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Consensus Study Report


Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people. This new report, the sixth in a series of reports presenting dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients by Americans and Canadians, establishes nutrient recommendations on water, potassium, and salt for health maintenance and the reduction of chronic disease risk. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate discusses in detail the role of water, potassium, salt, chloride, and sulfate in human physiology and health. The major findings in this book include the establishment of Adequate Intakes for total water (drinking water, beverages, and food), potassium, sodium, and chloride and the establishment of Tolerable Upper Intake levels for sodium and chloride. The book makes research recommendations for information needed to advance the understanding of human requirements for water and electrolytes, as well as adverse effects associated with the intake of excessive amounts of water, sodium, chloride, potassium, and sulfate. This book will be an invaluable reference for nutritionists, nutrition researchers, and food manufacturers.


Suggested Citation

Institute of Medicine. 2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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Publication Info

638 pages |  6 x 9 | 

  • Paperback:  978-0-309-09169-5
  • Hardcover:  978-0-309-09158-9
  • Ebook:  978-0-309-13335-7
Chapters skim
Front Matter i-xx
Summary 1-20
1 Introduction to Dietary Reference Intakes 21-36
2 Overview and Methods 37-49
3 A Model for the Development of Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 50-72
4 Water 73-185
5 Potassium 186-268
6 Sodium and Chloride 269-423
7 Sulfate 424-448
8 Applications of Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water 449-464
9 A Research Agenda 465-470
Appendix A: Glossary and Acronyms 471-476
Appendix B: Origin and Framework of the Development of Dietary Reference Intakes 477-484
Appendix C: Predictions of Daily Water and Sodium Requirements 485-493
Appendix D: U.S. Dietary Intake Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994 494-517
Appendix E: U.S. Dietary Intake Data for Water and Weaning Foods from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, 1994–1996, 1998 518-526
Appendix F: Canadian Dietary Intake Data for Adults from Ten Provinces, 1990–1997 527-533
Appendix G: U.S. Water Intake and Serum Osmolality Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994 534-536
Appendix H: U.S. Total Water Intake Data by Frequency of Leisure Time Activity from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994 537-545
Appendix I: Dose-Response Effects of Sodium Intake on Blood Pressure 546-557
Appendix J: Serum Electrolyte Concentrations NHANES III, 1988-94 558-563
Appendix K: Options for Dealing with Uncertainties 564-568
Appendix L: Acknowledgments 569-571
Appendix M: Biographical Sketches of Panel Members 572-576
Index 577-618

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