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Suggested Citation:"Summary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Summary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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1 Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations— Reference Guide S U M M A R Y ACRP Project 01-35, “TNCs: Impacts to Airport Revenue and Operations,” examined transportation network companies (TNCs) from multiple perspectives: regulatory, finan- cial, operational, and managerial. The project included a survey of large-, medium-, and small-hub airports, interviews with landside managers, the development of a disaggregate model, and a comprehensive review of the revenue and business impacts of TNCs. ACRP 01-35 builds on the TRB’s continuing efforts to assess TNC impacts on urban mobility, and it acknowledges the information provided in technical and policy presentations at recent TRB annual meetings, as well as the findings presented in a recent ACRP synthesis report.1 Industry organizations (AAAE and ACI-NA) were also a valuable resource, especially in support of the airport survey. The research was guided by a panel of subject matter experts who worked to review interim products and ensure the quality and relevance of the final products. The principal product of the research is this Reference Guide, which is designed to help airport operators develop and implement practical approaches to managing TNCs within the context of commercial ground transportation policies and programs. The Guide pres- ents best practices that have proven to be effective tools that airport operators can use to manage TNC operations and develop sustainable revenue models. The Guide will help airport operators make judicious decisions about managing TNCs consistent with the objectives of their overall ground access programs. In particular, the Guide will help air- port operators evaluate the trade-offs among customer service, revenue generation, current operations, and long-term facility planning. The Reference Guide is supplemented by two electronic products: the Airport Mode Choice and Ground Transportation Revenue Simulator Template and a statistical database. These products can be accessed on the TRB website by searching on “ACRP Research Report 215”. An important theme in the Guide is that airport operators need tools not only to manage current operations but also to seek insight into the consequences of changes to their opera- tions, regulations, and revenue models. The result of this research comprises specific tools, guidelines, and policy levers that airport operators can use to support decision-making in a rapidly evolving environment. 1 Mandle, P., and S. Box. ACRP Synthesis 84: Transportation Network Companies: Challenges and Opportunities for Airport Operators, Transportation Research Board, 2017.

2 Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide The four audiences for the Reference Guide are • Executive-level managers, planners, and legal staff charged with developing ground access policy and managing their airport’s TNC regulatory framework. • Landside supervisors with day-to-day responsibility for ensuring the safe and efficient operation of ground transportation operations and facilities, and transportation engi- neers and planners responsible for analyzing curb operations and developing capital improvements. • Finance and business development analysts who track the relative contributions and trends of commercial ground transportation revenue and the impacts on airport finances and capital programs. • Information technology staff responsible for implementing programs that track historical commercial ground transportation data and activities and identify trends. The working definition of a TNC used throughout the Reference Guide is the following: A ground transportation corporation, partnership, sole proprietorship, or other entity authorized by a statutory regulatory body, under which an operator provides prearranged, for-hire services for com- pensation, through mobile device application technology that connects drivers of personal vehicles to passengers for transportation to and from an airport. Several terms are currently used to describe technology-enabled TNC services, among them ridesharing, ride-hailing, ridesourcing, and app rides. To distinguish the on-demand TNC services from traditional ridesharing operations (i.e., carpooling and vanpooling), this Reference Guide considers the term TNC to be synonymous with “ride-hailing.”2 The Reference Guide has six sections: • Section 1 (Introduction) presents the problem statement and the research approach. • Section 2 presents an overview of TNCs—their emergence, development, and business model. • Sections 3 and 4 present a summary of impacts on operations and revenues. • Section 5 (Best Practices) is organized according to four categories: policy development, regulations, and permits; landside operations; business practices, revenue analysis, and capital programming; and technology. Each category is structured to present a situation assessment, examples of best practices, and additional resources. • Section 6 presents ideas for implementing the research findings, updating the research, and identifying future research topics. This Reference Guide complements the following ACRP research related to ground access planning, analysis, and management: • ACRP Report 20: Strategic Planning in the Airport Industry • ACRP Report 40: Airport Curbside and Terminal Area Roadway Operations • ACRP Report 49: Collaborative Airport Capital Planning Handbook • ACRP Report 146: Commercial Ground Transportation at Airports: Best Practices • ACRP Project 03-47, “Rethinking Airport Parking Facilities to Protect and Enhance Non-Aeronautical Revenue” (in progress) • ACRP Synthesis 84: Transportation Network Companies: Challenges and Opportunities for Airport Operators 2 “Ridesourcing companies [typically referred to as transportation network companies (TNCs) and ride-hailing] provide prearranged and on-demand transportation services for compensation, which connect drivers of personal vehicles with passengers. Smartphone mobile applications facilitate booking, ratings (for both drivers and passengers), and electronic payment” (Shaheen, S., A. Cohen, and I. Zohdy, Shared Mobility: Current Practices and Guiding Principles, U.S. Department of Transportation, April 2016, p. 104).

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Transportation network companies (TNCs) have become an increasingly popular form of transportation since initially permitted at some airports in 2014. While many airports receive significant revenue from TNCs, others have recorded declines in parking revenue and rental car transactions that are perceived to be a direct result of TNC operations.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 215: Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide identifies strategies and practical tools for adapting airport landside access programs to reflect the evolution of ground transportation modes such as TNCs and autonomous vehicles.

A searchable statistical database of the airport survey and the Airport Mode Choice and Ground Simulator Template (an Excel-based simulation template), which shows how the mode-choice model is applied to estimate revenue impact, supplement the report.

In July 2020, an errata for this publication was issued.

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