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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Human-AI Teaming: State-of-the-Art and Research Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26355.
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Human-AI Teaming

STATE-OF-THE-ART AND
RESEARCH NEEDS

Committee on Human-System Integration Research Topics
for the 711th Human Performance Wing
of the Air Force Research Laboratory

Board on Human-Systems Integration
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

A Consensus Study Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Human-AI Teaming: State-of-the-Art and Research Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26355.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by contract number WBSRA-21-10-NAS between the National Academy of Sciences and the Wright Brothers Institute as a subcontract to the Air Force Research Laboratory. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. Also supporting the Committee’s work are the Board on Human-System Integration core sponsorship grants with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, and the Society for Human Resource Management.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-27017-5
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-27017-0
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26355

Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Human-AI Teaming: State-of-the-Art and Research Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26355.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Human-AI Teaming: State-of-the-Art and Research Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26355.
×

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Human-AI Teaming: State-of-the-Art and Research Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26355.
×

Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Human-AI Teaming: State-of-the-Art and Research Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26355.
×

COMMITTEE ON HUMAN-SYSTEM INTEGRATION RESEARCH TOPICS FOR THE 711TH HUMAN PERFORMANCE WING OF THE AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY

MICA R. ENDSLEY (Chair), SA Technologies

BARRETT S. CALDWELL, Purdue University

ERIN K. CHIOU, Arizona State University

NANCY J. COOKE, Arizona State University

MARY L. CUMMINGS, Duke University

CLEOTILDE GONZALEZ, Carnegie Mellon University

JOHN D. LEE, University of Wisconsin-Madison

NATHAN J. MCNEESE, Clemson University

CHRISTOPHER MILLER, Smart Information Flow Technologies

EMILIE ROTH, Roth Cognitive Engineering

WILLIAM B. ROUSE, NAE, Georgetown University

Staff

DANIEL TALMAGE, Study Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Human-AI Teaming: State-of-the-Art and Research Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26355.
×

BOARD ON HUMAN-SYSTEMS INTEGRATION

FREDERICK OSWALD (Chair), Department of Psychology, Rice University

JAMES BAGIAN, NAE/NAM, Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

DIANA BURLEY, Graduate School of Education and Human Development, George Washington University

BARBARA DOSHER, NAS, School of Social Sciences, University of California, Irvine

MICA ENDSLEY, SA Technologies, Mesa, Arizona

EDMOND ISRAELSKI, AbbVie, North Chicago, Illinois

JOHN LOCKETT, U.S. Army Research Laboratory (Retired)

NAJMEDIN MESHKATI, Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California

EMILIE ROTH, Roth Cognitive Engineering, Stanford, California

WILLIAM J. STRICKLAND, Human Resources Research Organization, Alexandria, Virginia

MATTHEW WEINGER, Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Staff

MARY ELLEN O’CONNELL, Interim Director

TOBY M. WARDEN, Director (Until 5/25/2021)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Human-AI Teaming: State-of-the-Art and Research Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26355.
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Preface

Artificial intelligence (AI) is being proposed as a force multiplier for the military. AI brings its own unique challenges, however, which must be balanced with effective human oversight, particularly in operations with high-consequence outcomes. AI therefore needs to work effectively as a part of a distributed team. This report addresses the state-of-the-art in human-AI teaming and establishes a framework for future research to meet the goal of effective use of AI for future defense operations.

I wish to express my deep appreciation to the members of the committee for their diligent and dedicated contributions. The committee’s expertise and knowledge were indispensable throughout our deliberations and the writing of the report. Their efforts, which often required working nights and weekends, are particularly notable given the incredibly challenging year. I cannot thank them enough. On behalf of the entire committee, I also wish to thank the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine staff for their outstanding support and guidance. I am also deeply appreciative to Heather Kreidler for her writing and fact checking. The report benefited deeply from the editing skills of Susan Debad. Additionally, I want to express our sincere gratitude to everyone who contributed their time, expertise, and experiences to our committee, especially all the workshop presenters and attendees. The presentations, resources, and insights contributed immensely to our deliberations. Finally, I wish to thank the Air Force Research Laboratory for their partnership and forthright participation throughout this process. I offer this report in the spirit of that partnership and believe that the research areas discussed in the report will be useful to the sponsor as they move forward.

Mica Endsley, Chair
Committee on Human-System Integration Research Topics for the 711th Human Performance Wing of the Air Force Research Laboratory

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Human-AI Teaming: State-of-the-Art and Research Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26355.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Human-AI Teaming: State-of-the-Art and Research Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26355.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Robert F. Sproull, Adjunct Professor, Manning College of Information & Computer Sciences, University of Massachusetts at Amherst and Julie J.C.H. Ryan, Chief Executive Officer, Wyndrose Technical Group. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Human-AI Teaming: State-of-the-Art and Research Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26355.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Human-AI Teaming: State-of-the-Art and Research Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26355.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Human-AI Teaming: State-of-the-Art and Research Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26355.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Human-AI Teaming: State-of-the-Art and Research Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26355.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Human-AI Teaming: State-of-the-Art and Research Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26355.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Human-AI Teaming: State-of-the-Art and Research Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26355.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Human-AI Teaming: State-of-the-Art and Research Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26355.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Human-AI Teaming: State-of-the-Art and Research Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26355.
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Although artificial intelligence (AI) has many potential benefits, it has also been shown to suffer from a number of challenges for successful performance in complex real-world environments such as military operations, including brittleness, perceptual limitations, hidden biases, and lack of a model of causation important for understanding and predicting future events. These limitations mean that AI will remain inadequate for operating on its own in many complex and novel situations for the foreseeable future, and that AI will need to be carefully managed by humans to achieve their desired utility.

Human-AI Teaming: State-of-the-Art and Research Needs examines the factors that are relevant to the design and implementation of AI systems with respect to human operations. This report provides an overview of the state of research on human-AI teaming to determine gaps and future research priorities and explores critical human-systems integration issues for achieving optimal performance.

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