This book describes the development of ocean sciences over the past 50 years, highlighting the contributions of the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the field's progress. Many of the individuals who participated in the exciting discoveries in biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, and marine geology and geophysics describe in the book how the discoveries were made possible by combinations of insightful individuals, new technology, and in some cases, serendipity.
In addition to describing the advance of ocean science, the book examines the institutional structures and technology that made the advances possible and presents visions of the field's future. This book is the first-ever documentation of the history of NSF's Division of Ocean Sciences, how the structure of the division evolved to its present form, and the individuals who have been responsible for ocean sciences at NSF as "rotators" and career staff over the past 50 years.
National Research Council. 2000. 50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950-2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/9702.
|Keynote Lecture The Emergence of the National Science Foundation as a Supporter of Ocean Sciences in the United States||1-8|
|Landmark Achievements of Ocean Sciences Achievements in Biological Oceanography||9-21|
|Achievements in Chemical Oceanography||22-43|
|Achievements in Physical Oceanography||44-50|
|Achievements in Marine Geology and Geophysics||51-64|
|Deep Submergence: The Beginnings of Alvin as a Tool of Basic Research||65-66|
|The History of Woods Hole's Deep Submergence Program||67-84|
|Creating Institutions to Make Scientific Discoveries Possible A Chronology of the Early Development of Ocean Sciences at NSF||85-92|
|Ocean Sciences at the National Sciences Foundation: Early Revolution||93-95|
|Ocean Sciences at the National Sciences Foundation: An Administrative History||96-106|
|Two Years of Turbulence Leading to a Quarter Century of Cooperation: The Birth of UNOLS||107-116|
|Scientific Ocean Drilling, from AMSOC to COMPOST||117-127|
|Technology Development for Ocean Sciences at NSF||128-134|
|Large and Small Science Programs: A Delicate Balance The Great Importance of “Small” Science Programs||135-140|
|The Role of NSF in “Big” Ocean Science: 1950 to 1980||141-148|
|Major Physical Oceanography Programs at NSF: IDOE Through Global Change||149-151|
|Major International Programs in Ocean Sciences: Ocean Chemistry||152-162|
|Ocean Sciences Today and Tomorrow The Future of Physical Oceanography||163-168|
|The Future of Ocean Chemistry in the United States||169-171|
|The Future of Marine Geology and Geophysics: A Summary||172-183|
|Out Far and In Deep: Shifting Perspectives in Ocean Ecology||184-191|
|Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach||192-194|
|Education in Oceanography: History, Purpose, and Prognosis||195-200|
|Evolving Institutional Arrangements for U.S. Ocean Sciences||201-206|
|NSF's Commitment to the Deep||207-209|
|Fifty Years of Ocean Discovery||210-211|
|Argo to ARGO||212-213|
|The Importance of Ocean Sciences to Society||214-216|
|Appendix A: Symposium Program||217-222|
|Appendix B: Symposium Participants||223-232|
|Appendix C: Poster Session||233-234|
|Appendix D: NSF Division of Ocean Sciences: Senior Science Staff, Rotators, IPAs, and Visiting Sciences||235-246|
|Appendix E: Support of Ocean Sciences at NSF from 1966 to 1999||247-249|
|Appendix F: Organizational Charts||250-257|
|Appendix G: NRC Project Oversight||258-258|
|Appendix H: Acronyms||259-262|
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