National Academies Press: OpenBook

New Directions for Chemical Engineering (2022)

Chapter:Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. New Directions for Chemical Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26342.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. New Directions for Chemical Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26342.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. New Directions for Chemical Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26342.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. New Directions for Chemical Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26342.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. New Directions for Chemical Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26342.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. New Directions for Chemical Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26342.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. New Directions for Chemical Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26342.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. New Directions for Chemical Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26342.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. New Directions for Chemical Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26342.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. New Directions for Chemical Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26342.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. New Directions for Chemical Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26342.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. New Directions for Chemical Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26342.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. New Directions for Chemical Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26342.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. New Directions for Chemical Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26342.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

PREPUBLICATION COPY New Directions for Chemical Engineering Committee on Chemical Engineering in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies National Academy of Engineering This prepublication version of New Directions for Chemical Engineering has been provided to the public to facilitate timely access to the report. Although the substance of the report is final, editorial changes may be made throughout the text and citations will be checked prior to publication. The final report will be available through the National Academies Press in mid-2022. A Consensus Study Report of

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program under Award Number DE-SC0019159, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office under Award Number DE-EP0000026/89243420FEE400139, and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy and Carbon Management under Award Number DE–EP0000026/89303018 FFE400005. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. The activity was supported by the National Science Foundation under Award Number CHE - 1926880, as well as private contributions from universities, industry, and professional organizations (Appendix D). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation or any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26342 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. New Directions for Chemical Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26342. PREPUBLICATION COPY

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY

COMMITTEE ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING IN THE 21st CENTURY: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES Members ERIC W. KALER, NAE (Chair), Case Western Reserve University MONTY M. ALGER, NAE, Pennsylvania State University GILDA A. BARABINO, NAE, NAM, Olin College of Engineering GREGG T. BECKHAM, National Renewable Energy Laboratory DIMITRIS I. COLLIAS, The Procter & Gamble Co. JUAN J. DE PABLO, NAE, University of Chicago SHARON C. GLOTZER, NAS, NAE, University of Michigan PAULA T. HAMMOND, NAS, NAE, NAM, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ENRIQUE IGLESIA, NAE, University of California, Berkeley SANGTAE KIM, NAE, Purdue University SAMIR MITRAGOTRI, NAE, NAM, Harvard University BABATUNDE A. OGUNNAIKE, NAE, University of Delaware ANNE S. ROBINSON, Carnegie Mellon University JOSÉ G. SANTIESTEBAN, NAE, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, retired RACHEL A. SEGALMAN, NAE, University of California, Santa Barbara DAVID S. SHOLL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory KATHLEEN J. STEBE, NAE, University of Pennsylvania CHERYL TEICH, Teich Process Development, LLC (until September 2020) Consultants PHILIP B. HENDERSON, EMD Electronics REINALDO M. MACHADO, EMD Electronics LAURA MATZ, EMD Electronics Staff MAGGIE L. WALSER, Study Director BRENNA ALBIN, Program Assistant BRITTANY BISHOP, Christine Mirzayan Science Policy Fellow KESIAH CLEMENT, Research Assistant ANNE MARIE HOUPPERT, Senior Librarian GURU MADHAVAN, NAE Senior Director of Programs REBECCA MORGAN, Senior Librarian NICHOLAS ROGERS, Deputy Director, Program Finance LIANA VACCARI, Program Officer JESSICA WOLFMAN, Research Associate ELISE ZAIDI, Communications Associate PREPUBLICATION COPY v

BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY Members SCOTT COLLICK, (Co-Chair), DuPont JENNIFER SINCLAIR CURTIS, (Co-Chair), University of California, Davis GERARD BAILLELY, The Procter & Gamble Co. RUBEN G. CARBONELL, NAE, North Carolina State University JOHN FORTNER, Yale University KAREN I. GOLDBERG, NAS, University of Pennsylvania JENNIFER M. HEEMSTRA, Emory University JODIE L. LUTKENHAUS, Texas A&M University SHELLEY D. MINTEER, University of Utah AMY PRIETO, Colorado State University MEGAN L. ROBERTSON, University of Houston SALY ROMERO-TORRES, Thermo Fisher Scientific REBECCA T. RUCK, Merck Research Laboratories ANUP K. SINGH, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory VIJAY SWARUP, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Corporation Staff MAGGIE WALSER, Interim Board Director BRENNA ALBIN, Program Assistant MEGAN HARRIES, Program Officer AYANNA LYNCH, Program Assistant THANH NGUYEN, Finance Business Partner LINDA NHON, Associate Program Officer EMMA SCHULMAN, Program Assistant ABIGAIL ULMAN, Research Assistant BENJAMIN ULRICH, Senior Program Assistant LIANA VACCARI, Program Officer JESSICA WOLFMAN, Research Associate PREPUBLICATION COPY vi

Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Nicholas Abbott, NAE, Cornell University Aristos Aristidou, NAE, Cargill, Inc. Gretchen Baier, The Dow Chemical Company Donna Blackmond, NAS/NAE, The Scripps Research Institute Joan Brennecke, NAE, University of Texas, Austin Prodromos Daoutidis, University of Minnesota Alice Gast, NAE, Imperial College London Julia Kornfield, NAE, California Institute of Technology Cato Laurencin, NAS/NAE/NAM, University of Connecticut Health Center Jodie Lutkenhaus, Texas A&M University Phillip Westmoreland, North Carolina State University Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Thomas Connolly, Jr., American Chemical Society and Elsa Reichmanis, Lehigh University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. PREPUBLICATION COPY vii

Acknowledgments The completion of this study would not have been successful without the contributions of many individuals and organizations. The Committee would especially like to thank the individuals who participated in our Town Hall at the 2019 AIChE Annual Meeting and the AIChE Virtual Local Section meeting in spring 2020. We are grateful for the insights provided through our community questionnaire in spring 2021 (Appendix C), as well as the numerous individuals who spoke to the Committee during an open information gathering session or otherwise provided input and the organizations who contributed financial support (Appendix D). We are also grateful to Elsevier for providing access to their SciVal tool. PREPUBLICATION COPY ix

Preface “It is hard to make predictions, especially about the future.” Attributed to many. And true. Yet, we as a group accepted the challenge to create a report designed to articulate the status, challenges, and promising opportunities for chemical engineering in the United States, and benchmark its international stature, for the next 10 to 30 years. A team of seventeen chemical engineers with diverse backgrounds, expertise, and life experiences explored a topic not investigated by the National Academies since the 1980s, namely: What is the future of chemical engineering? As the only engineering field that holds molecules and molecular transformations at its core, chemical engineering represents an area of intellectual inquiry and commercial applications that is profoundly important for society’s future advances in energy, food, water, medicine, and manufacturing, among others. Chemical engineering is also the natural door through which the implications and applications of molecular biology—writ large in its current incarnations including genetic engineering, personalized medicine, organs-on-chip, and even artificial intelligence—enter the realm of practice and application. The future of this field has important implications for what all our futures look like. The legacy of chemical engineering is a complicated thing, despite remarkable advances and contributions. As a profession and a discipline, chemical engineering has enabled the cost- effective production of materials and chemicals, but unfortunately the durability of some, such as plastics and fluorinated chemicals, continue to cause unintended consequences for the environment. At the same time, energy transformations have generated greenhouse gases that threaten our climate. Any future advances of the field also need to focus on addressing the history of what has already been done. This report does that comprehensively. The report describes how chemical engineering is well positioned as the enabling discipline in the decarbonization of energy systems and materials without an impact on reliability and cost, while cognizant of the existential threat of global climate change. In the foreseeable future, no single energy carrier can meet the energy demands of all sectors, but chemical engineers will continue to provide the means to select options in the scale-up, delivery, systems integration, and optimization of the mix of energy carriers that will address energy needs with lower carbon emissions and costs across different regions and sectors of society. At the same time, global pressures associated with climate change, energy demand, and population growth will change, in unprecedented ways, how humans meet their needs for food and water. As in the past, chemical engineers will confront such challenges through enabling technologies such as precision agriculture, the development of protein alternatives, and the reduction or elimination of food waste. Chemical engineers will be leaders in engineering targeted and accessible solutions for human health. Their domain of influence will range from personalized medicine to the applications of systems engineering to biology and health. This will include strategic modification of the molecular pathways and genomic networks involved in regulation of normal physiology as well as disease states. They will also apply systems-level thinking to the production and end-of-life considerations of useful materials, including polymers and a variety of other hard and soft materials in a circular economy. Chemical engineers will also lead the way PREPUBLICATION COPY xi

xii Preface in the applications of new tools—such as machine learning and artificial intelligence—to solve complex problems. As to the United States position in chemical engineering, it is critical to note that China is making large investments in technologies that are either central or highly relevant to chemical engineering. Such investment, when combined with their accelerating productivity and scholarly output, makes investment in the U.S. research enterprise imperative. Failure to do so will cede global leadership not only of chemical engineering, but of technology more broadly. I commend the Committee for their terrific engagement and hard work. We all found our ways to collaborate and communicate while constrained by COVID-19, but I know we also all missed the synergies and spontaneous insights that in-person conversations would have generated. While we used virtual meetings and chats instead of face-to-face meetings, at the end of the day the creative engagement and critical thinking of the group, however it was carried out, crystallized important ideas. Finally, but of crucial importance, the expert guidance, gifted diplomacy, and detailed engagement of the National Academies staff, led by Dr. Maggie Walser, and including Kesiah Clement, Dr. Liana Vaccari, and Jessica Wolfman made this report possible. Eric W. Kaler, Chair Committee on Chemical Engineering in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities PREPUBLICATION COPY

Contents SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 12 Purpose of This Report, 12 Study Scope and Approach, 12 Audiences for This Report, 14 Report Organization, 14 2 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TODAY ................................................................................................ 17 The Discipline, 19 The Profession, 22 Times of Change, 23 Educational Challenges and Opportunities, 26 Growth of Interdisciplinary Work, 29 3 DECARBONIZATION OF ENERGY SYSTEMS ............................................................................... 31 The Need for Decarbonization, 32 Energy Sources, 34 Energy Carrier Production, 55 Energy Storage, 61 Energy Conversion and Efficiency, 62 Carbon Capture, Use, and Storage, 74 Challenges and Opportunities, 78 4 SUSTAINABLE ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS ............... 81 Water, Energy, Food, Nexus, 82 Molecular Science and Engineering of Water Solutions, 86 Feeding a Growing Population, 96 Understanding and Improving Air Quality, 102 Challenges and Opportunities, 107 5 ENGINEERING TARGETED AND ACCESSIBLE MEDICINE.................................................... 109 The Role of Biomolecular Engineering in Health and Medicine, 110 Personalized Medicine, 113 Engineering Approaches to Improving Therapeutics, 118 Modeling and Understanding the Microbiome, 123 Design of Materials, Devices, and Delivery Mechanisms, 128 Hygiene and the Role of Chemical Engineering, 134 Engineering Solutions for Accessibility and Equity in Healthcare, 136 Challenges and Opportunities, 139 6 FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING AND THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY ........................................ 141 The Intersection of Manufacturing and Chemical Engineering, 142 Feedstock Flexibility for Manufacturing of Existing and Advantaged Products, 145 Process Intensification and Distributed Manufacturing, 148 Circular Economy and Design for End of Life, 151 Challenges and Opportunities, 162 PREPUBLICATION COPY xiii

xiv Table of Contents 7 NOVEL AND IMPROVED MATERIALS FOR THE 21st CENTURY .......................................... 165 Polymer Science and Engineering, 166 Complex Fluids and Soft Matter, 169 Biomaterials, 174 Electronic Materials, 180 Challenges and Opportunities, 185 8 TOOLS TO ENABLE THE FUTURE OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ..................................... 187 Data Science and Computational Tools, 188 Modeling and Simulation, 198 Novel Instruments, 204 Sensors, 206 Challenges and Opportunities, 210 9 TRAINING AND FOSTERING THE NEXT GENERATION OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS .................................................................................................................. 213 The Undergraduate Core Curriculum, 216 Becoming a Chemical Engineer: The Importance of Diversity, 222 Making Chemical Engineering Broadly Accessible, 226 Teaching Undergraduate Students Today and Tomorrow, 228 Teaching Graduate Students Today and Tomorrow, 230 New Learning and Innovation Practices to Address Current Challenges, 232 Conclusion, 235 10 INTERNATIONAL LEADERSHIP .................................................................................................... 239 Publication Rates and Citation Analysis, 239 Observations, 241 Conclusion, 243 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................................... 249 APPENDIXES A LIST OF ACRONYMS ......................................................................................................................... 295 B JOURNALS USED IN INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING .................................................... 301 C SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNITY QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS ............................................................................................................ 305 D ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ..................................................................................................................... 325 E COMMITTEE MEMBER AND STAFF BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES ...................................... 329 PREPUBLICATION COPY

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Over the past century, the work of chemical engineers has helped transform societies and the lives of individuals, from the synthetic fertilizers that helped feed the world to the development of novel materials used in fuels, electronics, medical devices, and other products. Chemical engineers' ability to apply systems-level thinking from molecular to manufacturing scales uniquely positions them to address today’s most pressing problems, including climate change and the overuse of resources by a growing population.

New Directions for Chemical Engineering details a vision to guide chemical engineering research, innovation, and education over the next few decades. This report calls for new investments in U.S. chemical engineering and the interdisciplinary, cross-sector collaborations necessary to advance the societal goals of transitioning to a low-carbon energy system, ensuring our production and use of food and water is sustainable, developing medical advances and engineering solutions to health equity, and manufacturing with less waste and pollution. The report also calls for changes in chemical engineering education to ensure the next generation of chemical engineers is more diverse and equipped with the skills necessary to address the challenges ahead.

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