. In 2005, Dr. Parravano was appointed to the New Jersey Mathematics Task Force and to the Quality Teaching and Learning Task Force. He also serves as principal investigator for an NSF-funded mathematics-science partnership award.


ANNE C. PETERSEN [IOM] is the senior vice president for programs at the W. K. Kellogg Foundation of Battle Creek, Michigan. As a senior member of the executive staff since 1996, she provides leadership for all programming, including the development of effective programming strategies, teamwork, policies, philosophies, and organizationwide systems to accomplish the programmatic mission of the foundation. Previously, Dr. Petersen was deputy director and chief operating officer of NSF, then a $3.6 billion federal research agency with 1,300 employees. Before joining NSF, she served as vice president for research and dean of the Graduate School at

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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the University of Minnesota where she was professor of adolescent development and pediatrics. Before that, she was the first dean of the College of Health and Human Development at Pennsylvania State University. She has written more than a dozen books and 200 articles on adolescent and sex issues, including evaluation, health, adolescent development, and higher education. Her honors include election to the Institute of Medicine. She is a founding member of the Society for Research on Adolescence and was president and council member. She was president of developmental psychology in the American Psychological Association and is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Psychological Association, and the American Psychological Society. She is president-elect of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development. Dr. Petersen holds a BS in mathematics, an MS in statistics, and a PhD in measurement, evaluation, and statistical analysis from the University of Chicago.


STEPHANIE PFIRMAN chairs the Department of Environmental Science at Barnard College. Her current research interests include environmental aspects of sea ice in the Arctic, interdisciplinary research and education, and advancing women scientists. As the first chair of NSF’s Advisory Committee for Environmental Research and Education, Dr. Pfirman oversaw analysis of a 10-year outlook for environmental research and education at NSF. She is also a co-principal investigator of NSF’s ADVANCE grant (to advance women scientists) to Columbia’s Earth Institute. Before joining Barnard, Dr. Pfirman was a senior scientist at Environmental Defense and codeveloper of the award-winning traveling exhibition, “Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast,” developed jointly with the American Museum of Natural History. She was research scientist and coordinator of Arctic programs for the University of Kiel and GEOMAR, Research Center for Marine Geoscience in Germany; staff scientist for the US House of Representatives Committee on Science Subcommittee on Environment; and oceanographer with the US Geological Survey in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Dr. Pfirman received her PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program in Oceanography and Oceanographic Engineering, Department of Marine Geology and Geophysics, and a BA from Colgate University’s Geology Department.


DANIEL B. PONEMAN is a principal of The Scowcroft Group, which provides strategic advice to the group clients in the energy, aerospace, information-technology, and manufacturing industries, and others. For 9

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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years, he practiced law in Washington, DC, assisting clients in a wide variety of regulatory and policy matters, including export controls, trade policy, and sanctions issues. From 1993 through 1996, Dr. Poneman served as special assistant to the president and senior director for nonproliferation and export controls at the National Security Council (NSC), with responsibilities for the development and implementation of US policy in such fields as peaceful nuclear cooperation, missile-technology and space-launch activities, sanctions determinations, chemical and biologic arms-control efforts, and conventional-arms transfer policy. During that period, he participated in negotiations and consultations with governments in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the former Soviet Union. Dr. Poneman joined the NSC staff in 1990 as director of defense policy and arms control after service in the Department of Energy. He has served as a member of the Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and other federal advisory panels. He received AB and JD degrees from Harvard University and an MLitt degree in politics from Oxford University. Dr. Poneman is the author of books on nuclear-energy policy, Korea, and Argentina and is a member of the Council of Foreign Relations.


HELEN R. QUINN started her college career at the University of Melbourne, Australia. Two years into her degree, she moved to the United States and joined the physics department of Stanford University, where she completed both her BSc and her PhD in physics. After a postdoctoral fellowship at Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron in Hamburg, Germany, she briefly taught high school physics and then joined the staff and then the faculty of Harvard University. A few years later, she returned to Stanford to join the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, and she has been there since 1977. Her research concentrates on theoretical particle physics with a focus on phenomenology of the weak interactions; she is involved in outreach activities to encourage interest in physics. Her work with Robert Peccei resulted in what is now known as the Peccei-Quinn symmetry. Dr. Quinn was president of the American Physical Society for 2003. She was named a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1996 and was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2003. She was awarded the Dirac Medal of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in 2000 for her work with Peccei and in the Georgi-Quinn-Weinberg computation of how different types of interactions may be unified. In addition to her research Dr. Quinn has maintained a steady involvement in precollege education, working chiefly with local efforts to improve science teaching. She was a coauthor of the Investigation and Experimentation strand of the California science standards.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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PAUL ROMER is the STANCO 25 Professor of Economics in the Graduate School of Business at Stanford University and a senior fellow of the Hoover Institution. Dr. Romer was the lead developer of “new growth theory.” This body of work, which grew out of his 1983 PhD dissertation, provides a better foundation for business and government thinking about the dynamics of wealth creation. It addresses one of the oldest questions in economics: What sustains economic growth in a physical world characterized by diminishing returns and scarcity? It also sheds new light on current economic issues. Among these, Dr. Romer is studying how government policy affects innovation and how faster technologic change might influence asset prices. Dr. Romer was named one of America’s 25 most influential people by Time magazine in 1997. He was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2000. He is also a fellow of the Econometric Society and a research associate with the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). He was a member of the National Research Council Panel on Criteria for Federal Support of Research and Development (1995), a member of the Executive Council of the American Economics Association, and a fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. Before coming to Stanford, Dr. Romer was a professor of economics at the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Chicago. Dr. Romer holds a PhD in economics from the University of Chicago.


SHEILA R. RONIS is president of The University Group, Inc., a management consulting firm and think tank specializing in strategic management, visioning, national security, and public policy. She is also an adjunct professor at the University of Detroit Mercy and at Oakland University, where she teaches “Strategic Management and Business Policy,” “Managing the Global Firm,” and “Issues of Globalization” in the MBA programs. She often lectures at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces (ICAF) at the National Defense University in Washington, DC, and participates in its annual National Security Strategy Exercise. In June 2005, she chaired at ICAF the Army’s Eisenhower National Security Series event “The State of the U.S. Industrial Base: National Security Implications in a World of Globalization.” Her BS is in physics and mathematics and her MA and PhD from Ohio State University are in organizational behavior and general social systems theory.


JAMES M. ROSSER has served as president and professor of healthcare management at California State University, Los Angeles, since 1979 and as professor of microbiology since 2004. He has served in many civic and community organizations, including the Los Angeles Area Council of the Boy Scouts of America, the Los Angeles County Alliance for College Ready

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Public Schools, the California Chamber of Commerce, Americans for the Arts, Community Television of Southern California (KCET), Los Angeles After-School Education and Child Care Program—LA’s BEST, the Music Center Performing Arts Council/Education Council, and the California Community Foundation. His professional affiliations have included the American Association of State Colleges and Universities, the American Council on Education, the Western Association of Schools and Colleges, the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation, the California Council on Science and Technology, Edison International, the United California Bank, the FEDCO, Inc. Foundation, and numerous committees and commissions of the California State University system. He is a past chair of the Education and Human Resources Advisory Committee of the National Science Foundation. He was chair of the National Academy of Engineering Forum on Diversity in the Engineering Workforce in 2000-2002.


DEBORAH M. ROUDEBUSH has been a physics teacher for 21 years. She holds national board certification in adolescent and young adult science. She was a 2001 Presidential Awardee for Excellence in Science Teaching. She has been a physics-teacher resource agent through the American Association of Physics Teachers since 1992 and is the associate member for Virginia to the National Academy of Sciences Teacher Advisory Council. She has been a reader for advanced placement for computer science and physics since 1996. She has a keen interest in physics education research and the implications for improving physics teaching at all levels. She is an advocate for the importance of physics and science education for all students to enable data-driven decision-making at all levels of government.


DANIEL K. RUBENSTEIN is currently the head of the Mathematics Department at Collegiate School in New York City. He has worked in secondary education for 13 years. His first faculty position was teaching mathematics at Sidwell Friends School in Washington, DC. In addition, he spent a semester as assistant director and mathematics teacher at School Year Abroad Beijing. After 8 years of independent-school teaching, a Sidwell alumnus recruited Mr. Rubenstein to help build the mathematics program of the fledgling SEED Foundation Public Charter School in southeast Washington, DC, where he remained for 2 years. He is a nationally board-certified mathematics teacher and an associate member of the National Academy of Sciences Teacher Advisory Council. In 2002, he received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Mathematics Teaching. He holds a bachelor’s degree in mathematics from Hamilton College and a master’s degree from St. Johns College in Santa Fe, New Mexico, and he is enrolled in a doctoral program at Columbia University in education leadership.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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JULIANA C. SHEI joined the General Electric Global Research Center in 1991. In 1995, she was appointed global technology manager and is responsible for the management of the R&D Center’s Global Technology Acquisition Programs. In that role, she has established research collaborations with organizations around the world. Ms. Shei was the project manager to establish a GE Research Center in Shanghai, China, in June 2000 and now leads Japan Technology Initiative in Japan. Ms. Shei is a member of the American Chemical Society and cochair of the Industrial Research Institute External Technology Directors’ Network. She is a board member for the United States Industry Coalition. She was a member of the Gore-Chernomyrdin Science & Technology delegation in 1997 and served as an industry representative for the President’s Council of Advisers on Science and Technology in 2002. Shei is very active in community service. She was a founder and the president of the Network, a professional women’s organization affiliated with the National Association for Female Executives, served as the board chair for the Chinese Community Center of the Capital District of New York, and is a board member of the Japanese Cultural Association of the Capital District. A native of Tokyo, Japan, Ms. Shei obtained her undergraduate degree from National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan, her MS from the University of Massachusetts, and her MBA from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Before joining General Electric, she worked at Ames Laboratory, the Research Center at the US Steel Corporation, and the Sterling Winthrop Research Institute (Eastman Kodak’s Pharmaceutical Division).


J. STEPHEN SIMON is a senior vice president of Exxon Mobil Corporation. Mr. Simon holds a BS degree in civil engineering from Duke University and an MBA from Northwestern University. He joined Exxon Company, USA in July 1967 and shortly thereafter began a 2-year assignment in the US Army. He returned to Exxon USA in July 1969 as a business analyst in the Baton Rouge refinery. After holding a variety of supervisory and managerial positions throughout the Baton Rouge and Baytown refineries and in Exxon USA’s refining and controller’s departments, Mr. Simon became executive assistant to Exxon USA’s executive vice president in Houston. In 1980, he returned to the Baton Rouge refinery as Operations Division manager and then became refinery manager. In 1983, Mr. Simon moved to New York, where he was executive assistant to the president of Exxon corporation. In 1984, he moved to London, England, as supply manager in the Petroleum Products Department of Esso Europe Inc. and then supply and transportation manager. Mr. Simon returned to Houston in 1986 as general manager of Exxon USA’s Supply Department. In 1988, he became chief executive and general manager, Esso Caribbean and Central America, in Coral Gables, Florida. Simon moved to Italy in 1992 to become executive vice president and then president of Esso Italiana. He returned to the

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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United States in 1997 and was named an executive vice president of Exxon Company, International, headquartered in Florham Park, New Jersey. In December 1999, he was appointed president of Exxon Mobil Refining & Supply Company and vice president of Exxon Mobil Corporation. In December 2004, he assumed his current position as senior vice president of the Corporation. Mr. Simon has served on the local boards of many voluntary organizations—including United Way, Boy Scouts, and the Salvation Army—and is a member of the Governance Committee of the National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering. He has also served on the boards of the American Petroleum Institute and the National Association of Manufacturers. He is a member of the board of visitors for Duke University’s School of Engineering and a member of the president’s council. In addition, he is on the Kellogg Advisory Board of Northwestern University.


TIM STEARNS is an associate professor in the Department of Biological Sciences and the Department of Genetics at Stanford University. He is also a member of the Committee on Cancer Biology, the steering group for the cancer-biology graduate training program, and he is chair of the Committee on Graduate Admissions and Policy, which oversees all graduate programs in the biosciences at Stanford. Dr. Stearns is the recipient of a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Professor Award, which he has used to develop a program for research-oriented undergraduates. The laboratory course for this program, Biosci 54/55, draws sophomore-level students from diverse intellectual backgrounds and has them use interdisciplinary approaches to solve problems in cell biology. Dr. Stearns recently cofounded the Advanced Imaging Lab in Biophysics course, and he has taught advanced summer laboratory courses at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory at Woods Hole, and in Chile and South Africa. His research involves using a combination of imaging, genetics, biochemistry, and structural biology to understand the cytoskeleton. His laboratory was one of the first to use green fluorescent protein to visualize cytoskeletal dynamics and is a leader in understanding microtubule organization and its relationship to the cell cycle.


DEBRA STEWART became the fifth president of the Council of Graduate Schools (CGS) in July 2000. Before coming to the CGS, Dr. Stewart was vice chancellor and dean of the Graduate School at North Carolina State University. She also served as interim chancellor at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro (1997) and as graduate dean and then vice provost (1988-1998) at North Carolina State. Among its 11 international members, CGS includes 9 major Canadian universities. Dr. Stewart received her PhD in political science from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, her master’s degree in government from the University of Maryland, and her BA from Marquette University. She is the author or coauthor of numer-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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ous scholarly articles on administrative theory and public policy. Her disciplinary research focuses on ethics and managerial decision-making. With sustained support from the National Science Foundation, Dr. Stewart has conducted research on political attitudes and moral reasoning among public officials in Poland and Russia.


ORLANDO L. TAYLOR is vice provost for research, dean of the graduate school, and professor of communications at Howard University. Before joining the Howard faculty in 1973, Dr. Taylor was a faculty member at Indiana University. He has also served as a visiting professor at Stanford University. Dr. Taylor has served on the board of directors of the Council of Graduate Schools and was board chair in 2001. He is a past president of the Northeastern Association of Graduate Schools and the National Communication Association. He is the immediate past president of the Consortium of Social Science Associations and chairman of the board of the Jacob Javits Fellowship Program in the Humanities for the US Department of Education. He also serves as a member of the board of trustees of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. Dr. Taylor has served in many capacities at Howard University: he has served as executive assistant to the president, interim vice president for academic affairs, dean of the School of Communications, and chair of the Department of Communication Arts and Sciences. Dr. Taylor’s pioneering work in communication disorders, sociolinguistics, educational linguistics, and intercultural communication has led to the development of new theories and applications. In most of his scholarly work, he has focused on the rich cultural and linguistic diversity of the American people. He is the author of numerous articles, chapters, and books. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association awarded him its highest award, Honors of the Association, and the Alumni Association of the University of Michigan awarded him its Distinguished Service Alumni Award. The University of Massachusetts, Amherst, has awarded him the Chancellor’s Medal, and Yale University its Bouchet Medal for Leadership in Minority Graduate Education. Dr. Taylor received his bachelor’s degree from Hampton University, his master’s degree from Indiana University, and his PhD degree from the University of Michigan.


NANCY VORONA is vice president of research investment at the Center for Innovative Technology (CIT). Her responsibilities include strategy and program development for CIT’s initiatives in nanotechnology and life sciences. Before her current appointment, she was CIT’s senior industry director for advanced materials and electronics. Ms. Vorona joined CIT in 1998. Ms. Vorona’s professional experience in electronics includes several years in marketing and sales management with International Rectifier Corporation, a US manufacturer of power semiconductors based in California. She

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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was also responsible for international marketing and sales for Integrated Display Technology Ltd., a Hong Kong manufacturer of consumer electronic products. In 1993, she joined the Virginia Economic Development Partnership to establish and increase the international business of Virginia’s information-technology and telecommunications companies. Ms. Vorona received a BA from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a master’s degree in international management from Thunderbird, the American Graduate School of International Management in Glendale, Arizona.


ISIAH M. WARNER is Boyd Professor and vice chancellor for strategic initiatives of the Louisiana State System (LSU). He graduated cum laude from Southern University with a BS in chemistry in 1968. After working for Battelle Northwest in Richland, Washington, for 5 years, Dr. Warner attended graduate school in chemistry at the University of Washington, receiving his PhD in chemistry (analytical) in June 1977. He was assistant professor of chemistry at Texas A&M University from 1977 to 1982 and was awarded tenure and promotion to associate professor effective September 1982. However, he elected to join the faculty of Emory University as associate professor and was promoted to full professor in 1986. Dr. Warner was named to an endowed chair at Emory University in September 1987 and was the Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of Chemistry until he left in August 1992. During the 1988-1989 academic year, he was on leave to the National Science Foundation as program officer for analytical and surface chemistry. In August 1992, Dr. Warner joined LSU as Philip W. West Professor of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry. He was chair of the Chemistry Department from 1994 to 1997 and was appointed Boyd Professor of the LSU System in July 2000, and Vice Chancellor for Strategic Initiatives in 2001. The primary research emphasis of Warner’s research group is the development and application of improved methodologies (chemical, mathematical, and instrumental) for the study of complex chemical systems. His research interests include fluorescence spectroscopy, guest-host interactions, studies in organized media, spectroscopic applications of multi-channel detectors, chromatography, environmental analyses, and mathematical analyses and interpretation of chemical data using chemometrics.


GENERAL LARRY WELCH (retired) was the 12th chief of staff of the US Air Force. As chief, he served as the senior uniformed Air Force officer responsible for the organization, training, and equipage of a combined active-duty, Guard, reserve, and civilian force serving at locations in the United States and overseas. Formerly president of the Institute for Defense Analyses, General Welch now serves as a senior associate. In addition, he provides expertise to a number of organizations, including the Council on Foreign Relations, the Defense Science Board, the Joint Committee on

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Nuclear Weapons Surety, the National Missile Defense Independent Review Team, the US Space Command Independent Strategic Advisory Group, and the US Strategic Command Strategic Advisory Group. General Welch received a BS in business administration from the University of Maryland and an MS in international relations from George Washington University.


REAR ADMIRAL ROBERT H. WERTHEIM (retired) [NAE] is a consultant on national security and related issues. During his 38 years in the Navy, he was director of strategic systems programs, responsible for the research, development, production, and operational support of the Navy’s submarine-launched ballistic-missile program. After retirement from the Navy, he served for 7 years as Lockheed Corporation senior vice president for science and engineering; for the last 17 years, he has been a private consultant. He is a member of advisory groups serving the US Strategic Command, the Los Alamos and Livermore National Laboratories, and Draper Laboratory. Other current service includes membership on the joint Department of Defense and Department of Energy (DOE) Advisory Committee on Nuclear Weapons Surety and on the University of California President’s Council on the National Laboratories. He is a former member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on International Security and Arms Control, the DOE Laboratory Operations Board, and the Defense Science Board. Admiral Wertheim graduated with honors from New Mexico Military Institute in 1942. He graduated with distinction from the Naval Academy in 1945 and received an MS in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1954. He has been elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering and of the scientific and engineering societies, Sigma Xi and Tau Beta Pi, an honorary member of the American Society of Naval Engineers; and a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the California Council on Science and Technology. Admiral Wertheim has been honored with the Navy Distinguished Service Medal (twice), the Legion of Merit, the Gold Medal of the American Society of Naval Engineers, the Rear Admiral William S. Parsons Award of the Navy League, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Distinguished Public Service Medal, and the Secretary of Defense Medal for Outstanding Public Service. He was inducted into the New Mexico Military Institute Hall of Fame in 1987 and has been honored by the US Naval Academy with its 2005 Distinguished Graduate Award for his lifetime of service to the Navy and the nation.


DEAN ZOLLMAN is University Distinguished Professor, Distinguished University Teaching Scholar, and head of the Department of Physics at Kansas State University (KSU). He has focused his scholarly activities on research and development in physics education since 1972. He has re-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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ceived the NSF Director’s Award for Distinguished Teacher Scholars (2004), the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Doctoral University Professor of the Year (1996), and American Association of Physics Teachers’ Robert A. Millikan Medal (1995). His research concentrates on investigating the mental models and operations that students develop as they learn physics and how students transfer knowledge in the learning process. He also applies cutting-edge technology to the teaching of physics and to providing instructional and pedagogic materials to physics teachers, particularly teachers whose background does not include a substantial amount of physics. He has twice been a Fulbright Fellow in Germany. In 1989, he worked at Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich on development of measurement techniques for digital video. In 1998, he visited the Institute for Science Education at the University in Kiel, where he investigated student understanding of quantum physics. Dr. Zollman is coauthor of six videodisks for physics teaching, the Physics InfoMall database, and a textbook. He leads the Visual Quantum Mechanics project, which develops materials for teaching quantum physics to three groups of students: nonscience students, science and engineering students, and students interested in biology and medicine. His present instructional and research projects include Modern Miracle Medical Machines, Physics Pathway, and research on student learning.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Focus-Group Sessions." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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In a world where advanced knowledge is widespread and low-cost labor is readily available, U.S. advantages in the marketplace and in science and technology have begun to erode. A comprehensive and coordinated federal effort is urgently needed to bolster U.S. competitiveness and pre-eminence in these areas. This congressionally requested report by a pre-eminent committee makes four recommendations along with 20 implementation actions that federal policy-makers should take to create high-quality jobs and focus new science and technology efforts on meeting the nation's needs, especially in the area of clean, affordable energy:

1) Increase America's talent pool by vastly improving K-12 mathematics and science education;

2) Sustain and strengthen the nation's commitment to long-term basic research;

3) Develop, recruit, and retain top students, scientists, and engineers from both the U.S. and abroad; and

4) Ensure that the United States is the premier place in the world for innovation.

Some actions will involve changing existing laws, while others will require financial support that would come from reallocating existing budgets or increasing them. Rising Above the Gathering Storm will be of great interest to federal and state government agencies, educators and schools, public decision makers, research sponsors, regulatory analysts, and scholars.

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