National Academies Press: OpenBook

Why Indoor Chemistry Matters (2022)

Chapter:Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Why Indoor Chemistry Matters. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26228.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Why Indoor Chemistry Matters. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26228.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Why Indoor Chemistry Matters. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26228.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Why Indoor Chemistry Matters. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26228.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Why Indoor Chemistry Matters. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26228.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Why Indoor Chemistry Matters. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26228.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Why Indoor Chemistry Matters. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26228.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Why Indoor Chemistry Matters. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26228.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Why Indoor Chemistry Matters. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26228.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Why Indoor Chemistry Matters. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26228.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Why Indoor Chemistry Matters. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26228.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Why Indoor Chemistry Matters. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26228.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Why Indoor Chemistry Matters Committee on Emerging Science on Indoor Chemistry Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies Consensus Study Report Prepublication Copy

NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This study was sponsored by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and in whole or in part with Federal funds from the National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No. HHSN263201800029I Task Order No. 75N98020F00009. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26228 This publication is available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academies Press and the graphical logos for each are all trademarks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Why Indoor Chemistry Matters. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26228.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. Rapid Expert Consultations published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are authored by subject-matter experts on narrowly focused topics that can be supported by a body of evidence. The discussions contained in rapid expert consultations are considered those of the authors and do not contain policy recommendations. Rapid expert consultations are reviewed by the institution before release. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

COMMITTEE ON EMERGING SCIENCE ON INDOOR CHEMISTRY Members DAVID C. DORMAN (Chair), North Carolina State University JONATHAN ABBATT, University of Toronto WILLIAM P. BAHNFLETH, Pennsylvania State University ELLISON CARTER, Colorado State University DELPHINE FARMER, Colorado State University GILLIAN GAWNE-MITTELSTAEDT, Partnership for Air Matters/Tribal Healthy Homes Network ALLEN H. GOLDSTEIN, University of California, Berkeley VICKI H. GRASSIAN, University of California, San Diego RIMA HABRE, University of Southern California GLENN MORRISON, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill JORDAN PECCIA, Yale University DUSTIN POPPENDIECK, National Institute of Standards and Technology KIMBERLY A. PRATHER (NAS/NAE), University of California, San Diego MANABU SHIRAIWA, University of California, Irvine HEATHER M. STAPLETON, Duke University (since February 2021) MEREDITH WILLIAMS, California Department of Toxic Substances Control Staff MEGAN E. HARRIES, Study Director MICHELLE BAILEY, Program Assistant (until July 2021) KESIAH CLEMENT, Research Associate (until July 2021) MEGHAN HARRISON, Senior Program Officer (until July 2021) ELLEN K. MANTUS, Scholar (until April 2021) EMMA SCHULMAN, Program Assistant (until March 2022) MARILEE SHELTON-DAVENPORT, Senior Program Officer (until January 2021) ABIGAIL ULMAN, Research Assistant (until November 2021) BENJAMIN ULRICH, Senior Program Assistant (until August 2021) Prepublication Copy v

BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY Members SCOTT COLLICK (Co-Chair), DuPont JENNIFER SINCLAIR CURTIS (Co-Chair), University of California, Davis GERARD BAILLELY, The Procter & Gamble Co. RUBEN G. CARBONELL (NAE), North Carolina State University JOHN FORTNER, Yale University JEN HEEMSTRA, Emory University JODIE L. LUTKENHAUS, Texas A&M University SHELLEY MINTEER, University of Utah AMY PRIETO, Colorado State University MEGAN ROBERTSON, University of Houston SALY ROMERO-TORRES, Thermo Fisher Scientific REBECCA T. RUCK, Merck Research Laboratories ANUP KUMAR SINGH, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory VIJAY SWARUP, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Corporation Staff CHARLES FERGUSON, Senior Board Director BRENNA ALBIN, Program Assistant MEGAN E. HARRIES, Program Officer AYANNA LYNCH, Program Assistant LINDA NHON, Associate Program Officer EMMA SCHULMAN, Program Assistant ABIGAIL ULMAN, Research Assistant LIANA VACCARI, Program Officer JESSICA WOLFMAN, Research Associate Prepublication Copy vi

Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Linda Birnbaum (NAM), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (retired) Robin Dodson, Silent Spring Institute Sharon Haynie, DuPont (retired) William Nazaroff, University of California Berkeley (retired) Paula Olsiewski, Johns Hopkins University Veronica Vaida (NAS), University of Colorado Boulder Charles Weschler, Rutgers University Jonathan Williams, Max Planck Institute Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Cynthia Beall (NAS), Case Western Reserve University, and Teresa Fryberger, Consultant, Chemical Sciences and Policy. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. Prepublication Copy vii

Acronyms AMS aerosol mass spectrometers ANSI American National Standards Institute CADR clean air delivery rate CARB California Air Resources Board CFD computational fluid dynamics CIMS chemical ionization mass spectrometry EC elemental carbon EDC endocrine-disrupting chemical EJ environmental justice EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ESP electrostatic precipitator HEPA high-efficiency particulate air HOM highly oxygenated organic molecule HOMEChem House Observations of Microbial and Environmental Chemistry HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning IOM Institute of Medicine MERV Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value mVOC microbial volatile organic compound NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHAPS National Human Activity Patterns Survey NRC National Research Council OA organic aerosol PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon PBDE polybrominated diphenyl ether PCB polychlorinated biphenyl PCO photocatalytic oxidation PFAS per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances PM particulate matter PM2.5 fine particulate matter PMF positive matrix factorization PPE personal protective equipment PTR-MS proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer RIOPA Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air study ROS reactive oxygen species SDO standards developing organization SDS Safety Data Sheet Prepublication Copy ix

x Acronyms SOA secondary organic aerosol SVOC semivolatile organic compound SV-TAG semivolatile thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography TAG thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography TCE trichloroethylene TEG triethylene glycol TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act UFP ultrafine particle UHI urban heat islands UV ultraviolet UVGI ultraviolet germicidal irradiation VCP volatile chemical product VOC volatile organic compound Chemical Formulas Cl2 chlorine ClNO2 nitryl chloride CO carbon monoxide CO2 carbon dioxide HO2 hydroperoxy H2O2 hydrogen peroxide HOCl hypochlorous acid HONO nitrous acid H2SO3 sulfurous acid NH3 ammonia NO nitric oxide NO2 nitrogen dioxide NOx nitrogen oxides O3 ozone OH hydroxyl SiO2 silica or silicon dioxide TiO2 titanium dioxide

Contents SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 9 Why Indoor Chemistry Matters, 9 Prior Efforts on Which This Report Builds, 11 Statement of Task, 12 Committee’s Approach, 12 Organization of This Consensus Report, 14 References, 15 2 PRIMARY SOURCES AND RESERVOIRS OF CHEMICALS INDOORS .................................... 19 Major Primary Sources, Reservoirs, and Factors That Influence Emission Rates, 19 Classes of Compounds in Indoor Environments, 26 Indoor Chemical Inventories, 35 Analytical Methods and Challenges, 37 Conclusions, 42 Research Needs, 42 References, 43 3 PARTITIONING OF CHEMICALS IN INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS ............................................ 58 Indoor Environmental Reservoirs and Surfaces, 58 Partitioning among Reservoirs and Phases Found in Indoor Environments, 60 Size and Capacity of Different Indoor Reservoirs, 61 Partitioning Thermodynamics: Effects of Temperature and Relative Humidity, 62 Partitioning Dynamics, Timescales, and Limitations on the Equilibrium Concept, 63 Current Science on Partitioning of Chemicals in Indoor Environments, 64 Models for Partitioning Behavior, 69 Conclusions, 70 Research Needs, 70 References, 71 4 CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS ................................................................................................... 79 Airborne Chemistry, 79 Surface Chemistry, 81 Modeling Indoor Chemistry, 88 Conclusions, 90 Research Needs, 91 References, 92 5 MANAGEMENT OF CHEMICALS IN INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS .......................................... 101 Types of Control, 101 Management through Capture and Removal, 103 Management through Chemical Transformations, 110 Other Considerations for Management of Chemicals, 114 Conclusions, 115 Research Needs, 116 References, 116 Prepublication Copy xi

xii Contents 6 INDOOR CHEMISTRY AND EXPOSURE ....................................................................................... 127 Exposure Routes, 127 Exposure Definitions, Settings, and Timing, 128 Environmental Health Disparities and Exposure Variables, 132 The Intersection of Indoor Chemistry and Exposure Modeling, 136 Measurement Science for Exposure, 140 Conclusions, 142 Research Needs, 143 References, 144 7 A PATH FORWARD FOR INDOOR CHEMISTRY ........................................................................ 154 Chemical Complexity in the Indoor Environment, 154 Indoor Chemistry in a Changing World, 156 Future Investments in Research, 158 Communicating Science and Risks: Indoor Chemistry and Environmental Quality, 160 Closing Comments, 163 References, 164 APPENDIXES A GLOSSARY ........................................................................................................................................... 165 B COMMITTEE BIOSKETCHES .......................................................................................................... 167 C OPEN SESSION AGENDAS ................................................................................................................ 171 D SUMMARY TABLE OF AVAILABLE EXPOSURE MODELS ..................................................... 175

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People spend the vast majority of their time inside their homes and other indoor environments where they are exposed to a wide range of chemicals from building materials, furnishings, occupants, cooking, consumer products, and other sources. Despite research to date, very little is known about how exposures to indoor chemicals across complex chemical phases and pathways affect human health. The COVID-19 pandemic has only increased public awareness of indoor environments and shed light on the many outstanding questions about how best to manage chemicals indoors. This report identifies gaps in current research and understanding of indoor chemistry and new approaches that can be applied to measure, manage, and limit chemical exposures. Why Indoor Chemistry Matters calls for further research about the chemical transformations that can occur indoors, pathways and timing of indoor chemical exposure, and the cumulative and long-term impacts of exposure on human health. Research priorities should consider factors that contribute to measurable environmental health disparities that affect, vulnerable populations, such as the age, location, and condition of buildings that can alter exposures to indoor chemicals.

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