THAT IS OUR OBLIGATION.
THAT IS OUR HISTORY.
THAT IS OUR COMMITMENT.
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF MEDICINE
500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-69395-0
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-69395-0
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26722
Library of Congress Control Number: 2022945952
Copyright © 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academies Press and the graphical logos for each are all trademarks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
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TRANSFORMING HUMAN HEALTH
CELEBRATING 50 YEARS OF DISCOVERY AND PROGRESS
National Academy of Medicine 50th Anniversary Commemorative Volume
Edited by Laura Harbold DeStefano, Elena Fuentes-Afflick,
Eve Higginbotham, Mary Woolley, and Keith Yamamoto
This volume would not have been possible without the insights of members of the National Academy of Medicine (NAM) who helped to conceptualize and define the content, including:
Vanessa Northington Gamble
J. Michael McGinnis
Philip A. Pizzo
Research for this volume was contributed by Fasika Gebru, Steve Olson, and Laura Harbold DeStefano.
Writing for this volume was contributed by Steve Olson, as well as:
Laura Harbold DeStefano
The peer review process was led by Se Kim, Chiquita Boston, and Donna Duncan. The following NAM members served as peer reviewers:
Valuable advice and support were provided by Clyde Behney, Radhika Hira, Morgan Kanarek, Rachel Marcus, Jessica Marx, Rebekah Hanover Pettit, Meg McCoy, and Holly Sten.
This book was designed by Voice Design Collective.
Opposite page: Science Photo Library®
BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Neuroscience and Neurological Diseases
Infection, Immunity, and Inflammation
Diagnostics, Therapeutics, and Imaging
Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Cancers
Other Non-Communicable Diseases
Health Disparities and Health Equity
Sexual and Reproductive Health
Substance and Alcohol Use Disorders
Injury and Violence Prevention
Healthy Nutrition and Behavior
Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
Health and Biomedical Research
Health Care Workforce Evolution
Medical and Health Informatics
Patient and Consumer Leadership in Health Care
U.S. Leadership in Global Health
Health Security and Disease Surveillance