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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Annotated Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

A-1 1. AAAE. 2018. Establishing a Common Standard for TNC Wayfinding at Airports. TNC wayfinding is not standardized at airports, often causing confusion among TNC drivers and passengers, as well as increasing curbside congestion. To establish a common practice and standard for TNC wayfinding, a working group of U.S. airport leaders was formed. After an extensive 6-month process involving many stakeholders, a recommended term and icon in airport signage was selected. Best practices for using the standard is provided. 2. ACI-NA. 2014. Recommendations of ACI-NA Multi-Committee Task Force on Ride-Booking Operations at Airports. Examples of operational challenges for ride-booking services at airports are provided; these include distracted drivers, vehicle inspection and safety standards, congestion of road- ways and facilities, nearby communities concerned about increased traffic, enforcement of vehicle trade dress, difficulty with collection of permit and other fees, and policies and regulations developed before airport TNC operations were permitted. Considerations for airport regulation of ridesharing services were provided; these include questions of regula- tory authority, parties to regulate, and means of regulation. Existing ground transportation policies and regulations were suggested to be reviewed. Charging for ridesharing services, ground transportation fee structure, enforcement, revenue definition, and vehicle tracking were discussed. Landside and facility considerations included passenger pick-up and drop- off location, passenger and vehicle waiting area, signage, and vehicle identification by the airport and ridesharing passengers. 3. Alemi, F., Circella, G., Mokhtarian, P., & Handy, S. 2019. What Drives the Use of Ridehailing in California? Ordered Probit Models of the Usage Frequency of Uber and Lyft. Transportation Research Part C, 102, 233–248. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2018.12.016. A statistical model, using online survey data of millennials and the preceding generation X, was developed to understand factors affecting the frequency of TNC service use. Results indicate that sociodemographic variables predict service adoption but do not explain the change in frequency. Findings show that travelers using TNCs more include those with a higher willingness to pay to reduce travel time, those who use smartphone apps to manage their travels, and leisure travelers who travel long-distances via flying. Individuals owning a private vehicle and having concerns about the security/safety of TNCs use the service less frequently. 4. American Planning Association. 2018. Knowledgebase Collection: Autonomous Vehicles. https://www. planning.org/knowledgebase/autonomousvehicles/. Resources on autonomous and connected vehicles are provided, including videos, briefing papers, functional plans, staff reports, guides, and background repositories. These resources A P P E N D I X A Annotated Bibliography

A-2 Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide provide background on autonomous vehicles, policy recommendations for communities, and examples of impacts to equity and access, the transportation network, land use, and the built environment. 5. Arbib, J., & Seba, T. 2017. Rethinking Transportation 2020–2030. RethinkX Sector Distribution Report. This research discusses how autonomous and connected vehicles will cause a major disruption to the transportation and oil markets, with the disruption driven by economic trends. Private vehicle ownership will have increasing costs, decreasing convenience, and diminishing quality of service. The authors estimate that by 2030, 95 percent of U.S. pas- senger miles will be with on-demand autonomous electric vehicle fleets in a business model deemed transport as a service. The behavioral issues that are barriers to AV adoption (e.g., preference for driving and fear of new technology) will be outweighed by the significant transportation cost savings. 6. Beer, R., Brakewood, C., Rahman, S., & Viscardi, J. 2017. Qualitative Analysis of Ride-Hailing Regula- tions in Major American Cities. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2650, Vol. 1, 84–91. doi:10.3141/2650-10. A qualitative analysis of ridesharing (TNC) regulations was conducted, specifically focused on driver and company-related regulations. Driver-related regulations included background checks, driver’s licenses, vehicle registration, and external vehicle display. Company-related regulations included sharing data, providing a list of drivers, and adher- ing to numerical limits on fleet size. Findings show that driver-related regulations vary significantly by city. Two key findings include that fingerprint background checks lessen the likelihood of TNC operations and that Atlanta is the only city with numerical limits on TNCs (unclear if practiced; the aviation general manager may set limits at Hartsfield- Jackson Atlanta International Airport). 7. Bischak, C. A. 2019. The Impact of Transportation Network Companies on Urban Transportation Systems. University of Texas at Austin. National household travel survey data were analyzed to investigate how travelers perceive and use TNCs. Study findings indicate that TNCs are supplementing urban transportation services, not transforming them. The study found most users only use TNCs for a few times a month or less, primarily on non-work days (e.g., weekends) and in the evenings. Users perceived TNCs as more convenient compared with public transportation or taxis, and convenience is a main factor for choosing a TNC service. 8. Bits and Atoms. March 2017. Taming the Autonomous Vehicle: A Primer for Cities. Long Island City, NY: Bloomberg Philanthropies and the Aspen Institute Center for Urban Innovation. This report assessed AV technology, with the benefits, risks, unintended consequences, regulatory challenges, and impact to cities discussed. Cities across the world are preparing for AVs, and the report provides examples of city initiatives. While past thinking has been on autonomous high-speed highways, the future will focus on city driving—the largest market and most technically challenging. Different urban AVs may include private passenger cars, autobots/taxibots, driverless shuttles, and software trains (tractor-trailers). Many groups of people will see increased mobility from AV use, particularly nondrivers, senior citizens, and the disabled. The timeline for AV adoption is provided, with tipping points of improved battery and sensor technology driving lower costs and widespread use. 9. Bosch, P., Becker, F., Becker, H., & Axhausen, K. 2017. Cost-Based Analysis of Autonomous Mobility Services. Transport Policy, 1–16. Cost analysis for AVs is discussed, with focus on operational models and future modes’ cost structures. Use cases for future travel modes were analyzed, with the mode choice

Annotated Bibliography A-3 determined not only by cost, but also by travel time and comfort, perception of transfers, and waiting times. Results suggested that shared AV fleets will compete with other modes and private car ownership will remain because out-of-pocket vehicle costs are low. 10. Boston Consulting Group. December 2017. The Reimagined Car: Shared, Autonomous, and Electric. Researchers propose that electric shared autonomous vehicles (SAVs) will fundamentally change mobility, safety, and reliability while lowering transportation costs across the world, as much as 50 percent in large cities such as Chicago and New York City. The high cost of private vehicle ownership, from insurance, fuel, maintenance, and parking, for example, and the negative impacts of traffic congestion, air pollution, and automobile fatalities can be reduced from SAVs. Stakeholders, market opportunity, underlying technologies (ridesharing, autonomy, and electric powertrain), and implementation are discussed. Automakers’ and suppliers’ traditional business models will adapt to electric SAVs. 11. Canalys. 2018. The Road to Autonomous Vehicles. Palo Alto, CA. The potential for AVs to improve mobility and address problems with traditional driving (e.g., severe traffic congestion, vehicular crashes, and time spent parking) are discussed. The progression of vehicle autonomy toward full automation, the critical role of legislation and the regulatory process, and business strategies of companies involved with AV technologies are discussed. 12. Centre for Aviation. 2016. Airports and Uber 2016: Transportation Network Companies Now More Welcome at Airports. Airports were surveyed about their relations, attitudes, and operations regarding TNC services, with the primary TNC company being Uber. A comprehensive summary and key findings on TNC operations at airports are provided. Millennials continue to be the leading group using TNCs, but frequent business passengers are increasingly using TNCs because of the app’s accessibility. The future direction, emerging negative impacts to car parking revenues, and other implications are discussed. 13. Coleman, M. 2018. Portland International Airport’s TNC Experience and Plans for the Future. Presented at the 97th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. The rapid growth of TNCs (1.7 percent to 12.4 percent mode share from 2015 to 2017) at PDX is discussed, along with its impact on ground transportation operations. Public pick-up and drop-off curbside traffic is growing but more slowly, with rental car traffic steady. Taxis, fixed-schedule shuttles, and light rail have declined in share at PDX. Challenges include passenger and driver wayfinding, wait time, pick-up congestion, and pedestrian crossings. 14. Collier, R., Dubal, V., & Carter, C. March 2018. Disrupting Regulation, Regulating Disruption: The Politics of Uber in the United States. San Francisco: University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Uber’s dramatic and significant growth in the ride-hailing market has disrupted a highly regulated transportation sector. Previously, taxis benefited from anti-competitive barriers to entry and price control, with safety and labor provisions to protect the public. Key questions are raised for the current and future regulation of Uber and other TNC services and their relation with taxi regulations. 15. Conway, M. W., Salon, D., & King, D. A. 2018. Trends in Taxi Use and the Advent of Ridehailing, 1995–2017: Evidence from the U.S. National Household Travel Survey. Urban Science, 2(3), 79. doi:10.3390/urbansci2030079. Data from the National Household Travel Survey were used to investigate the expan- sion of ride-hailing (TNCs) services in the United States. The growth has been greater in

A-4 Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide mid-sized and large cities, and among younger users and wealthier households. Equity implications are suggested for future research. Findings indicated that residents of dense urban areas have higher TNC usage, emphasizing the need for cities to plan for the growth of TNC services. 16. Davol, A. 2016. A New Model for Airport Ground Transportation: Transportation Network Companies at San Francisco International Airport. Journal of Airport Management, 147–153. As one of the first airports in the United States to permit TNCs, SFO provides insight on its TNC policies, permitting, and recommendations for other airports. One opera- tional issue is administrative fines and enforcement. At the onset of TNCs, the most com- mon fine was for trade dress and airport placard. As drivers have gained familiarity with airport regulations and operations, the most common fine has become unauthorized parking or staging. A real-time tracking system has been developed to support auditing and enforcement. Recommendations include engaging in the development of regula- tions, learning about TNC operations and technology, and learning from the passenger’s perspective. 17. DiPrima, C. 2018. Integrating TNCs into the Curbside Traffic Model at San Francisco Inter- national Airport. Presented at the 97th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. SFO’s curbside operations are being impacted by continued TNC growth, around 25,000 daily trips in late 2017 with a 19 percent annual growth rate. Areas of curbside con- gestion are being identified using heat mapping. Results show that pick-up locations are more evenly distributed, while drop-off locations have “hot spots,” confirmed by the airport duty manager and police staff. 18. The Economist. March 2018. Special Report. Autonomous Vehicles: Reinventing Wheels. AVs are an emerging technology with far-reaching social and economic implications, with public concern over potential risks such as ethical dilemmas and cyberattacks. AVs could greatly reduce deaths and injuries from automobile accidents and transform urban areas, affecting congestion, public transportation, urban sprawl, parking, and private vehicle demand. For example, freeways, streets, and parking facilities associated with automobile-dependent cities can be converted to sustainable features such as gardens and bicycle paths. Public transportation could become more viable in less dense areas if AVs were used for last-mile coverage to and from transit stations. “Robotaxi” service adoption could be increased if governments were to restrict or ban cars in some areas, which may have political challenges. 19. Eibert, S., Girardeau, I., & Phillips, J. 2019. Addressing Airport Congestion as Traffic Takes Off in the Age of Uber and Lyft. Rutgers University. ACRP University Design Competition. This design competition produced potential solutions to address congestion caused by TNC growth at airports. The research team conducted a literature review, interviewed air- port landside management staff, and conducted a safety risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis of the proposed recommendations. The recommendations (intended for large-hub airports) include using rematch, raising per trip fees, increasing enforcement to prevent vehicle idling, and combining passenger drop-off, pick-up, and staging into a single termi- nal, adjacent to the airport, which is not curbside. 20 Erhardt, G., Roy, S., Cooper, D., Sana, B., Chen, M., & Castiglione, J. 2019. Do Transportation Network Companies Decrease or Increase Congestion? Science Advances, 5(5). doi:10.1126/sciadv.aau2670. The growth of TNCs has implications for congestion, with research inconsistent because of limited data. Researchers found that TNCs are the largest factor for the increasing

Annotated Bibliography A-5 congestion and lower travel time reliability on San Francisco roads. Traffic flow is disrupted by passenger pick-up and drop-off on major arterials. 21. FHWA. February 2018. Integrating Shared Mobility into Multimodal Transportation Planning: Improving Regional Performance to Meet Public Goals. U.S. Department of Transportation. As shared mobility services, such as ridesharing (e.g., TNCs) and bikesharing, increase in popularity, transportation planning practices must adapt. Issues, challenges, and opportunities for shared mobility are reviewed in 13 metropolitan areas. Examples of partnerships to improve regional multimodality include transit agencies and metropolitan planning organizations undertaking pilot project partnerships with TNCs. The Metropoli- tan Transportation Commission in the San Francisco Bay Area is focusing on first-mile/ last-mile coverage to integrate transit with TNC services. 22. Goodin, G., & Moran, M. August 2016. Transportation Network Companies Testimony to the Texas House Committee on Transportation. Austin, TX. Policymakers are faced with many issues and considerations for TNC regulation. This testimony presents background information and reviews policy issues with leg- islation. Driver requirements, vehicle standards, data collection, operational features, and insurance requirements are commonly regulated at the state level, but vary state by state. Specific considerations include addressing equity concerns, evaluating the role of technology, ensuring safety and security, integrating with mobility plans and programs, and managing impact goals such as traffic congestion reduction. The regulation of TNCs and taxis are compared, with taxis historically regulated at the local level com- pared with TNCs at the state level. Taxis and TNCs operate under different require- ments with respect to insurance requirements, the permitting process, and fleet size, for example. 23. Graehler, M., Mucci, R. A., & Erhardt, G. D. 2019. Understanding the Recent Transit Ridership Decline in Major U.S. Cities: Service Cuts or Emerging Modes? Presented at the 98th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Public transit ridership in major U.S. cities has been flat or declining over the past few years. This research conducts a longitudinal analysis of the determinants of public transit ridership in major North American cities for 2002–2018, segmenting the analysis by mode to capture the different effects on rail versus bus. The research finds that standard factors, such as changes in service levels, gas prices, and automobile ownership, while important, are insufficient to explain the recent ridership declines. The research found that the introduction of bikeshare is associated with increased light and heavy rail ridership but a 1.8 percent decrease in bus ridership. The results also suggest that for each year after TNCs enter a market, heavy rail ridership can be expected to decrease by 1.3 percent and bus ridership can be expected to decrease by 1.7 percent. This TNC effect builds with each passing year and may be an important driver of recent ridership declines. 24. Greenblatt, J., & Shaheen, S. 2015. Automated Vehicles, On-Demand Mobility, and Environmental Impacts. Curr Sustainable Renewable Energy Rep, 2(3), 74–81. doi:10.1007/s40518-015-0038-5. The timeline for automated vehicles was discussed, with emergence in the 2020s, accep- tance in the 2030s, and market domination in the 2050s. Combining on-demand mobil- ity (e.g., ridesharing) with automated vehicles may lead to further benefits and increased adoption of both technologies. Benefits include an expected reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, increased driver productivity, and improved user accessibility. Future trends will change significantly compared with current trends, specifically vehicle size, ownership, and occupancy, as well as commuting patterns and land use.

A-6 Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide 25. Henao, A., Sperling, J., Garikapati, V., Hou, Y., & Young, S. 2018. Airport Analyses Informing New Mobility Shifts: Opportunities to Adapt Energy-Efficient Mobility Services and Infrastructure: Preprint. Intelligent Transportation Society of America, 2018 Annual Meeting. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy18osti/71036.pdf. Using case studies for four major cities in the U.S. DOT Smart City Challenge (San Francisco, Portland, Kansas City, and Denver), TNC revenue and mode-share trends are assessed. Parking revenues per passenger, parking growth rates, and rental car revenues are analyzed amid TNC operations. The trend in airport parking does not seem to reflect growth in airport passengers, indicating that accommodating increased air travel will depend on curb demand instead of parking demand. Future study is suggested for additional airports, gathering public transit data from regional transit agencies and modeling travel demand and energy impacts. 26. Hermawan, K., & Regan, A. 2017. On-Demand, App-Based Ride Services: A Study of Emerging Ground Transportation Modes Serving Los Angeles International Airport (LAX). Journal of the Transportation Research Forum, 111–128. The impact of travel time and cost on choosing Uber and Lyft is compared with other ground transportation modes serving LAX. A key finding is TNC demand is heavily influ- enced by fares; TNC demand would fall by 21 percent for business passengers and 23 percent for leisure passengers if TNC fares were raised to match current taxi costs. 27. Hermawan, K., & Regan, A. 2018. Impacts on Vehicle Occupancy and Airport Curb Congestion of Transportation Network Companies at Airports. Presented at the 97th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. The rising prevalence of TNCs at airports has raised questions of congestion impacts and their effect on shared modes such as vans, shuttles, public buses, and light rail. Find- ings indicate that TNCs are replacing shared modes more than supporting them. While some passengers use UberPool or Lyft Line, supporting higher-occupancy trips, TNC trips are primarily low occupancy. This low occupancy may result in higher congestion as more private vehicles access the airport’s curbs and garages. For example, at San Francisco Inter- national Airport, TNCs decreased net shared trips by 215,000 in 2015, which is projected to become 840,000 in 2020. 28. ICF International; Eno Center for Transportation. February 2016. Emerging Technology Trends in Transportation. An overview of developing transportation technologies and trends, along with their policy implications, was provided, with focus on AVs. The different driving and automation capa- bilities in vehicles, from Level 0 (no automation) to Level 4 (full self-driving automation) are discussed. Emerging issues include the impact to travel demand, vehicle ownership, urban spaces, highway design, existing infrastructure, insurance, liability, and cybersecurity. Hacking and cybercrime pose threats, and a fully connected transportation system must be protected. 29. InterVISTAS. April 2016. Transportation Network Companies and Car-Sharing at Airports. ACI-NA/ AAAE Airport Board & Commissioners Conference. Indianapolis, IN. This conference presentation focuses on TNCs and carsharing at airports. The timeline for TNC regulations, reasons for passengers choosing TNCs, typical airport commercial ground transportation requirements, and challenges in TNC regulation are discussed. Reasons for passengers choosing TNC services include reliability, cost, convenience, and accountability. Challenges in regulation include imposing and collecting fees, usage of curbside and staging areas, signage and wayfinding, auditing of self-reported trips, and competing services. Carsharing is increasing in popularity, with company-owned fleets

Annotated Bibliography A-7 (e.g., Car2Go and Zipcar) and peer-to-peer services (e.g., Flightcar and Turo) operating at airports. 30. Johnson, C., & Walker, J. 2016. Peak Car Ownership: The Market Opportunity of Electric Automated Mobility Services. Rocky Mountain Institute. The market growth and impact of electric automated mobility services are discussed. By 2035, these services will likely be logistically, technically, and economically plausible, and able to gather a large market share currently attributed to privately owned vehicles. Automa- tion savings on the cost per mile of TNC service was analyzed by various components, such as labor, insurance, and fuel costs. The economic impact of automated mobility services will be substantial, generating $120 billion (U.S.) by 2025, with oil companies projected to lose revenue, automobile manufacturers to be split, and electrical utilities to gain revenue. 31. Joyce, C. 2018. Including TNCs in the Wider Sustainability and Ground Access Strategy at Heathrow Airport. Presented at the 97th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Sustainability is a critical part of Heathrow Airport’s business model, with the rise of TNCs affecting airport operations and ground transportation. Initial problems with drivers parking nearby in short-term lots or neighboring city streets caused the airport to propose a solution. Steps taken included construction of an authorized vehicle area facility, increased enforcement, engagement process with operators, and coordination with local authorities and licensing agencies. The authorized vehicle area is the allowable geofenced area for pick-ups and includes amenities for drivers (e.g., restrooms, vending machines, and refreshments). Currently, the permanent authorized vehicle area gets more than a million customers annu- ally and its operation costs are covered. 32. KC Associates for GateKeeper Systems, Inc. March 2017. Understanding Important Capabilities in the Successful Management of Airport Ground Transportation Operations. Airport staff and consultants were surveyed to identify the importance of ground trans- portation management capabilities and enabling technologies. The three most important capabilities included access control, use fee/trip charge creation, and curbside vehicle man- agement. The three least important capabilities included multilane/high-speed vehicle detection, online trip fee payments, and capability to identify and track drivers. 33. Kerr, C., & McKenna, D. January 2018. The Impact of TNCs at Airports: Operational Consequences and Future Considerations. Airport Magazine. The rapid growth of TNCs at airports has significantly affected ground transporta- tion and landside facilities, presenting challenges and opportunities for airport opera- tors. Challenges include curbside congestion and possible detrimental effects on revenue. Opportunities include addressing curbside congestion in ways not possible with other modes, as well as using TNC data to understand passenger access patterns and preferences. Long-term considerations include the evolving nature of TNC technology and business models, and AVs. 34. Kim, S., & Puentes, R. 2018. Taxing New Mobility Services: What’s Right? What’s Next? Eno Brief. Wash- ington, D.C.: Eno Center for Transportation. https://www.enotrans.org/etl material/eno-brief-taxing- new-mobility-services-whats-right-whats-next/. The current state of TNC taxes and fees imposed by cities and states is examined. A table of the taxes and fees, date of enactment or implementation, and disposition of funds is provided for seven cities and 10 states. Policy questions are addressed regarding the effects of TNC taxes and fees on congestion, infrastructure and public transit funding, traditional taxi services, and funding for regulatory costs and community needs. Congestion reduction is suggested to focus on reducing single-occupancy vehicles, rather than using targeted fees solely on TNCs.

A-8 Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide 35. Litman, T. April 2018. Autonomous Vehicle Implementation Predictions: Implications for Transport Planning. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. The benefits, costs, impacts, and timeline for AV development and adoption are dis- cussed. Some benefits may begin in the 2020s and 2030s but will be limited to affluent nondrivers. Self-driving and microtaxi services in urban areas will offer lower costs than traditional taxis but with low service quality. Benefits such as traffic and parking conges- tion reduction, increased mobility, increased safety, and reduced air pollution will be likely in the 2040s and 2050s. The extent of benefits, costs, travel impacts, and timeline is uncertain, with current projections double-counting benefits, not fully considering the complexity of regulation, and not knowing the extent of benefits if not all vehicles are AVs. 36. Martin E., Shaheen S., Zohdy I., Chan N., Bansal A., Bhattacharyya A., Tawfik A., Yelchuru B., Finson R., Yeung Yam Wah C. 2016. Understanding Travel Behavior: Research Scan. U.S. Department of Trans- portation. FHWA-PL 17-025. This report presents a research scan of the state of knowledge in transportation to enhance understanding of travel behavior and various influencing factors on future travel. It provides an overview of the current state of travel behavior as measured today, as well as background on the current understanding from literature in travel behavior research. It also explores what is known about the sociodemographic portrait of Americans and how demographics influence travel behavior. The report discusses emerging information tech- nology and its impact on new mobility options. It also presents emerging methodologies and new forms of data that show significant potential to improve the resolution and com- prehensiveness of travel behavior information. Finally, it identifies gaps in understanding that could be addressed in the future with appropriate applications of emerging data and technological resources. 37. Michel, C., & Mai, A. March 2018. Lessons from Autonomous Shuttles & Multi-Modal Shifts. Keolis Group. Examples of AV shuttle services are discussed for Lyon, Paris, London, and Las Vegas. Les- sons learned include the need for close collaboration with police, fire departments, and cities on infrastructure. As well, insurance has higher premiums, licensing is lengthy, and a high level of ongoing maintenance and support is needed. Ridesharing can be used to improve public transportation ridership and revenue (e.g., first-mile/last-mile coverage) and meet vehicle emission reduction goals. 38. Moran, M., & Lasley, P. 2017. Legislating Transportation Network Companies. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2650, 163–171. TNC legislation in the United States was systematically reviewed and a database devel- oped of state-level TNC legislation to guide policymakers. As of May 2016, 34 states and Washington, D.C., had passed TNC legislation. Key questions emerged regarding issues of whether and how to regulate TNCs, ensuring public safety while maintaining competition, and integrating with existing taxi and transportation policies. 39. Mundy, R. March 2018. A Review of Airport TNC Agreements. Airport Ground Transportation Association. TNC agreements at select North American airports were reviewed, with 22 airports having agreements and 9 having no agreements. The various contract terms, access fees, and struc- tures (e.g., fee charged for pick-up, drop-off, or both), application fees, yearly fees, and other fees were outlined. Other requirements including insurance, geofence, and staging area time limits were discussed.

Annotated Bibliography A-9 40. New York Times, Business Section. November 2017. Where Self-Driving Cars Go to Learn. https:// www.nytimes.com/2017/11/11/technology/arizona-tech-industry-favorite-self-driving-hub.html. An example is provided of Arizona as a state that is attracting the self-driving car industry through less regulation and a conducive political environment. The state plans to attract TNC companies, car manufacturers, and Silicon Valley technology companies, and capture their economic growth. However, there have been setbacks, with a high-profile, fatal self- driving vehicle crash and concern from public safety advocates. 41. Papa, E., & Ferreira, A. 2018. Sustainable Accessibility and the Implementation of Automated Vehicles: Identifying Critical Decisions. Urban Science, 2(1). doi:10.3390/urbansci2010005. A scenario-based approach identifies the critical accessibility and societal changes emerg- ing with fully automated vehicles. The disruptive potential of automated vehicles comes with risks; one leading risk is management of implementation that may reinforce car dependency. This could lead to negative health, environmental, and societal consequences. The role of local government is critical in preparing the legal, transportation, and urban systems for AV integration. 42. Pew Research Center. May 2016. Shared, Collaborative and On Demand: The New Digital Economy. Washington, D.C. The market for ridesharing (TNC) customers is examined based on survey data that explores opinions, attitudes, and behaviors toward TNCs. Findings indicated that TNC services are most popular among young adults, urban residents, and college graduates. Use varies by age, but there are no substantial differences across gender or race. More frequent customers are less likely to own or drive a car and more likely to use transit. Most surveyed customers view TNC services as software (58 percent) as compared with trans- portation companies, and drivers as independent contractors (66 percent) as compared with company employees. Most customers are familiar with the debate on regulation and strongly feel that TNCs should not be regulated in the same manner as taxis. 43. RAND Corporation. November 2017. Why Waiting for Perfect Autonomous Vehicles May Cost Lives. https://www.rand.org/blog/articles/2017/11/why-waiting-for-perfect-autonomous-vehicles- may-cost-lives.html. For policymakers, critical questions surround AVs about the timing of their entry into the consumer market and their safety. RAND research shows that hundreds of thousands of lives could be saved if AVs are allowed on the road before the technology is flawless, because AVs will lead to more long-term traffic safety benefits. 44. Rayle, L., Dai, D., Chan, N., Cervero, R., & Shaheen, S. 2016. Just a Better Taxi? A Survey-Based Com- parison of Taxis, Transit, and Ridesourcing Services in San Francisco. Transport Policy, 45, 168–178. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2015.10.004. As TNCs are gaining in popularity, the impact to other modes and to vehicle travel has been unclear. Study findings indicate that taxis and TNCs have different characteristics and that TNCs replacing taxis is part of the picture; over one-half of TNC trips are replacing modes other than taxis, such as public transit and driving. TNCs are expanding mobility for city residents, particularly those who live in high-density cities with insufficient public transit and constrained or expensive parking. Future research is suggested to assess the impact of TNCs on vehicle use and ownership. 45. Schaller, B. 2018. The New Automobility: Lyft, Uber and the Future of American Cities. Brooklyn, NY: Schaller Consulting. A detailed profile of TNC ridership, users, and usage is provided. The continued growth of TNC services is expected to surpass local bus ridership by the end of 2018. Large, densely

A-10 Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide populated metro areas have high TNC ridership, with riders who are young, well educated, and mostly affluent. Suburban and rural residents, as well as those with disabilities and with- out smartphones, continue to use traditional taxi services. TNCs, however, are having a sig- nificant role in urban mobility, adding billions of miles of driving and competing with public transportation, walking, and biking. Shared-ride TNC services were found to add mileage, rather than mitigate the traffic impacts of private-ride TNCs. Public transit is extended, but should not be replaced, by TNCs and microtransit. Congestion from increasing TNC trips can be managed by trip fees, bus lanes, congestion pricing, and traffic signal timing. Address- ing congestion should focus on reducing traffic and emphasizing high-occupancy vehicles. Public policy intervention is needed in the development of AVs to ensure frequent, reliable, and comfortable high-capacity transit. 46. Shaheen, S., Chan, N., & Rayle, L. Spring 2017. Ridesourcing’s Impact and Role in Urban Transportation. Access Magazine. University of California, Berkeley. Policy discussion is evolving at the state and local levels over insurance coverage, taxi com- petition, and driver and vehicle safety checks. Based on a survey of urban ridesharing (TNCs) and taxi customers, rideshare customers were found to be younger and well educated, to frequently travel in groups, and to own fewer vehicles. Many respondents stated they drove less because of ridesharing. A need was identified for objective analysis of environmental and mobility impacts to inform policymaking. 47. Shaheen, S., Cohen, A., Yelchuru, B., & Sarkhili, S. September 2017. Mobility on Demand: Operational Concept Report. U.S. Department of Transportation. FHWA-JPO-18-611. This operational concept report provides an overview of the Mobility on Demand (MOD) concept and its evolution, a description of the MOD ecosystem in a supply and demand framework, and a list of its stakeholders and enablers. Leveraging the MOD ecosystem framework, this report reviews key system enablers, including business models and partner- ships, land use and different urbanization scenarios, social equity and environmental justice, policies and standards, and technologies. This review is mostly focused on the more recent forms of MOD (e.g., shared mobility). 48. Shaheen, S., Cohen, A., & Zohdy, I. April 2016. Shared Mobility: Current Practices and Guiding Principles. U.S. Department of Transportation. Shared mobility modes have many environmental, social, and transportation-related benefits, including reduced vehicle use and costs, higher convenience, and increased multi- modality. Laws governing ridesharing (TNCs) are evolving at the state and local level, with respect to TNC insurance requirements, mandatory driver training, limits on consecutive driver hours, consumer protections, and equal access for customers with disabilities. Uber- Pool and Lyft Line are services available to lower fares and facilitate a higher vehicle occu- pancy by splitting the trip with other customers. 49. Shaheen, S., Totte, H., & Stocker, A. 2018. Future of Mobility White Paper. California Department of Trans- portation. https://cloudfront.escholarship.org/dist/prd/content/qt68g2h1qv/qt68g2h1qv.pdf?t=pgra5s. This comprehensive assessment reviewed a variety of transportation topics affecting Cali- fornia and the rest of the United States. Connected and automated vehicles, zero-emissions vehicles, carsharing, ridesourcing/TNCs, equity considerations, shared mobility public- private partnerships, and data sharing were some of the topics analyzed. A consistent set of factors was used to assess the topics, including research coverage, state of development, and degree of variance in predictions. TNC trips shared with other customers are growing in popularity, with 20 percent of Uber trips attributed to UberPool and 40 percent of Lyft trips attributed to Lyft Line, where pooled service is available in their U.S. cities. Information and communications technology has an important role in enabling shared and automated vehicles, with future 5G cellular communications technology discussed.

Annotated Bibliography A-11 50. Smith, T. April 2018. Protecting Your Bottom Line from the “Uber Effect.” Airport Improvement. The impact on airport parking revenue from the rapid expansion of TNCs is discussed. Rental car bookings have dropped alongside airport parking revenues, with the increasing share of business travelers using TNCs suggested as one cause. Examples of ways to pre- serve parking revenue include implementing online booking, providing parking coupons, and establishing a frequent parking and corporate parking program. Curbside manage- ment programs need to be updated to accommodate TNC growth, with flexibility of critical importance. 51. Stocker, A., & Shaheen, S. 2018. Shared Automated Mobility: Early Exploration and Potential Impacts. Road Vehicle Automation 4. Lecture Notes in Mobility, 125–139. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-60934-8_12. The link between public and private transportation for SAVs and the impact on travel behaviors and other travel modes is discussed. Future SAVs business models are reviewed, including business-to-consumer, peer-to-peer, and for-hire service models. For example, for-hire models include ridesourcing/TNCs, taxis/E-hail, and courier network services. The portion of AVs that will be SAVs is unknown but is expected to be significant. The future of SAVs is heavily dependent on the business models, traveler behaviors and preferences, and public policy. 52. LeighFisher Inc., Tennessee Transportation and Logistics Foundation, GateKeeper Systems, and Merriwether & Williams Insurance Services. 2015. ACRP Report 146: Commercial Ground Transporta- tion at Airports: Best Practices. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. doi:10.17226/21905. Regulations and permitting of TNCs are discussed, with respect to the business model airport operators use with commercial ground transportation companies. TNCs use an open access system, in which any vehicle with a valid agency-issued permit may serve the airport. TNC driver costs were identified primarily as fuel, with mileage and vehicle wear and tear varying based on the number of trips per the driver’s flexible work schedule. The sizing of hold lots, types of commercial ground transportation fees, legal considerations, and imple- mentation challenges are discussed. 53. Feigon, S. and C. Murphy. 2016. TCRP Research Report 188: Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. doi:10.17226/23578. Research findings suggest that ridesharing and carsharing are not transit substitutes but substitutes for private car or taxi trips. Customers are more likely to have a car, but shared modes allow the car to be used less often. Spatial analysis of transit and TNC travel times for U.S. metropolitan areas show that transit is more competitive than ridesharing when there is a dedicated right-of-way or limited traffic congestion. Trip length and travel time were important factors in selecting a mode, with a faster mode preferred for longer trips. The research highlighted transit agency partnerships with TNCs to provide first-mile/ last-mile coverage to improve mobility, with incentives such as free or discounted rides, guaranteed ride home programs, and linked mobile apps. 54. Special Report 319: Between Public and Private Mobility: Examining the Rise of Technology-Enabled Transportation Services. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2016. doi:10.17226/21875. Suggestions related to TNCs include reassessing TNC (and other modes such as taxi and for-hire services) regulations as technology changes, considering alternative employee clas- sifications, and integrating features of TNCs and shared mobility services into the existing transportation system. Additionally, safety requirements for vehicles and drivers need to be examined to ensure consistency and a level playing field. Despite the rapid growth of TNCs, data on the scale and performance of the TNC companies (e.g., Uber, Lyft) are limited. Predominant TNC customers are millennials in urban areas, with older urban residents as the least frequent customer. The impact to VMT is not known because TNC pick-up and

A-12 Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide drop-off mileage increase total travel; however, higher vehicle occupancy and reduced pri- vate vehicle ownership may lead to reduced VMT. 55. Mandle, P. and Box, S. 2017. ACRP Synthesis 84: Transportation Network Companies: Chal- lenges and Opportunities for Airport Operators. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. doi:10.17226/24867. Permits and regulations of TNC drivers, vehicles, and companies are established by the state or other local jurisdictions, with an airport permit required to drop off and pick up passengers. A dedicated staging area is provided at most airports (82 percent), consisting of a surface lot, an area within a parking structure, or an area used by other commercial drivers. Curbside traffic officers or airport operations staff enforce TNC rules and regulations at most airports (87 percent), with police supporting enforcement at around half of the airports. Fees charged to TNCs include an annual permit fee, a per trip fee, an activation fee, and a minimum guaranteed amount, with 59 percent of airports charging for pick-up only and 41 percent of airports for drop-off only. A summary table of the reported trip fees is provided in the report. The impact on airport total revenue is not addressed, with the question remaining if TNC revenue exceeds a loss from other modes that are displaced. The impact of TNCs on airport operations is discussed with examples including additional responsibilities for airport staff, increased curbside or roadway congestion, decreased taxi and shared-ride van trips, and a decline in parking. 56. Zmud, J., Goodin, G., Moran, M., Kalra, N., and Thorn, E. 2017. NCHRP Research Report 845: Advancing Automated and Connected Vehicles: Policy and Planning Strategies for State and Local Transportation Agencies. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. doi:10.17226/24872. Governmental policy and planning strategies to influence private-sector decisions on automated and connected vehicles are discussed. Strategies include mitigating safety risks, encouraging SAV use, addressing liability and insurance issues, reducing congestion, and improving air quality. For example, to encourage SAV use, subsidies, transit benefits, parking cash-out, and road use pricing could be applied. Granting signal priority, grant- ing parking access, and investing in infrastructure may improve traffic safety, reduce con- gestion, and promote air quality. While AVs may reduce crashes and provide other benefits, authors cautioned that future policy would need to adapt to emerging problems. 57. Schaller, B. September 6, 2018. Disruptive Technologies: Impacts on Transportation Revenues. Presenta- tion for TRB Webinar, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. This webinar discusses the impact to revenue streams for transportation programs from new mobility services such as connected/autonomous vehicles and ridesharing services (TNCs). Revenue impacts, challenges, and opportunities for airport operators are presented. New mechanisms for transportation revenue are suggested for municipalities across the United States. The future impacts of increased connected/autonomous vehicles in big cities are presented, with former surface parking and garages being able to be repurposed for other uses such as residential, parks, and bike paths. 58. Transportation Research Circular E-C231: U.S. Department of Transportation’s Mobility on Demand Initiative: Moving the Economy with Innovation and Understanding. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C, March 2018. The concept of mobility on demand is discussed, with goals that include increasing mobility options, enhancing convenience, improving transportation network efficiency, and reducing customer’s costs. Instead of using private vehicles, mobility on demand facil- itates alternative modes such as bikesharing, carsharing, ridesharing (TNCs), and public transit by incorporating trip planning, booking, and fare payment into a single application. Los Angeles Metro, a public transportation operator, has expressed interest in partnering with TNCs, noting that service must incorporate accessibility and equal access for customers without smartphones.

Annotated Bibliography A-13 59. Transportation Research Circular E-C236: National Academies–TRB Forum on Preparing for Automated Vehicles and Shared Mobility. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., September 2018. The deployment and impacts of new transportation technologies, including automated vehicles and shared mobility, are discussed to help inform policymakers. The far-reaching impacts are discussed with relation to safety, the transportation system, energy, society, the environment, and the economy. A catalog of critical research needs is provided to address the impacts, including developing models for data sharing, studying impact to land use, and ensuring safety through state and local policies. 60. Wang, M., & Mu, L. 2017. Spatial Disparities of Uber Accessibility: An Exploratory Analysis in Atlanta, USA. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 67, 169–175. The emergence of ridesharing (TNCs) has brought up questions of social inequality. A quantitative neighborhood-level analysis of Uber accessibility indicated that wealth, race, and unemployment rate do not have significant effects, whereas a higher road network den- sity, population density, and a shorter commute time increase accessibility. UberX and Uber Black service correlate with public transit differently; for example, as stops increase, UberX accessibility improves. 61. Wyman, K. March 2018. The Novelty of TNC Regulation. New York University School of Law. This discussion of TNC regulation highlights that as of 2017, 48 state legislatures have passed legislation that legalizes and regulates TNCs. In large cities (e.g., New York and Chicago), TNCs often comply with local regulations in addition to state regulations. The common theme for regulation is a focus on safety, with fares and vehicle fleets not regulated by jurisdictions; however, a few limit surge pricing.

Next: Appendix B - State-Enabling Legislation, City Ordinances, and Airport Transportation Network Company Trip Fees »
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Transportation network companies (TNCs) have become an increasingly popular form of transportation since initially permitted at some airports in 2014. While many airports receive significant revenue from TNCs, others have recorded declines in parking revenue and rental car transactions that are perceived to be a direct result of TNC operations.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 215: Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide identifies strategies and practical tools for adapting airport landside access programs to reflect the evolution of ground transportation modes such as TNCs and autonomous vehicles.

A searchable statistical database of the airport survey and the Airport Mode Choice and Ground Simulator Template (an Excel-based simulation template), which shows how the mode-choice model is applied to estimate revenue impact, supplement the report.

In July 2020, an errata for this publication was issued.

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