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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Index

A

Abramovitz, Moses, 1 n.1

Academic research

advanced instruments and facilities, 7-8, 146, 147, 148

centers, 438-439

collaboration with federal laboratories, 93-94

commercialization of inventions, 432, 433, 440-442

doctoral employment, 84, 103, 144

export controls and, 35

federal funding, 46-47, 148, 168, 364, 405, 409, 416, 421-422, 431, 439, 443

grants, 170

industry collaboration, 408, 432, 433, 438-439, 440-442, 466

international students and scholars, 176

patent issues, 186, 188-190, 440-442

postdoctoral fellowships, 346

reimbursement for administrative costs, 148, 168, 416, 421-422

return on investment, 46-47, 48

sensitive but unclassified information, 36, 105, 474, 476-479

Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) training, 4, 5, 119, 125, 126-127, 135, 514-515

Advanced Placement Incentive Program (APIP), 6, 127, 130-131, 514

Advanced research instrumentation and

facilities (ARIF), 7-8, 145-149, 405, 509

Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), 8, 152-158, 509

Advanced Technology Program (ATP), 88, 90, 432, 433, 435-437

Advisory committees, national, 432, 442-443

Aeronautical engineering, 44, 60, 62

Aerospace technology, 44

Afghanistan war, 485

African Americans, 95, 131, 312, 313, 315, 316, 328, 341, 343, 344, 345, 351

Agriculture

higher education, 101, 343, 351

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

negative effects of innovation in, 59

productivity, 46, 59

return on R&D investment, 47, 48

technological innovations, 42, 44, 59

AIDS, 43

Air quality, 58

Alexander, Lamar, 2

Alternative Trade Adjustment for Older Workers Program, 469

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 128 n.39, 322

American Jobs Act of Wisconsin, 27

American Indians/Alaskan Natives, 328, 341, 344, 345, 351

American Intellectual Property Law Association, 188

Anthrax mailings, 66, 481, 483

Apple Corporation, 184

Applied research

corporate funding, 32

defined, 68

federal funding, 141, 397, 403, 408

practical applications in industry, 51

pure, 69

qualitative measures, 419-420

security-related, 141, 150, 485, 486, 487, 490

US leadership, 68

Argonne National Laboratory, 92

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), 394-395

Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, 315, 316, 344, 345

AT&T, 35

Atomic Energy Act, 475 n.1

Australia

higher education, 100

immigration policy, 178, 179, 384-385, 393, 394

tax credits for R&D, 195

test scores, 132, 308-311

Austria, AP test scores, 132

Automotive engineering, 44, 57-58, 60, 64, 71, 159, 196, 440

B

Bangalore, 23

Bardhan, Ashok, 211

Barrett, Craig, 17

Basic research

in China, 38

defined, 68

DOD, 7, 89, 90, 92, 137, 140, 141, 143, 150, 151, 402, 426, 431, 484, 486, 487

energy-related, 153

export controls, 35

federal funding, 7, 66-67, 89, 90, 92, 93, 136-143, 146-147, 150, 151-152, 397, 398, 402, 403, 408, 416, 417, 423, 433

high-risk, high-payoff, 8, 149-152, 398, 408, 416, 417, 423, 433, 436, 509

industry, 84, 86, 93, 157

practical applications in industry, 51, 52, 140

pure, 69

qualitative measures, 419

security-related, 90, 137, 140, 141, 150, 483, 484, 485, 487, 488, 490

recommendations, 7, 136

unclassified, 173

US leadership, 68

use-inspired, 69

Bayh–Dole Act, 433, 440-442

Belgium, 100, 310-311

Bell, Alexander Graham, 35

Bell Laboratories, 32, 83, 84, 157, 333

Bingaman, Jeff, 2

Biodefense research, 488, 493

Biological sciences, 76, 101, 336, 337, 338, 343, 351

Biomedical research, 33 n.38, 90, 139, 144, 199, 333, 334, 399, 411, 417, 423, 424

Biotechnology industry, 50, 59, 82, 88, 198, 222, 333, 453

Boehlert, Sherwood, 2

Boeing, 184, 491

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Brazil, 23, 206

BRICs, economic competitiveness, 206.

See also individual countries

Brin, Sergey, 35

Broadband Internet access, 12, 15, 201-203, 461, 462

Broadband over Power Lines (BPL), 203

Building Engineering and Science Talent (BEST) committee, 167

Bulgaria, 310-311

Bush, George W., 17, 25, 142, 202, 475, 476

Bush, Vannevar, 66, 112, 398-399

Business Roundtable, 108, 142

Business Software Alliance, 463

C

California Teach program, 4, 117-119

Canada

broadband access, 462

education, 100, 132, 200, 387

immigration policy, 178, 384-385, 391, 393-394, 395

innovation environment, 37, 200

spending on R&D, 74

tax credits for R&D, 195

US R&D in, 86, 195

working-age population, 212

Cancer, 55, 57, 59

Carbon capture and sequestration, 159

Careers in science and technology.

See also Employment;

Highly skilled workers;

Human capital development;

Researchers and scientists

academic faculty, 326, 333, 334, 336, 353

aspirations of K–12 students, 312, 314

disincentives, 328-333

engineers, 16, 164, 166, 168, 170, 329, 383

government, 169, 333, 334, 336, 351, 353, 481, 494-496, 497, 499

industry, 333, 334, 335, 336, 351, 353

information about options, 351

PhDs, 351, 353

promotion of, 326

prospects, 103, 164, 168, 170, 171-172, 332-333, 351, 353

salaries, 338, 339

student interest in, 98-104, 327-328

trends in employment, 335, 338

Carnegie, Andrew, 35

Case Institute of Technology, 120 n.19

Cellular phones, 71, 462

Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), 108, 213, 214

Center for the Study of Teaching, 116

Chemical industry, 14, 86

Chile, 311

China

advanced instruments and facilities, 147

broadband access, 462

degrees in science or engineering, 16, 99, 216, 217

doctoral production, 387, 388

economic growth, 1, 14, 68, 206, 209, 222

energy consumption, 221

foreign investment in, 209, 210, 219

graduate education, 76, 78, 79, 217, 342, 379, 387, 388

highly skilled workers, 24, 32, 73, 176, 208

immigration policy, 391, 395

incentives for returning students, 82, 173, 461

innovation environment, 23, 38, 78, 79, 147, 195, 209, 210

market share of advanced technology, 14, 15, 206-207, 209, 210, 219, 220, 462-463

middle-class consumer market, 14, 206-207

Ningbo Economic & Technical Development Zone, 195

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

outsourcing by US companies to, 1, 14, 23, 73, 88

piracy of intellectual property, 456, 463

population, 206

publication volume and frequency, 77

R&D policy, 38, 72-73, 74, 195

research universities, 35, 386 n.24

spending on R&D, 74, 208

stay rates of students in US, 382

tax credits for R&D, 195

test scores, 308-311

US R&D in, 86

wage structure, 24, 29, 73, 88

working-age population, 212

Chinese Science Foundation, 72

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 58-59

Cisco, 207

Civilian Technology Corporation, 434-435

Class Action Fairness Act of 2005, 185

Climate Change Science Program, 411

Clinical medicine, 76

Clinton, Bill, 17

Cold War, 38, 66, 90, 156, 351, 424, 475, 485, 493

Collaborative research and development agreements(CRADA), 339-340, 439-440

College Board, 126, 127

College education.

See Graduate education in science and engineering;

Higher education in science and engineering;

Undergraduate education in science and mathematics

Colleges and universities.

See Academic research;

Higher education in science and engineering;

Public colleges and universities;

Research universities;

individual institutions

Commission on the Future of the

United States Aerospace

Industry, 442

Communications technologies, 39, 44, 53, 60, 63, 140, 201-203, 211

Computational science infrastructure, 433, 442-443

Computer sciences.

See Mathematics and computer sciences

Computers, 44, 47, 52, 53, 71, 86, 206

Congressional Budget Office, 12, 203

Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2005, 10 n.8, 177 n.15

Contests and prizes in science, 76

Continuing education, 9, 172-173, 467-468, 485, 498

for employees of US businesses, 172-173, 467, 485, 510

researchers and scientists, 172-173

tax credits, 9, 172-173, 457, 467-468, 485, 498, 511

Controlled technologies, 34-36

deemed export policy, 10, 35, 105, 180-181, 388, 391

Cooperative Economic Development

Agreements (CEDAs), 442

Coordinating Council for Mathematics and Science Teaching, 324

Corporate R&D.

See also US businesses

academic research collaboration, 408, 432, 433, 438-439, 440-442, 466

applied research, 32

basic research, 84, 86, 93, 157

consortia, 88, 90, 432, 433, 435-437, 466

CRADAs, 439-440

doctoral employment, 83, 84

and employment, 193

energy-related, 156, 157

foreign-owned companies in US, 86, 194

funding, 48-49, 84, 85, 86-88, 90, 137, 215, 410

globalization, 86

government–industry collaboration, 106, 116 n.10, 133, 158, 324, 340, 375, 432, 433-435, 439-440, 443

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

laboratory facilities, 92 n.50, 93

manufacturing sectors, 86

offshore, 86, 195

patent and licensing issues, 440-442

postdoctoral researchers, 144

return on investment, 48-49

startup companies, 86

survey of, 453

tax credits, 11-12, 88, 89, 184, 185, 192-197, 457, 465-466, 511

trends, 32, 93, 137, 441

venture capital investments, 86-88, 90, 185, 198, 200, 209, 220, 434, 448

Council of Economic Advisers, 12, 203

Council on Competitiveness, 108, 109, 143, 177, 187, 193, 213, 424, 450

Council on Graduate Schools, 385

CUNY Bernard Baruch College, 469

Cyprus, 132, 308-311

Czech Republic

education, 100, 132, 387

immigration policy, 178, 385, 393

D

Data collection and evaluation

graduate education, 346, 351, 354

on US research and innovation, 444, 445, 452-454

DAVINCI, 82

Deemed-export controls.

See also Export controls on technology

academic research and, 35

basic research and, 35

international students and researchers, 10, 35, 105, 180-181, 388

national security, 10, 35, 105, 180-181, 388, 391, 474, 479-481

policy, 10, 35, 105, 180-181, 388, 391, 392

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 33, 39 n.53, 150, 151-152, 154, 157, 169, 420.

See also US Department of Defense

Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS), 181, 480

Defense-related research and technologies, 66-67, 90, 105 n.68, 137, 140, 141, 143, 150, 151-152, 399, 407, 409, 484, 485-488, 490, 491

Defense Science Board, 487

Denmark, 462

Deutch, John, 140

Developing countries, 59.

See also individual countries

implementing technology in, 64

standard of living, 36

DeVry Institute of Technology, 469

Dirac, Paul, 51

Disaster mitigation, 63-64

Dow, Herbert Henry, 35

Dow Chemical, 35

Dubois, Lawrence, 151

Duderstadt, Jim, 162

Duke University, 189

E

Early-career awards and funding, 7, 136, 143-145, 146, 149, 150, 161, 326, 423, 426-431, 508-509.

See also Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers

Earthquake engineering, 63-64

eBay, 207

Economic competitiveness, international comparison, 23-25, 29, 68, 205, 206-208.

See also US competitiveness in science and technology;

US economy

Economics, 337, 338

Economy. See Global economy;

US economy

Edison, Thomas, 51

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Education. See Graduate education in science and engineering;

Higher education in science and engineering;

K–12 science and mathematics education;

Undergraduate education in science and mathematics

curriculum design, 66

employee continuing education, 172-173, 467-468, 485, 498

public concerns about, 37

Einstein, Albert, 35

El Salvador, 14

Electricity, 41, 44, 51, 60, 61, 63, 64

Electron microscope, 145

Electronics, 44, 83, 86, 198

Employment.

See also Careers in science and technology;

Human capital development

corporate R&D, 83, 84, 193

foreign direct investment in US and, 207-208

globalization, 210-212

graduate education and, 83, 84, 103, 104, 164, 166, 168, 170, 171-172, 328, 332-335, 351

information technology and, 47-48, 201

foreign-born workers, 338, 339, 381-382, 383-384, 393

new jobs, 14

offshore movement of jobs, 26-30, 88, 91, 209-212, 466-467, 468

PhDs, 83, 84, 103, 144

public concerns, 36

returns on R&D investment, 49, 50, 211-212

tax credits for corporate R&D and, 194

Energy.

See also US Department of Energy

ARPA-E research organization, 152-158

basic research, 153

conservation and efficiencies, 63, 64-65, 159, 440

corporate R&D, 156, 157

costs, 37, 154

development of alternative sources, 153, 472

economic issues, 65, 154, 155

environmental challenges, 154, 156

funding of research, 153, 154, 457

price shocks, 155

promising technologies, 158, 159

security issues, 154, 155, 156

supply, 155, 159, 221

Engineering

doctorates awarded, 80, 331

employment, 16, 164, 166, 168, 170, 329, 383

funding for research, 90, 93, 137, 138, 139, 141, 142

graduate school enrollments, 330, 336, 337, 350, 386

international graduate students, 83, 350, 379, 381, 382, 383, 386

master’s degrees, 349

minority doctoral degrees, 351

salaries of PhDs, 338

undergraduate degrees, 16, 101, 164, 166, 343

US competitiveness, 76, 80, 83

Engineering Research Centers (ERCs), 438

Environment

agricultural mechanization and, 59

air quality, 58

automotive emissions, 57-58

carbon capture and sequestration, 159

chlorofluorocarbons, 58-59

energy-related issues, 154, 156

funding for research, 93, 139, 156

negative effects of innovations, 42, 57-59

soil erosion, 59

US competitiveness in research, 76

water quality, 57

European Union (EU)

disciplinary strengths, 76

doctoral production, 79, 217, 387

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

economic growth, 213, 222

engineering students, 32

GDP per capita, 199

high-risk research, 425

highly skilled workforce, 387, 388

innovation environment, 23, 199

international students, 384, 385, 393

Justice and International Affairs council, 178, 385, 393

New and Emerging Science and Technology (NEST) program, 425

patents and patent system, 186, 190, 191

publication volume and frequency, 74, 77, 78, 215

recruiting talent, 82, 384, 388

Researcher’s Mobility Portal, 82

spending on R&D, 72, 74, 208, 409, 411, 412

working-age population, 212, 213

Export Administration Act, 10 n.9, 180, 479

Export controls on technology, 10, 34-36, 105, 180-181, 388, 391, 474, 485

F

Faraday, Michael, 51

Federal Communications Commission, 203, 433, 439

Federal Demonstration Partnership, 416, 421-422

Federal funding of R&D.

See also individual agencies

academic, 46-47, 148, 168, 364, 405, 409, 416, 421-422, 431, 439, 443

advanced research instrumentation and facilities, 7-8, 145-149, 403, 509

by agency, 402, 403, 406

alternative viewpoints, 138, 153, 170

applied research, 141, 397, 403, 408

balancing allocations, 7, 137, 141, 397, 400-408

basic research, 7, 66-67, 89, 90, 92, 93, 136-143, 146-147, 150, 151-152, 397, 398, 402, 403, 408, 416, 417, 423, 433

budgets, 398, 399, 406

competition for resources, 213, 362, 365, 375

competitive merit review, 405, 413, 417

coordination of, 7-8, 148-149, 397, 401, 414, 416, 420, 432, 437

cost estimates for recommendations, 502-503, 508-511

deemed export policy and, 105

defense-related, 93, 142, 143, 150, 151-152, 407, 409, 426

by discipline, 90-91, 93, 137, 138, 139, 141, 142, 411, 413

early-career awards, 7, 136, 143-145, 146, 149, 150, 161, 326, 423, 426-431, 508-509

electronic grant application, 417

energy-related, 8, 152-158, 159, 457, 509

evaluation of best practices and, 405, 416, 417

GDP share of investment, 17, 47, 72, 85, 91, 137, 138, 139, 398, 409-410

guidelines for investing adequately, 408-413

high-risk research, 8, 149-152, 398, 408, 416, 417, 423, 433, 436, 509

international comparisons, 16-17, 72-73, 74, 137, 205, 208, 215, 409-411, 412

K22 awards, 431

nanotechnology, 448

national/homeland security R&D, 141, 150, 399, 409, 484, 485, 486, 488

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

peer review system and, 150, 424

postdoctoral training support, 346, 354-356, 431

prizes and awards, 8, 158, 160-161, 416, 423, 509

R01, R23, R29, R37 grant applications, 429, 431

rate of return on investment, 46-48, 49-50, 399, 411

rationale for, 45-46

recommendations, 4, 7-8, 110, 136-137, 142-143, 145, 157, 258, 400-401, 408, 411-412, 414

reimbursement for administrative

costs, 148, 168, 416, 421-422

research centers, 438

restraints on, 89-92

size and duration of awards, 416, 417, 418

social rates of returns, 49-50, 161, 399

sources, 89-91

tax incentives, 11-12, 88, 89, 184, 185, 192-197, 203, 398, 408, 413, 424, 457, 465-466, 511

trends, 32-33, 85, 89-92, 93, 137, 138, 205, 399, 401, 402, 403, 404, 406, 407, 409, 434, 435

and US competitiveness, 86-92, 93, 205, 215, 409-410

venture capital, 88, 90, 433-435

Federal laboratories. See National laboratories

Fermi, Enrico, 35

Fiber optics, 45, 60

Financial Markets Intermediary Committee, 461

Finland

degrees in science or engineering, 99, 100, 165

economy, 1, 205

innovation environment, 23, 37, 198

spending for R&D, 411

tax policies, 197, 198

Ford Foundation, 120 n.19

Ford Motor Company, 14

Foreign Exchange Committee, 461

Foreign Sales Corporation, 466

Foreign students and researchers.

See International students and researchers

Forrester Research, 211

France

AP test scores, 132

degrees in science or engineering, 16, 99, 100, 165

doctoral production, 387

economic competitiveness, 206

spending on R&D, 72

tax credits for R&D, 195

US R&D in, 86, 195

Free Application for Federal Student Aid, 376

Free trade, 28, 36, 212

FreedomCAR, 440

Freeman, Richard, 217-218

Friedman, Thomas, 23-24

Frigidaire, 58

Funding of R&D.

See also Corporate R&D;

Federal funding of R&D by investment stage and funder, 425

G

Gates, Bill, 17

Gateway to Education Materials (GEM), 128

Genentech, 184

General Electric Company, 17, 32, 120 n.19

Georgia, Republic of, 64, 100

German Academic International Network (GAIN), 82

Germany

Academic Exchange Service, 82

economic competitiveness, 68, 206

education, 79, 99, 100, 132, 386, 387, 388

immigration policy, 179

per capita income, 73

R&D, 72, 86

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Gerstner, Louis V., Jr., 17

GI Bill of 1944, 31, 106, 375

Glenn, John, 108

Glenn Commission on K–12 education, 109

Global climate change program, 149

Global economy

competitiveness, 23-25, 29, 205, 206-208

emerging markets, 206-208

information technology and, 211, 221

job movement, 26-30, 210-212, 399

multinational corporations and, 209-210

technological innovation and, 41 n.2, 48 n.13

Global Insight, 211

Global positioning technology, 140

Global warming, 59

GM, 14, 219

Goals 2000: Educate America Act, 303

Goldman Sachs, 206

Google, 32, 35, 140, 184, 207

Gordon, Bart, 2

Government Accountability Office, 495

Graduate education in science and engineering

alternative viewpoint, 170

apprenticeship model, 78

attrition, 102

and career prospects, 103, 164, 168, 170, 171-172, 332-333, 351, 353

data collection and evaluation, 346, 351, 354

disincentives, 330-331

doctoral production, 16, 72, 78-81, 102, 163, 170, 205, 216, 217, 328, 329, 331, 332, 351, 387, 388

enrollments, 102, 103-104, 163, 164, 170, 217, 328, 330, 336-337, 342, 350, 385

faculty preparation and support, 256

federal funding, 71, 168-172, 346, 349-350, 510

fellowships, traineeships, and

stipends for US students, 9, 168-172, 326, 341, 346, 350, 352, 354, 485, 510

international competition for talent, 78-83, 342

international students in US, 83, 102, 104, 163, 216, 217, 328, 349, 350, 378, 379-382, 383, 385, 386

for K–12 teachers, 5, 6, 119, 124-126, 304, 350, 504-505

master’s degrees, 5, 6, 119, 124-126, 304, 329, 332, 348-350, 485, 504-505

minorities (underrepresented), 102, 328, 349, 351

quality of undergraduate education and, 371

recommended federal actions, 256, 346, 349-350, 353-354

recruitment of students, 76, 103

reforms, 171

research assistanceships, 350, 352, 353

teaching assistanceships, 350, 352

trends, 385

US competitiveness, 16, 70, 72, 76, 78-83, 102, 216-217, 342, 350, 445

women, 102, 328, 349, 351, 379

Graduate Record Examination (GRE), 103-104, 336, 337, 340

Graduate Research Fellowship program, 170, 171

Graduate Scholar Awards in Science,

Technology, Engineering, and

Mathematics (GSA-STEM), 168

Greece, 132

Greenspan, Alan, 17

Grove, Andrew, 35

H

Hart–Rudman Commission, 25, 66, 142

Hatch–Waxman law, 190

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Health care.

See also Medical technologies;

Public health cost savings from new technologies, 54, 57

graduate school enrollments, 336-337

public concerns, 37

Heart disease, 55

Heisenberg, Werner, 51

High, Howard, 17

High-energy physics, 16, 145, 153

High-risk research, 8, 149-152, 398, 408, 416, 417, 423, 433, 436, 509

High-technology bubble, 29, 164, 198, 200

Higher education in science and engineering.

See also Graduate education in science and technology;

International students and researchers;

Public colleges and universities;

Undergraduate education in science and mathematics

access, 366, 370, 376

alternative viewpoint, 164

costs per student, 359

data collection and evaluation, 346, 351, 354

enrollments by type of institution, 360, 380

faculty, 72, 256, 326, 333, 334, 336, 353

financial barriers, 31

flexible options for part-time and nonresidential students, 375

funding trends, 31-32, 357-358, 371, 386 n.23

global capacity, 385-388

income and, 367, 370, 373, 374

international comparisons, 16, 32, 72, 76, 100, 162, 199, 205, 208

postdoctoral training, 346, 354-356

public vs private, 359, 360, 363, 365, 368, 375, 380

quality, 366, 386-387

recommendations, 162, 256-257, 358

revenues by type of institution, 365

tax credits for continuing education, 9, 172-173, 457, 467-468, 485, 498, 511

tuition fees, 368, 376

US competitiveness, 16, 70, 205, 217, 386-387

and US economy, 358-359

Highly skilled workers.

See also Careers in science and technology

demand for, 29, 326

desirable skills, 30, 88-89

foreign-born in US, 16, 216, 339, 382, 383

offshore supply, 91, 210

recruitment, 175-177

retraining, 40, 212, 399

supply of, 29, 88, 213, 220, 326

tax credits for continuing education, 9, 172-173, 457, 467-468, 485, 498, 511

US share, 216

visas set aside for, 14

wages, 28-29, 88, 210, 218

Highways, 44, 60

Hispanic Americans, 95, 131, 312, 313, 315, 316, 341, 343, 344, 345, 351

Hong Kong. See China

Household appliances, 45, 60, 61

Human capital development.

See also Careers in science and technology;

Employment assistance programs for displaced workers, 457, 468, 469

continuing education for employees, 172-173, 467-468, 485, 498

critical skills areas, 495, 496

defense-related jobs, 67, 106, 168, 169, 375, 485, 493-499

entrepreneurship education, 467

H1-B training grants, 469

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

health insurance and pensions, 14, 467, 470

highly skilled immigrants, 10, 177-179, 378, 384-385, 389, 391, 393-394, 395-396, 457, 469-470

national laboratories, 493-494, 495, 497

offshore outsourcing restrictions, 27-28, 457, 470, 471

retraining of workers, 40, 212, 457, 468

wage supplements and on-the-job training, 469

Hungary, 308-311

I

IBM, 14, 17, 32, 137, 215, 219

Iceland, 100, 387

IDA Ireland, 196

Imaging technologies, 45

Immelt, Jeffrey R., 17

Immigration and Nationality Act, 36, 175

Immigration policy

automatic extension of visas, 175- 177

business travel, 394-395

change of status, 175

deemed export controls, 10, 35, 105, 180-181, 388, 391, 392, 474

family reunification program, 178, 393, 394

H1-B visas, 10, 457, 470

highly skilled workers, 14

intent-to-return-home (214b) provision, 175, 391

OECD countries, 177-179, 378, 384-385, 391, 393-396

points- (skills-) based programs, 177-179, 378, 384-385, 391, 393-394

reciprocity agreements, 175, 378, 388, 391

recommendations, 9-10, 389-393

residency after graduation, 10, 395-396, 457

and scientific workforce, 220, 469-470

self-employed workers, 394

SEVIS tracking system, 389

student visas, 9-10, 33-34, 82-83, 104, 163, 164, 173-177, 378, 385, 388-393, 395

Technology Alert List, 174, 392

travel for scientific meetings, 174

Visas Condor anti-terrorist screening, 392

Visas Mantis clearances, 174, 378, 389, 391, 392

work permits, 175-177, 389, 395, 396

working-age population and, 212

and workloads, 389-390

India

consumer market, 206

economic growth, 2, 206, 209, 222

energy consumption, 221

higher education, 16, 24, 79, 379, 387, 388

highly skilled workers, 73, 82, 176, 208, 220

incentives for returning students, 82, 173, 461

outsourcing by US companies, 2, 23, 73, 76, 88

population, 206

research universities, 35

stay rates of students in US, 382

tax incentives for R&D, 195-196

wage structure, 15, 24, 29, 73, 88

working-age population, 212

Indonesia, 311

Industry.

See also Corporate R&D;

Multinational corporations;

US businesses careers in S&T, 333, 334, 335, 336, 351, 353

Industry–University Cooperative Research Centers (I/UCRCs), 438

Infant mortality, 56

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Information technology, 44

access to, 23, 24

cyberinfrastructure, 416, 417, 442-443

data exclusivity laws, 186, 190

defense research and, 140

economic returns, 49-50, 201

and employment, 47-48, 201

funding for research, 137, 141

and globalization, 211, 221

international programs, 82

productivity gains, 47-48, 183, 201, 417, 459

and US competitiveness, 15, 201, 202, 205

Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), 211

InnoCentive, 417

Innovation. See Technological innovation

Innovation Development Education and Acceleration (IDEA) Act, 256

Innovation Extension Centers, 433

Innovation tax incentives

capital gains, 12, 200

corporate rates, 12, 197, 200, 220, 466

international comparisons, 12, 195-196, 197-200, 208

Instruments and facilities, advanced, 7-8, 141, 145-149, 169, 403, 509.

See also National laboratories

Integrated circuit, 145

Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship Program (IGERT), 170

Intel Corporation, 17, 32, 35

Intellectual property protection, 11, 188, 456, 463-464.

See also Patents

Internal Revenue Service, 433, 439

International Baccalaureate Organization, 126

International Institute for Management Development, 205

International students and researchers.

See also Immigration policy

academic research, 176

applications, admissions, and

enrollments in US, 83, 104, 216, 217, 328, 337-339, 350, 377, 378-382, 386

attraction of, 78, 164-165, 176, 216-219

“brain drain,” 383-384

competition in recruitment and retention, 377-378, 388

contributions of, 35-36, 163, 176-177, 178, 377, 382-384, 387

deemed export regulations and, 10, 35, 105, 180-181, 388

doctoral degrees, 16, 35, 78, 102, 216, 328, 337-338, 378, 379, 381, 387, 388

effect on US student enrollments, 350

employment in US, 338, 339, 381-382, 383-384

ethnic networks, 384

export controls and, 35, 105, 180-181, 388, 474

faculty, 78-79, 379, 381

financial impact, 34, 339

graduate students, 83, 102, 104, 163, 216, 217, 328, 349, 350, 378, 379-382, 383, 385, 386

national security concerns, 33-34, 82-83, 104, 173-175, 325, 338, 388, 474, 481

Nobel laureates, 383

postdoctoral scholars, 377, 379, 381, 387

reciprocity agreements, 388

recommendations, 378, 389-393

stay rate, 377, 378-379, 381-382

stipends, 356

undergraduates, 377

trends, 379, 381, 385, 386-387

International Traffic in Arms

Regulations (ITAR), 180 n.21, 479 n.9

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Internet, 39, 44, 53, 60, 71, 140, 151

access in China, 206

broadband access, 12, 15, 201-203, 461, 462

Invention Secrecy Act of 1951, 475 n.1

Iran, 99, 308-311

Iraq war, 36, 411, 485

Ireland

degrees in science or engineering, 99, 100, 199

economic growth, 1, 38-39, 199

innovation environment, 23, 37, 38, 196, 199

recruiting skilled workers, 82

tax incentives for R&D, 196, 199

US R&D in, 86

Israel, 86, 99, 100, 311

Italy

broadband and cellular penetration, 462

DAVINCI database, 82

economic competitiveness, 206

education, 99, 100, 132, 311, 387

working-age population, 212

J

James Madison University, 469

Japan

broadband service, 201

economic competitiveness, 68, 73, 183, 206, 213, 222, 444, 445, 459, 463

education, 76, 79, 99, 100, 308-311, 387, 388

innovation environment, 23, 183, 196

patents and patent system, 186

per capita income, 73

publication volume and frequency, 77

R&D, 72, 74, 86, 196, 409, 411, 412

tax policies, 196

US R&D in, 86, 196

working-age population, 212, 213

Japan Technology Evaluation Center, 445

Jordan, 311

K

K–12 science and mathematics curriculum

advanced courses, 5, 98, 102, 119, 127, 129-131, 132, 133, 135, 305, 314, 315, 316, 317, 323, 348, 506-507, 513-514

content standards, 122

inquiry-based, 6, 122-123, 126, 133

integrated, 102, 126

materials, 121

recommendations, 5, 119, 255

technology component, 129

vertically aligned, 115 n.7, 127, 128

voluntary national, 5, 119, 128-129

weaknesses, 15-16, 95, 97-98

Web-based resources, 128-129

K–12 science and mathematics education

academic standards, 5, 122, 304-305, 322-323, 347

alternative viewpoint, 134-135

and career aspirations of students, 312, 314

challenges, 305-316

core components, 134

elementary school, 121-123

enrollment in public schools, 321

expenditures per student, 134, 321

federal role in catalyzing change, 314-315, 323-324

funding issues, 98

gender differences, 131, 312, 314, 315, 316

high school, 5-6, 95, 124, 126, 129-133, 305, 317, 339

institutional structure, 305, 323

international comparisons, 15-16, 30-31, 95, 132, 303, 306-311, 322

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

low-income students, 97, 131, 132, 305, 314, 315, 316, 317, 319, 323

magnet schools, 5-6, 131-133, 326-327, 339

math requirements for college, 102

middle school, 95, 97-98, 124, 126, 129, 317

minority students, 95, 131, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 319

online learning, 127

outreach, 485, 498

public opinion of, 30

quality of schools and, 98, 134-135

quality of teaching, 95, 98, 123

size of school and, 315, 316, 323

test scores, 15, 94-95, 96, 97, 121, 122, 123, 130-131, 132, 134, 305-314

urbanicity and, 315, 316

K–12 science and mathematics teachers.

See also Teaching

Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) training, 4, 5, 119, 125, 126-127, 135, 514-515

certification, 5, 116, 125

competition for, 113 n.5

cost of implementation actions, 502-503, 504-507

education and professional

development, 115-124, 304, 318-319, 321, 346-347

federal investment, 120

financial incentives, 5, 114, 125, 126, 127, 304, 321-322, 506-507

innovative programs for, 117-119

job opportunities, 113 n.5

master teachers, 125, 126, 127, 318

master’s programs, 5, 6, 119, 124-126, 304, 350, 504-505

mentoring for, 117, 119, 123-124, 126, 318, 320

minorities, 117, 118, 304, 321

national certification, 125

NCLB requirements, 120, 121

recommendations, 119, 254

recruiting and retaining, 304, 321

salaries, 115, 124, 304, 321-322, 516

scholarships, grants, and

assistanceships, 5, 115-116, 119, 120, 125, 304, 318, 319, 352

standards for certification, 122

subject-area institutes, 118-119

summer institutes and seminars, 5, 117-119, 120-124, 125, 126, 133, 135, 304, 318, 485, 498, 504-505

turnover rates, 113 n.5, 317-318

uncertified or underqualified, 15, 95, 97, 113, 114, 121, 316-318

undergraduate programs with

certification, 5, 116, 346-347

Web resources, 128-129

workforce size, 113-114, 120, 318, 321

Keep Jobs in Colorado Act, 27

Khosla, Vinod, 35

Kilby, Jack, 51

Korea Science Foundation, 73, 76

Kroll, Cynthia, 211

Kyrgyzstan, 100

L

Labor.

See Employment;

Highly skilled workers;

Workforce

Laboratories.

See also Instruments and facilities;

National laboratories corporate facilities, 92 n.50, 93

Laboratory Science Teacher Professional Development program, 123-124

Lam, Davod, 35

Lam Research, 35

Lasers, 45, 50-51, 83, 145

Latvia, 132, 308-311

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 92

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Laying the Foundation program, 6, 127, 515

Learning theory, research on, 65-66

Leveraging Education Assistance Partnerships (LEAP) program, 366, 371, 376

Life expectancy, 51, 53, 54

Life sciences, 81, 83, 93, 137, 139, 141, 144, 330, 331, 379, 383, 386

Lithium, 54

Lithuania, 132, 310-311

Lockheed Martin, 491

Loma Prieta earthquake, 64

Loyola College of Maryland, 445

M

Macedonia, test scores, 311

Malaysia, test scores, 311

Mandel, Michael, 205

Manufacturing, energy use, 64-65

Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP), 443

Martin Marietta Corporation, 120 n.19

Mashelkar, Raghunath, 195-196

Mass spectrometry, 145

Master’s programs, 5, 6, 119, 124-126, 304, 329, 332, 348-350, 485, 504-505

Materials science and technology, 45, 153, 198, 450, 451

Mathematics and computer sciences.

See also K–12 science and mathematics education

advanced courses, 315

career opportunities, 335

doctorates awarded, 80, 83, 331

employment, 383

funding for research, 90, 93, 137, 138, 139, 141

graduate school enrollments, 330, 336, 350

international students, 350, 382, 383

minority doctoral degrees, 351

salaries of PhDs, 338

teacher qualifications, 95, 97

test scores, 94-95, 96, 307, 308, 310, 312, 313, 314

undergraduate degrees awarded, 101, 343, 469

US competitiveness, 76, 80, 94-95, 307, 308, 312

Maxwell, James, 51

McKinsey and Company, 88, 211, 460

Medical technologies

from basic research, 50, 66

demand for, 213, 221

devices, 199

economic benefits, 54, 57

pharmaceuticals, 47, 48, 54, 66, 199

from R&D in physical sciences, 32, 45, 51

Medicare and Medicaid, 219-220, 362, 365, 375, 411, 457

Merck & Company, 121

Merck Institute for Science Education (MISE), 4, 121-122

Method for this study

cautions about, 111

committee discussion and analysis, 2, 109-111

focus groups, 2, 107, 109, 111, 185, 249-263

literature review and past committee recommendations, 2, 107, 108-109

ranking of recommendations, 110-111

Mexico, 15, 99

Microsoft Corporation, 17, 219

Military.

See US Department of Defense

Millennium Education Trust Fund, 376

Mimaki, Junichiro, 196

Minorities (underrepresented) in science and technology

doctoral degrees, 351

graduate school, 102, 328, 349, 351

K–12 education, 95, 131, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 319

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

principles for promoting success of, 167

recruiting and retaining, 389

teachers, 117, 118, 304, 321

undergraduate education, 99, 117, 118, 166-167, 328, 341, 343, 345, 346, 348

Moldova, 311

Molecular biology, 50

MoneyTree Survey, 86

Monoclonal antibodies, 32

Montreal Protocol, 59

Morrill Act of 1862, 375

Multinational corporations (MNCs), 199

criteria for locating facilities, 3-4

incentives for, 208-209

international PhD hiring, 176

foreign direct investment in US, 207-208

and globalization, 209-210

overseas R&D, 215, 219, 220, 338

US-based, 194, 205, 215, 218, 219

US R&D environment, 183

N

Nanotechnology, 149, 222, 411, 448-449, 450

National Academies, 436

National Academy of Engineering (NAE), 160, 182

National Advisory Committee on Semiconductors, 442

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 7, 39 n.53, 89, 124, 143, 146, 147, 169, 402, 406, 439-440, 489, 493

National Aerospace Initiative, 442

National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 94-95, 96, 305-306, 307, 312, 314, 322, 323

National Association of Manufacturers, 142

National Bioterrorism Analysis and Countermeasures Center, 493

National Bureau of Economic Research, 436

National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES), 327

National Center for Teaching and America’s Future, 116

National Commission on Energy Policy, 158, 159

National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century, 108

National Cooperative Research Act, 435

National Coordination Office for Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NCO/NITRD), 148-149

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 322

National Critical Technologies Reports (NCTR), 447, 450

National Defense Education Act (NDEA), 67, 106, 168, 169, 375, 485, 494-499

National Economic Council, 472

National/homeland security

access to federally funded fundamental research results, 105, 474, 475-476, 480

applied research, 141, 150, 485, 486, 487, 490

basic research, 90, 137, 140, 141, 150, 483, 484, 485, 487, 488, 490

biodefense research, 488, 493

budgets for R&D, 141, 150, 399, 409, 484, 485, 486, 488

civilian spinoffs from R&D, 66, 140, 483, 490

classification of information, 475-477

controls on technology transfers, 34-36, 105, 474, 485, 490-493

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

DARPA, 33, 39 n.53, 150, 151-152, 154, 157, 169, 420

deemed exports, 10, 35, 105, 180-181, 388, 391, 474, 479-481

defense-related R&D, 66-67, 90, 105 n.68, 137, 140, 141, 143, 150, 151-152, 399, 407, 409, 484, 485-488, 490, 491

education-related funding, 143, 485, 494-499

energy issues, 154, 155, 156

environment for R&D, 483-484

facilities and equipment for research, 141

global prosperity and, 221, 222

homeland security R&D, 67, 141, 409, 485, 488-490, 495

human capital development, 67, 106, 168, 169, 375, 485, 493-499

implementing federal security policies, 475, 481-482

international students and researchers, 33-34, 82-83, 104, 173-175, 325, 338, 388, 474, 481

national laboratories, 481-482, 485, 493-494, 495, 498

national security R&D, 92, 93, 156

public concerns, 37

recommendations, 262-263, 484-485

secret research, 473-474, 475-476

sensitive but unclassified

information, 36, 105, 474, 476-479

spending trends on R&D, 407, 486, 487, 488

National Institute of Innovation, 433, 434-435

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 142, 411, 436, 484, 488

National Institutes of Health (NIH), 147

biodefense research, 488

budget, 137-138, 406, 411, 489

funding approach, 7, 33, 71, 89, 90, 143, 144, 146, 150, 426, 430, 431

peer review system, 150

Pioneer Awards, 150, 423, 424, 425

research facility, 92

roadmap, 33, 424

Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award program, 170

National Intelligence Council, 214

National laboratories

academic research collaboration, 93-94

commercialization of inventions, 432

CRADAs, 439-440

funding, 7-8, 92, 485

human capital development, 493-494, 495, 497

mission, 71, 92-94, 156, 405

security, 481-482, 485, 493-494, 495, 498

teacher training programs, 123-124

National Medal of Science, 158

National Medal of Technology, 158

National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), 149, 411, 450

National Research Council (NRC), 140, 150, 322, 434, 495

National Science and Technology Council, 147, 160, 421, 422

National Science Board (NSB), 86, 108, 109, 147, 152, 425

National Science Digital Library, 128

National Science Education Standards, 128

National Science Foundation (NSF), 26, 72, 146, 147, 148

Advanced Cyberinfrastructure Program, 443

budget for R&D, 138, 140, 141, 142, 147, 169, 403, 404, 405, 411, 488

data collection of S&E careers, 354

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

defense R&D, 484

Faculty Early Career Development Program, 145

graduate education support, 71, 168, 170, 171, 349-350, 354

innovation surveys, 445, 452-454

major research instrumentation program, 149

Math and Science Partnership, 121

Office of Integrative Activities (OIA), 149

peer review system, 150

research centers, 438, 439

Small Grants for Exploratory Research (SGER), 150

spending on R&D, 7, 33, 89, 140, 143, 144, 146, 150, 152, 364, 402, 406, 411, 439, 443

Task Force on Transformative Research, 425

undergraduate education support, 165

National Security Decision Directive 189 (NSDD-189), 105, 474, 475-476

National Space Policy (1989), 440

National Venture Capital Association (NVCA), 86-87

Netherlands, 100, 308-311, 462

Network systems, 32

Networking and Information Technology R&D, 411

Neutron spectroscopy, 145

New Jersey, 121

New Zealand

education, 100, 308-311, 387

immigration policy, 178, 384-385, 393

Nigeria, 82

9/11 attacks, 25, 33-36, 66, 82, 163, 385, 388, 474, 481, 483

No Child Left Behind Act, 95, 113, 120, 121, 255, 322

North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics (NCSSM), 132-133

Northrop Grumman, 491

Norway, education, 100, 132, 308-311, 387

Noyce, Robert, 51

Nuclear fusion, 51, 153

Nuclear technology, 45, 159

Nuclear weapons, 39, 66, 156

O

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 92

Office of Management and Budget, 148, 160, 189, 353, 401, 421, 422, 453

Office of Science and Technology Policy, 148, 158, 160, 401, 408, 445, 447, 450, 452

Offshore outsourcing

cost-effectiveness, 15, 27-28, 209

disclosure of, 457, 471

and domestic wages, 28-29

employment effects in US, 26-30, 88, 210-212

and investment climate, 37, 456

market size, 91

protectionist measures, 27-28, 457, 470, 471

public concerns about, 37

reasons for, 3-4, 26-27, 88, 209-210

service sector jobs, 28, 91, 209-210, 211, 466-467, 468

by US businesses, 1, 14, 23, 26-30, 73, 88

and US competitiveness, 1-2, 14, 88

Opportunity Indiana, 27

Organisation for Economic

Co-operation and Development, 15, 38, 45 n.6, 47, 68, 194, 199, 212-213.

See also individual countries

foreign students, 387

Frascati Manual, 453

immigration policies, 177-179, 378, 384-385, 391, 393-396

Programme for International Student Assessment, 30-31, 95

spending on R&D, 409, 411, 412

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

P

Particle detectors and accelerators, 16, 145

Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), 440

Pastore, Pasquale, 195

Patents.

See also Intellectual property protection;

US Patent and

Trademark Office

academic research and, 186, 188-190, 440-442

applications by country of applicant, 75

definition, 186 n.12

from federally funded research, 71

immigrant contributions, 382

international comparisons, 16, 72, 75, 186, 187-188, 190, 191, 192

nanotechnology, 449

trends in critical technologies, 52, 449

US share, 215

Pauli, Wolfgang, 51

Pell grants, 366, 369, 371, 373, 376

Pennsylvania, 121

Perry, William, 140

Petroleum and petrochemical technology, 45, 57-58

Pharmaceuticals, 47, 48, 54, 86, 186, 190-192, 199

Philippines, test scores, 311

Physical sciences.

See also K–12 science and mathematics education

doctorates awarded, 80, 331, 351

employment, 335, 383

funding for research, 90, 93, 137, 138, 139, 141, 142, 153

graduate school enrollments, 330, 386

instrumentation innovations, 145

international graduate students, 379, 382, 383, 386

minority doctoral degrees, 351

salaries of PhDs, 338

teacher qualifications, 95, 97

test scores, 97, 309, 311, 312, 313, 314

undergraduate degrees awarded, 101, 343

US competitiveness, 76, 80, 83

Postdoctoral scholars

corporate research, 144

federal funding, 346, 354-356, 431

foreign PhDs in US, 387, 389

research appointments, 143-144, 354-356

training, 346, 354-356, 431

visa policies, 389

President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), 26, 108, 109, 142, 208, 217

President’s Information Technology Advisory Committee, 442

Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE), 145, 146, 158

Presidential Innovation Award, 8, 158, 509

PricewaterhouseCoopers, 86

Product liability and tort reform, 16, 185, 456, 461

Productivity of science and technology research

administrative policies and procedures, 415, 416, 421-422

age of investigator and, 143-144, 149, 426-431

environment and culture of research and, 415, 416-418

growth of US economy, 1, 183-184, 205, 206, 459, 460

information technology and, 47-48, 183, 201, 417, 459

management and review of programs, 415, 416, 419-420

tax credits and, 466

Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 15, 312

Project Lead the Way (PLTW), 6, 128-129

Project 2061, 128

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Protectionist policies, 27-28.

See also Export controls on technology

Public colleges and universities.

See also Graduate education in science and engineering;

Higher education in science and engineering;

Undergraduate education in science and mathematics

community colleges, 346, 347-348, 360, 371, 374, 442

competition for state resources, 362, 365, 375

enrollments, 358, 359, 360, 361

expenditures by type, 363

faculty composition and salaries, 370-371, 375

financial pressures, 357, 359, 361-366

international students, 380

quality of education and services, 357, 358, 362, 370

recommended federal actions, 374-376

research funding, 364

research institutions, 358

revenue sources, 364, 365

state appropriations, 367, 368, 372, 375

student aid, 357-358, 366, 369, 370, 371, 372, 374-376

student-faculty ratios, 362, 363, 370

transfer and articulation agreements, 371

tuition and fees, 368, 374

Public health

competition for education resources, 362, 365, 375

disease trends, 43

globalization and, 221

practical applications of research, 51, 53-57

spending for aging population, 213, 219-220

Public–private partnerships, R&D, 106, 116 n.10, 133, 158, 324, 340, 375, 432, 433-435, 439-440, 443

R

Race/ethnicity.

See African Americans;

American Indians/Alaskan Natives;

Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders;

Hispanic Americans;

Minorities (underrepresented) in science and technology

Radio and television, 44, 60, 71

RAND Corporation, 450

Raytheon, 491

Reagan administration, 105, 475, 485

Recombinant-DNA technology, 50

Recommendations

cost tables, 501-511

economic policy incentives for innovation, 4, 110-111, 192, 260

of focus groups, 254-263

higher education, 4, 9-10, 110, 256-257

K–12 education, 4-7, 110, 112, 119, 254-255

key challenges, 4

national/homeland security, 262

research funding, 4, 7-8, 110, 136-137, 142-143, 145, 157, 258, 400-401, 408, 411-412, 414

Recycling technologies, 64

Refrigeration technologies, 44, 58-59, 60, 61, 64

Research & development.

See also Academic research;

Applied research;

Basic research;

Corporate R&D;

Federal funding of R&D;

National laboratories;

Researchers and scientists

benchmarking, 445-446, 447

centers of excellence, 433

defense- and security-related, 66-67, 90, 105 n.68, 137, 140-141, 143, 150, 151-152, 169, 399, 407, 409, 484, 485-488, 490, 491

definitions, 69, 105 n.70

digital cyberinfrastructure, 416, 417, 442-443

energy-related, 152-158, 399

environment and culture for, 415, 416-418

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

evaluation of programs, 405, 416, 417, 419-420, 436

facilities and equipment (advanced), 7-8, 141, 145-149, 169, 403, 509

GDP share, 84, 85, 91, 205, 208, 412

interdisciplinary institutes, 433

international collaboration and

conferences, 34

international comparisons, 16-17, 74, 137, 208, 412

medical innovations, 32

offshore outsourcing, 210

online posting of problems, 417

peer review system, 150, 185

postdoctoral appointments, 143-144, 354-356

pressure for short-term results, 150, 161, 215, 424

priority topics, 160, 399

productivity enhancement, 415-422

public investment in, see Federal funding of R&D

security concerns, 34-36

spending trends, 137, 208, 215, 412

Research & development tax credits, 11-12, 88, 89, 184, 185, 192-197, 203, 398, 408, 413, 424, 457, 465-466, 511.

See also Research and Experimentation Tax Credit

Research and Experimentation Tax Credit, 192

Research universities, 35, 72, 184-185, 379, 386 n.24, 438.

See also Academic research

Researchers and scientists.

See also Highly skilled workers

academic positions, 326, 341

assistanceships and traineeships, 350, 352

continuing education, 172-173

demand and supply, 29, 164, 168, 169, 170

early-career funding, 7, 136, 143-145, 146, 149, 150, 161, 326, 423, 426-431, 508-509

international comparisons, 72, 216

networking and collaboration initiatives, 82

NIH principal investigator grants, 33, 426, 431

postdoctoral training, 354-356

prizes and awards, 158, 160-161, 341, 417

productivity, 148, 415-422

publication volume and frequency, 70, 72, 205, 215

salaries, 144, 338

security clearances, 169

visa policies, 33-34, 82-83, 104, 175-177

work permits and residence status for doctoral recipients, 175-177

Ricardo, David, 28

Romania, test scores, 310-311

Romer, Paul, 29

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 112

Russia, economic change, 38

Russian Federation

economic growth, 206

education, 132, 310-311

spending on R&D, 74

Rutgers University, 469

S

Samuelson, Robert J., 73

Sarbanes–Oxley Act, 456, 461

Scanning tunneling microscope, 145

Scholarship America, 376

Schrodinger, Erwin, 51

Schumpeter, Joseph, 458

Science and Mathematics Education Task Force, 124

Science and technology.

See also Technological innovation;

US competitiveness in science and technology

disillusionment with careers in, 312, 314

globalization, 70

quantitative policy studies, 414

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Science and Technology Centers (STCs), 438

Science Teacher Institute, 6, 125-126

Securities and Exchange Commission, 433, 439

SEMATECH, 106, 436

Semiconductor manufacturing, 15

Sensitive but unclassified information, 36, 105, 474, 476-479

Service sector

international competition, 27-28, 453

offshore outsourcing of jobs, 28, 91, 209-210, 211, 466-467, 468

Silicon Valley, 176-177, 461

Singapore

Biopolis, 199

economic competitiveness, 68

education, 32, 99, 199, 308-311

innovation environment, 23, 37, 196, 198, 199

publication volume and frequency, 77

Standards, Productivity, and Innovation Board, 199

tax policies, 196

US R&D in, 86

Sloan Foundation, 458

Slovak Republic, test scores, 310-311

Slovenia, test scores, 308-311

Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, 88, 90, 433-434, 435, 437

Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) program, 433, 434

SMART program, 495, 497

Smith, Adam, 458

Social and behavioral sciences, 81, 93, 101, 137, 139, 141, 330, 331, 343, 351, 379, 383

Social security, 219-220, 457

Software

piracy losses, 456, 463, 464

services, 76, 199

Solow, Robert, 1 n.1, 45-46, 458

South Africa, 311

South Korea

advanced instruments and facilities, 147

broadband and cellular service, 201, 462

degrees in science or engineering, 16, 99, 100, 165, 198, 379

doctoral production, 387, 388

economic growth, 209, 463

foreign student enrollments in, 387

graduate education, 76, 78, 79, 217, 379, 387, 388

Incheon Free Economic Zone, 196

innovation environment, 23, 37, 73, 76, 147, 196, 197, 198

publication volume and frequency, 77

spending on R&D, 74, 411

stay rates of students in US, 382

tax environment, 196, 197

test scores, 310-311

Space Act (1958), 440

Spain, 100, 387

Speech recognition, 32

Sputnik, 16, 39, 67, 73, 106, 151, 169, 303, 456, 494

Standard-of-living improvements, 59-65, 67, 205, 209, 221-222

Stevenson–Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1986, 439

STMicroelectronics, 195

Strayer University, 469

Structural design, 63-64

Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS), 389

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), 43

Summer institutes and seminars, 5, 117-119, 120-124, 125, 126, 133, 135, 304, 318, 485, 498, 504-505

Sun Microsystems, 35

Sweden

education, 99, 100, 132, 134, 310-311, 387

spending for R&D, 411

US R&D in, 86

Switzerland, 76, 100, 132

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

T

Taiwan

degrees in science or engineering, 99, 100, 165

economic growth, 209

graduate education, 79, 217, 379, 388

highly skilled workers, 177

incentives for returning scholars, 173

innovation environment, 23

publication volume and frequency, 77

stay rates of students in US, 382

test scores, 311

Taskforce on the Future of American Innovation, 108

Tax policies

capital gains, 12, 197, 200

corporate rates, 12, 197, 200, 220, 466

cost-effectiveness, 193, 203

cost of recommendations, 511

education tax credits for employees, 9, 172-173, 457, 467-468, 485, 498, 511

employment effects, 194

equipment tax credits and

depreciation reforms, 197, 200, 203, 457, 466

international comparisons, 12, 195-196, 197-200, 208

investment of foundation assets in

start-ups, 461, 465-466

joint ventures and, 194, 466

qualifying expenditures, 197

R&D tax credits, 11-12, 88, 89, 184, 185, 192-197, 203, 398, 408, 413, 424, 457, 465-466, 511

regulations, 194

stock option expensing, 461

tuition tax credits, 341, 366

Teacher Institutes for the 21st Century, 121

Teachers. See K–12 science and mathematics teachers

Teaching

assistanceships, 350, 352

inquiry-based approach, 7, 122-123, 126

learning theory and, 66

quality of, 95, 123, 316-322

Technological innovation.

See also Research & development

diffusion rate, 71

drivers for, 39, 59, 106, 415, 455-456

by early-career researchers, 143-144, 149, 426-431

and economic growth, 14, 41 n.2, 43, 45-50, 205-206, 208-209, 414, 455, 458-459

and employment, 29, 49, 50

environment for, 2-3, 23, 37, 38, 78, 79, 147, 195, 199, 209, 210, 300, 415, 416-418

extension centers, 443

financial regulations and, 460-461

foreign emulation of US model, 37, 72, 78, 208

global enterprise, 209-210

human capital and, 457

incentives for, 11-12, 182-185, 197-201

intellectual property protection and, 11, 184, 185, 456-457, 463-465

negative effects, 42, 57, 59

Nobel Prizes, 145, 157, 427

outsourcing and, 26, 456, 470-471

patent trends for critical technologies, 52

presidential-level challenge, 472

prizes and awards, 8, 158, 160-161, 416, 423, 509

product liability and tort reform and, 185, 456, 461

productivity gains, 47-48, 50-51

and quality of life, 45

regional innovation hot spots, 458, 471

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

research instrumentation, 145-146

surveys of, 445

tax policy and, 11-12, 457, 465-466

trade policy and, 456, 462-463

20th-century engineering achievements, 39, 41-42, 44-45, 52

US environment, 24, 37, 182-185, 455-472

Technology transfer, 10 n.9, 180-181, 392, 479

Telecommunications, 202, 209, 453, 456, 462

Telecommuting, 202

Telephones, 60, 63, 71, 207

Teller, Edward, 35

Terrorism, 25, 33-36, 37, 66, 82, 163, 220, 385, 388, 474, 477, 481, 483, 485, 491

Texas, AP Incentive Program, 127, 130-131, 133

Thailand, 99

Third International Mathematics and Science Study, 306-311

Thomson Venture Economics, 86

Timken, Henry, 35

Timken Company, 35

Trade, 456

export controls on technology, 10, 34-36, 105, 180-181, 388, 391, 474, 485

free trade policy, 28, 36, 212

US deficit in high-technology

products, 14, 77, 209, 218, 220, 462-463

Trade Adjustment Assistance program, 457, 468

Transistor, 44, 83, 157

Transportation

equipment manufacturing, 86

systems, 60, 62, 63, 156

Treasury Borrowing Committee, 461

Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, 95, 130-131, 132

Tuberculosis (TB), 43

Tunisia, 311

U

Undergraduate education in science and mathematics

admission criteria, 102, 322, 347

community colleges, 346, 347-348

degrees awarded, 16, 98, 99-101, 198, 216, 217, 329, 343, 345, 346

distribution of institutions by sector, 359

enrollment trends, 163, 164, 165, 360

incentives, 340-341

innovative programs, 117-119

international comparison, 16, 98, 99, 163, 165, 198, 216, 217, 342

internships, 346, 348

introductory/transitional science courses, 102-103, 328, 347-348

learning environment, 330-331, 339

low-income students, 167-168, 305, 323, 326, 328, 376

mentoring, 327, 339-340

minorities (underrepresented), 99, 117, 118, 166-167, 328, 341, 343, 344, 345, 346, 348

quality of, 371

recommended federal actions, 256, 345-346, 348

retention/attrition rates, 16, 98-99, 117, 327, 328, 329-330, 336, 371

scholarships and loans for US citizens, 6, 9, 165-168, 169, 305, 323, 326, 340-341, 346, 348, 485, 509

student interest in careers, 98-104

for teachers, 5, 115-119, 346-347

technology component, 375

trends, 343, 345

women, 99, 166, 328, 341, 343, 344, 345, 346, 348

Undergraduate Scholar Awards in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (USA-STEM) program, 165-168

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

Union College, 120 n.19

United Kingdom (UK)

degrees in science or engineering, 99, 100, 165

disciplinary strengths, 76

doctoral production, 387, 388

economic competitiveness, 38, 68, 206

graduate education, 79, 82, 387

Highly Skilled Migrant Programme (HSMP), 82, 178, 179, 385, 391, 393, 394, 396

Science and Engineering Graduate Scheme, 396

spending on R&D, 72

tax incentives for R&D, 196

test scores, 308-311

US R&D in, 86, 196

workforce shortages, 396 n.43

working-age population, 212

University of California

California Teach program, 5, 117-118

College Prep program, 127

University of Maryland Baltimore County, 469

University of Minnesota, 120 n.19

University of Pennsylvania, 6, 125-126

University of Tennessee, 120 n.19

University of Texas at Austin, 117

US businesses.

See also Corporate R&D

adaptation to technological change, 172-173

continuing education for employees, 172-173, 467, 485, 510

doctoral employment, 83, 84

internal control reports, 461

networking by international researchers, 176-177

offshore outsourcing, 1, 14, 23, 26-30, 73, 88

overseas R&D, 86, 174, 215, 220

stock options for employees, 461

summer institutes for teachers, 120-121

tax policies, 172-173, 197, 200, 220

US Chamber of Commerce, 142

US competitiveness in science and technology

advantages of US model, 70-71

advisory committees, 432, 442-443

aging of population and, 213-214

alternative viewpoints, 24, 73

applied research, 68

baseline scenario, 214-219

basic research, 68

benchmarking of US research fields, 409, 444, 445-446, 447

comparative economics, 14-15

corporate R&D and, 83-89, 93, 194, 440

critical technologies, 52, 444, 445, 446-447

data collection on research and

innovation, 444, 445, 452-454

Dell model, 460

disciplinary strengths, 76

doctoral production, 70, 72, 78, 79-81, 83, 84, 205, 216, 217

economic performance, 14-18, 68

educational challenges, 94-104

environment for discovery and, 182-185, 455-472

federal laboratory mission and, 71, 92-94

GDP share of R&D, 84, 85, 91, 205

graduate education, 16, 70, 72, 76, 78-83, 102, 216-217, 342, 350, 445

higher education and training, 16, 70, 205, 217, 386-387

highly skilled workers, 88-89, 178, 205, 216-219

indicators, 14-17

information technology and, 15, 201, 202, 205

international students, 325, 386-387

internationally coauthored articles, 75

K–12 performance, 15-16, 30-31, 94-98, 303, 306-311, 322

location of R&D and, 194

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

market dynamics and, 185, 456, 459-461

market share for technology, 77, 209, 217-219

national security and, 104-105

offshore outsourcing of jobs and, 1-2, 14, 88

optimistic scenario, 221-222

patent applications, 75, 215

perspectives, 17

pessimistic scenario, 219-221

public investments and, 72, 89-92, 399

publication volume and frequency, 70, 72, 74, 75, 77-78, 205, 215

R&D spending, 16-17, 72-73, 74, 137, 205, 208, 215, 409-411, 412

ranking globally, 205, 206

research institutions, 70, 72

scenarios, 214-222

software services exports, 76-77

trade deficit, 14, 77, 209, 218, 220, 462-463

undergraduate education, 98-102, 342

US Department of Agriculture, 89, 146, 402, 406, 475, 489

US Department of Commerce, 34, 146, 180, 402, 445, 479, 480, 489

US Department of Defense (DOD)

applied research, 486, 487

assessment of critical technologies, 450

basic research, 7, 89, 90, 92, 137, 140, 141, 143, 150, 151, 402, 426, 431, 484, 486, 487

budget for R&D, 142, 143, 150, 406, 411, 484, 486, 488, 489

contractors, 490, 491

CRADAs, 440

Early Career Scientist and Engineer Award, 145, 146

Fast Track, 434

industry consortia, 436

National Defense Education Act, 67, 494-499

Navy Young Investigator Program, 145

Office of Defense Programs, 144

Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), 486-487

spending trends for R&D, 407, 487

workforce demand and supply, 169, 481, 494-496, 497, 499

US Department of Education Graduate Assistance in Areas of National Need program, 170

US Department of Energy (DOE)

Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), 8, 152-158, 509

basic and applied research, 142, 153, 156

budget for R&D, 411, 484, 488, 489

CRADAs, 440

early-researcher grants, 7, 143, 146

laboratories, 92, 93, 123-124, 147, 156, 481-482, 493

Office of Science, 89, 123-124, 147, 153

physical science research, 153

research centers, 8, 438

spending for R&D, 402, 406

Task Force on the Future of Science Programs, 156

teacher professional development program, 123-124

US Department of Health and Human Services, 402, 439, 440, 475, 489

US Department of Homeland Security, 25, 141, 402, 409, 481

US Department of State, 34, 180 n.21, 392

US Department of the Interior, 402

US Department of Transportation, 402, 438, 489

US Department of Veterans Affairs, 146, 402

US economy

aging of population and, 212-214, 219-220

alternative viewpoint, 184-185

capital and, 155

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

competitiveness indicators, 14

energy issues, 65, 154, 155

foreign direct investment in US, 207-208, 218, 220

GDP trends, 47, 65, 184, 205

high-technology bubble, 29, 164, 198, 200

higher education and, 358-359

immigrant contributions, 35, 176-177

inflation, 48

information technology and, 183, 205

labor issues, 28, 155, 211-212

offshoring and, 28

oil shocks, 155, 183

per capita income, 1 n.1, 73, 184, 204, 218

productivity growth, 1, 183-184, 205, 206, 459, 460

public concerns, 36-37

R&D investments and, 47-49, 218

regional economic development programs, 458, 471

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 402, 475, 489

US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 190, 191

US Geological Survey, 64

US Munitions List, 180 n.21, 479 n.9

US Patent and Trademark Office cost of reforms, 510

data exclusivity laws, 11, 186, 190-192, 456

first-inventor-to-file system, 11, 186, 187-188, 192, 455, 464

open review system, 188, 456, 465

recommended reforms, 185-186, 456-457, 464-465

research exemptions from

infringement liability, 11, 186, 188-190, 457, 464

resource allocation for, 11, 186, 187, 456, 465

US population

aging of, 212-214, 219-220

growth projections, 14, 362

US Senate Committee on Armed Services, 140

US Steel, 35

UTeach, 5, 117, 118, 119

V

Visa policies.

See Immigration policy

W

Wages

domestic, 15, 28-29

education level and, 29

foreign, 24, 29, 73, 88

highly skilled workers, 28-29, 88, 210, 218

Washington State

Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), 122

Leadership and Assistance for Science Education Reform (LASER), 122

Water

quality, 51, 57

supply and distribution, 44, 61

Weather prediction technologies, 64, 140

Westinghouse, George, 51

Wolf, Frank, 142

Womack, Farris, 162

Women in science and technology

graduate school, 102, 328, 349, 351, 379

influence on innovation, 417

recruiting and retaining, 389

undergraduate school, 99, 166, 328, 341, 343, 344, 346, 348

workforce, 343

Workforce.

See also Employment;

Highly skilled workers

aging of population and, 212-214

international comparisons, 212

shortfalls in investments in, 30-33

structural changes in, 42

World Economic Forum, 205

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
×

World Trade Organization, 206, 463

World War II, 1, 14, 32, 35, 37, 39, 66, 68, 70, 83, 106, 204, 205, 212, 378, 386, 455, 462, 485

World Wide Web, 44, 71

WTEC, Inc., 445

Wulf, Wm. A., 182, 458

X

Xerox PARC, 32, 333, 335

Y

Yahoo, 207

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11463.
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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future Get This Book
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In a world where advanced knowledge is widespread and low-cost labor is readily available, U.S. advantages in the marketplace and in science and technology have begun to erode. A comprehensive and coordinated federal effort is urgently needed to bolster U.S. competitiveness and pre-eminence in these areas. This congressionally requested report by a pre-eminent committee makes four recommendations along with 20 implementation actions that federal policy-makers should take to create high-quality jobs and focus new science and technology efforts on meeting the nation's needs, especially in the area of clean, affordable energy:

1) Increase America's talent pool by vastly improving K-12 mathematics and science education;

2) Sustain and strengthen the nation's commitment to long-term basic research;

3) Develop, recruit, and retain top students, scientists, and engineers from both the U.S. and abroad; and

4) Ensure that the United States is the premier place in the world for innovation.

Some actions will involve changing existing laws, while others will require financial support that would come from reallocating existing budgets or increasing them. Rising Above the Gathering Storm will be of great interest to federal and state government agencies, educators and schools, public decision makers, research sponsors, regulatory analysts, and scholars.

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