Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
37 Glossary Application or app: A self-contained program or piece of software designed to fulfill a particular purpose, especially one that can be downloaded to a smartphone or mobile device. Automated vehicles: These are defined by the U.S. Department of Transportation as âthose vehicles in which at least some aspect of a safety-critical control function (e.g., steering, throttle, braking) occurs without direct driver inputâ (U.S. Department of Transportation 2013). Automated vehicles may be autonomous or self-driving (i.e., use only vehicle sensors) or may be connected (i.e., use communication systems such as connected vehicle technology in which cars and roadside infrastruc- ture communicate wirelessly (Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology 2017). Commercial ground transportation: Ground transportation services that require customers to pay a fare for transportation to/from an airport directly (e.g., taxicabs or shared-ride vans) or the cost of the transportation is included in the service provided (e.g., hotel/motel or off-airport parking courtesy vans). Geofence: A virtual barrier around the entire or some portion of the airport defined by global posi- tioning system (GPS) coordinates. Large-, medium-, and small-hub airport: FAAâs National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems classifies airports by size, defining four categories of airports by their activity (i.e., the percentage of the U.S. annual passenger boardings), with a large hub serving 1.0% or more of the boardings; a medium hub serving at least 0.25% but less than 1.0%; a small hub serving at least 0.05% but less than 0.25%; and a non hub serving more than 10,000 boardings but less than 0.05%. Placard: An airport-issued sign displayed behind the passengerâs side front windshield or other location specified in airport rules, indicating the name of the TNC, vehicle license plate number, driver identification number, or other required information. Platform: Any hardware or software used to host an application or service. Shared-ride van/service: Door-to-door transportation, typically provided to and from an airport, for which the customer shares a vehicle with other parties (as opposed to family members or friends) with fares charged per passenger (as opposed to a fare for the use of an entire vehicle, as is the case with a limousine or chartered bus or van). Staging area/holding area: A parking area, provided by an airport, for use by TNC drivers (or the drivers of taxicabs, limousines, and shared-ride vans) waiting to be assigned a customer and frequently the only airport location where drivers can receive a customer request. Trade dress: With regard to TNCs, trade dress refers to the trademarked logos that must be displayed on or affixed to the front and/or rear windshield as required by local or airport regulations.